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从富士康工厂到苹果店:一部iPhone的诞生

更新时间:2016-12-30 10:52:30 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

An iPhone’s Journey, From the Factory Floor to the Retail Store(And Why the Product Costs More in China)
从富士康工厂到苹果店:一部iPhone的诞生

The iPhone is Apple’s most profitable and best-selling product. More than a billion have been sold since the first one was released.

iPhone是苹果利润最高、最为畅销的产品。自第一部iPhone发布以来,该公司已售出超过十亿部iPhone。

About half of all iPhones now are made in a huge manufacturing facility in the central Chinese city of Zhengzhou. This is the story of how an iPhone made there can end up in your hands.

如今,大约有一半数量的iPhone都是在中国中部城市郑州生产制造的。这里是关于一部在那里生产的iPhone是如何到了你手中的故事。

Getting the Parts

拿到零件

Components from more than 200 suppliers go into each iPhone.

每部iPhone有超过来自200多个供应商的零部件。

Apple buys many of the components for iPhones — like the memory chip, the modem, the camera module, the microphone and the touch-screen controller — from more than 200 suppliers around the world. Foxconn, the Taiwanese company that runs the Zhengzhou facility, even produces some smaller parts, such as metal casings.

iPhone的不少零部件,包括内存芯片、调制解调器、相机模块、麦克风和触屏控制器,都是苹果从世界各地超过200家供应商那里购买的。运营郑州工厂的台湾公司富士康甚至会生产一些更小的零部件,比如金属铸件。

Apple orders many of the components from global suppliers, and then sells them, en masse, to one of its contract manufacturers based in China. In Zhengzhou, that means Foxconn.

苹果向全球供应商订购不少零部件,然后再整体卖给其外包生产商。在郑州,这就意味着是富士康。

Building the Phones

组装手机

Roughly 350 iPhones can be produced each minute in the factory.

工厂里大约每分钟能生产350部iPhone。

Foxconn’s facilities in Zhengzhou cover 2.2 square miles and can employ up to 350,000 workers, many of whom earn about $1.90 an hour. The operation does what is called F.A.T.P., or final assembly, testing and packaging.

富士康在郑州的设施占地2.2平方英里(约合5.7平方公里),能雇佣多达35万名工人,其中不少人时薪为1.9美元(约合13.2元人民币)。整个流程被称作“最终组装、测试和包装”(FATP)。

There are 94 production lines at the Zhengzhou manufacturing site, and it takes about 400 steps to assemble the iPhone, including polishing, soldering, drilling and fitting screws. The facility can produce 500,000 iPhones a day, or roughly 350 a minute.

郑州这处生产基地有94条生产线。组装一部iPhone需要大约400个工序,包括抛光、焊接、钻孔和上螺丝。这里一天能生产50万部iPhone,大致相当于一分钟350部。

After the iPhone rolls off the assembly line, it is placed in a sleek white fiberboard box, wrapped and put on a wooden pallet, and then wheeled out to waiting trucks.

从装配线上下线后,iPhone会被放进一个时尚的白色纤维板盒子里,再被包起来放在一个木质拖板上,然后被推到等着的卡车上。

Passing Through Customs

通过海关

A government customs facility sits just outside the Foxconn