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嘉峪关,在戈壁里见证中国的历史与现实

更新时间:2017-1-1 11:12:31 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

As Interest Grows in Great Walls, an Ancient Chinese Fortress Beckons
嘉峪关,在戈壁里见证中国的历史与现实

JIAYUGUAN, China — The fortress stands watch in a parched land with snow-encrusted mountains beyond, a lone rook on the empty chessboard of western China’s Gobi Desert.

中国嘉峪关——要塞矗立在一片干旱的土地上,远处的山脉白雪皑皑。如果说中国西部空旷的戈壁沙漠是一个国际象棋棋盘,它就是一枚孤独的车。

All around spread the sands of solitude, which through the centuries have served as a passage for armies, merchants, monks, envoys and explorers. Those entering or leaving the fort passed by the sign hanging from a tower: “The first and greatest pass under heaven.”

四周是荒凉的沙漠,数个世纪以来,这里一直是军队、商人、僧侣、使节和探险家的通道。进入或离开嘉峪关的人,都会从一座塔楼上挂着的标志下走过:“天下第一雄关”。

For more than 600 years, Jiayuguan, translated as Jiayu Fort or Jiayu Pass, has been the anchor of the westernmost point of the Ming-era Great Wall, a series of monumental ramparts that stretches a winding, mountainous 5,500 miles from here to the Yalu River, on the North Korean border.

600多年来,嘉峪关一直是明长城最西端的点。明长城由多段宏伟的城墙构成,从这里的山岳延绵5500英里(约8800公里),直至朝鲜边界的鸭绿江。

Under the Ming, who ruled China for nearly three centuries, as many as 1,000 soldiers used Jiayuguan as a garrison. Beyond it were the “western regions,” the lands of largely nomadic people considered barbarians by the ethnic Han.

明代统治中国近三个世纪,当年驻守嘉峪的士兵多达1000名。嘉峪关出去就是西域,那里的大部分游牧民族都被汉人视为蛮夷。

Few structures in the world are as iconic as the Great Wall, which reached its definitive form under the Ming dynasty. Though Jiayuguan was an important marker of the Chinese Empire’s frontier, it has long been overshadowed by sections of the wall outside Beijing.

世界上很少有什么建筑物像长城这么具有象征性,它在明朝确定了最终形态。尽管嘉峪关是中华帝国边界的重要标志,但它长久以来一直被北京郊外的那些长城的光彩所掩盖。

Now, city and provincial officials here are on a campaign to grow international interest in Jiayuguan’s heritage and transform the area from a center of steel production to both a tourism destination and a cultural oasis in the desert.

现在,这里的市省政府官员在开展一场运动,试图增强国际上对嘉峪关遗产的兴趣,将这里从一个钢铁生产中心变成一个旅游景点和沙漠中的文化绿洲。

“There has always been interest in the history of Jiayuguan,” said Zhang Xiaodong, director of the Jiayuguan Great Wall Museum, which is next to the ancient fort. “From a historic perspective, Jiayuguan and the wall were mainly used for military defense.”

“对嘉峪关历史的兴趣一直都有。”嘉峪关长城博物馆馆长张晓东说。这座博物馆就位于这座古老的要塞旁边。“从历史的角度,嘉峪关和城墙主要是用于军事防御。”

But in a broader sense, he said, the Great Wall “represents the Chinese nation’s spirits: the working people’s wisdom, their perseverance to become stronger and the ability to fend off enemies’ intrusion.”

但他表示,从更广义的层面讲,这段长城“代表了中国的民族精神:劳动人民的智慧,他们的自强不息和抵抗外敌入侵的能力”。

Great walls built to repel the “other’’ have recently become part of the global conversation, sparked by politics and popular culture. The global hit “Game of Thrones” has an ice wall that separates so-called civilization from an army of undead. President-elect Donald J. Trump, who promised to build a wall between the United States and Mexico, has compared his plan to the Chinese Great Wall. He even said it would be named the “Great Wall of Trump.”

在政治和流行文化的激发下,建造巨大的城墙以抵御“外来者”,最近成为了全球对话的一部分。在全球大热的电视剧《权力的游戏》(Game of Thrones)里,就有一座冰墙将所谓的文明世界和一支不死族军队隔开。承诺在美墨边境建造一座墙的候任总统唐纳德·J·特朗普(Donald J. Trump),将该计划与中国的长城相提并论。他甚至表示,会将它命名为“特朗普长城”(Great Wall of Trump)。

This month, theaters in China began showing “The Great Wall,” a fantasy action movie starring Matt Damon, directed by Zhang Yimou and produced by Chinese and American companies. The film’s conceit is that the wall was built to keep out monsters. Mr. Zhang, China’s most famous director, shot scenes in the deserts of Gansu Province, where Jiayuguan is, though not at the fort itself.

本月,中国的电影院开始上映由多家中国和美国公司联合制作,由马特·达蒙(Matt Damon)主演、张艺谋导演的奇幻功夫片《长城》。这部电影别出心裁的地方在于,修长城是为了抵御怪兽。中国最知名的导演张艺谋是在嘉峪关所在的甘肃省的沙漠里拍摄了这部影片,不过没有在这个要塞取景。

“We definitely did make the connection with Gansu Province as the terminus, or start, of the Silk Road and the perfect area for our heroes to enter China,” said Peter Loehr, a producer.

“我们的确是把甘肃省作为丝绸之路的终点,或者说起点,作为我们的男主角进入中国的绝佳地点,”制片人罗异(Peter Loehr)说。

I visited Jiayuguan while on a recent high-speed train trip across Gansu. I had been here once before, as a backpacker in 1999, when few tourists came. My father had passed by nearly a half-century earlier.

不久前,我乘高铁经过甘肃时,参观了嘉峪关。1999年,我曾作为一名背包客来过这里,当时游客很少。近半个世纪前,我父亲也曾路过这里。

The high-speed rail route opened in 2014 and follows the old Silk Road along the barren Hexi Corridor, a strip of high plains that runs between two mountain ranges and that historically bridged the ethnic Han regions of interior China to the western edge of the empire.

这条沿着荒芜的河西走廊上古丝绸之路修建的高铁路线于2014年通车。河西走廊是夹在两个山脉之间的一个狭长的高平原,在历史上,它将中华帝国内部的汉族地区与西部边缘地带连接起来。

Jiayuguan is already benefiting from the arrival of the high-speed railway and growing interest in the Great Wall. During China’s big October holiday week, Jiayuguan received 442,800 visitors, a 22 percent increase over the same time last year, according to the China National Tourism Administration.

嘉峪关已经在从高铁的到来和外界对长城的兴趣日渐高涨中受益了。据中国国家旅游局称,在中国重要的十一假日期间,嘉峪关接待游客44.28万名,同比增加22%。

A 2014 provincial document designated Jiayuguan as one of eight Gansu tourism zones to be developed by next year, bolstered with favorable land, financial and tax policies. In October, Jiayuguan’s Communist Party chief, Liu Peng, said that steel production was a drain on resources and that it was critical to expand tourism.

2014年,省里的一份文件将嘉峪关定为甘肃下一年要发展的八大景区之一,享受优惠的土地、财政和税收政策。今年10月,嘉峪关市委书记柳鹏称,炼钢是对资源的耗费,并表示扩大旅游业至关重要。

Two new tourist parks are being built in the area, and an annual cross-desert car rally passes through Jiayuguan. The town is also the unlikely site of a new annual short-film festival that hosts international filmmakers.

该地区正在修建两座新的观光园,一个穿越沙漠的汽车拉力赛事也途径嘉峪关。该市还出人意料地成了一个新创办的短片电影节的举办地。该电影节面向全球的电影制作人,并且和前述汽车拉力赛一样,均为一年一届。

Near the wall are underground tombs from the Wei and Jin dynasties, which were discovered in 1972 by a shepherd and existed for more than a millennium before the fort was built. There are as many as 1,000 of the tombs, though only one is open to the public. Most striking are the small bricks that make up their interior walls — many have an individual scene that evokes daily life: feasts, farming, herding horses and camels.

城墙附近,是魏晋时期的地下墓群,它们是1972年被一名放羊人发现的。在修建嘉峪关之前,那些墓葬就已经存在一千多年了。其数量最多达一千座,不过只有一座对公众开放。最吸引人的是构成墓葬内墙的那些小砖块,它们中很多都描绘着一个单独的场景,让人联想起日常生活:宴饮、耕种、骆驼和马的放牧。

Jiayuguan falls in the heart of the Silk Road region that is the foundation of the “One Belt One Road” transnational economic plan that President Xi Jinping has been promoting. By emphasizing Silk Road history, officials are highlighting eras in Chinese history when the Great Wall represented openness to the outside world rather than insularity and xenophobia.

嘉峪关地处丝绸之路地区的中心。该地区是中国国家主席习近平一直在宣扬的“一带一路”跨国经济计划的基础。通过强调丝绸之路的历史,官方是在强调中国历史上的一些时代。在那些时代,长城代表着对外部世界的开放,而不是闭关锁国和排外。

Jiayuguan sits along one of the narrowest parts of the Hexi Corridor. Camel caravans laden with goods traversed the route. The strip is only nine miles wide at Jiayuguan, and so it was easy to guard. “This landscape made it difficult for cavalries to pass,” Mr. Zhang, the museum director, said.

嘉峪关所在的地方,是河西走廊最狭窄的区域之一。满载货物的驼队曾在这条路上往返。在嘉峪关这里,这个狭长地带仅为九英里宽,因此易于防守。前述博物馆馆长张晓东说,“这种地形让大队的骑兵难以通过。”

Last year, workers completed a four-year, $290-million restoration of the fort, which dates to 1372.

去年,工人们完成了对始建于1372年的嘉峪关的修复。修复工作历时四年,耗资20亿元人民币。

In addition to the fort, two other notable remnants of history are scattered around the Jiayuguan area: a section of the rammed-earth Great Wall that has an eroded beacon tower and a stretch of the wall that winds steeply over hills, as it does outside Beijing.

除了这座城关外,嘉峪关地区还分布着另外两处著名的历史遗迹:一段夯土长城,上面有一座遭到侵蚀的烽火台,和一段在陡峭的山岭之间蜿蜒盘旋的长城,就像北京郊区的长城一样。

Because of their recent restoration, the fort and the winding wall feel like film sets. On the afternoon I visited, tour groups poured from buses to clamber up to the fort’s ramparts. Atop the battlements are three-story temple-style buildings with red wooden pillars and long curved eaves.

由于最近被翻修过,这个关隘及其蜿蜒的城墙让人有身在电影片场之感。我到访的那个下午,各旅行团的团员们纷纷从大巴里涌出来,爬上嘉峪关的城墙。城墙上是三层高的城楼,有着红色的木质梁柱和长长的曲檐,好像是一个传统庙宇里的建筑。

Viewed from the battlements, the sands stretch to the horizon, and it is not hard to imagine phantoms of the frontier’s ancient inhabitants drifting across them at twilight.

从垛口处往下看,戈壁一直向天际线伸展开去,不难想象古代边关居民在日暮时分穿梭其间的场景。

For millenniums, the Hexi Corridor has been occupied and controlled by various cultures and civilizations. Ethnic Qiang, Tibetans and Mongolians each held sway. Under the Ming, Buddhist ethnic Uighurs asked to settle in Jiayuguan, and eventually they moved even farther east. I visited their descendants, the Yugurs, on the same train trip.

千百年来,河西走廊曾被各种文化和文明占据。羌族、藏族和蒙古族都控制过这里。到了明代,信仰佛教的维吾尔族请求在此处定居,最终,他们搬到了更靠东的地方。我在乘坐火车进行的同一趟旅行中,拜访了他们的后裔裕固族人。

Luo Zhewen, a prominent architectural historian, wrote in a 1977 paper that Jiayuguan was “a great testimony showing the unification process of our country with many ethnic groups.”

著名建筑史学家罗哲文曾在1977年的一篇文章中写道,嘉峪关是“是我国这个多民族国家统一过程的巨大见证”。

After the Ming were toppled by a peasant rebellion, China was invaded by ethnic Manchus, who breached the Great Wall at the coastal fort of Shanhaiguan with the help of a treasonous general. The Manchus established the Qing dynasty. Under them, the wall became almost meaningless as a frontier border — after all, the Manchus were “barbarians” from beyond the wall.

在明朝的统治被一场农民起义推翻后,中国遭到满族人的入侵,后者在一名反叛将领的帮助下冲进了沿海堡垒山海关。满族人建立了清朝。在他们治下,作为边境线的长城几乎失去了意义——毕竟,满族人当初就是城外的“鞑虏”。

“It ceases to serve as the boundary between civilization and barbarity, between the lands of the Hua and the lands of the Yi,” said Mark Elliott, a Qing historian at Harvard University. “It goes from playing a marker between us and them, between inner and outer, and then it becomes an internal border.”

“它不再是文明与野蛮之间、华夏与蛮夷之间的界限,”哈佛大学清史学家欧立德(Mark Elliott)说。“它原本是我们和他们之间,内与外之间的界限,然后成了一道内部边界。”

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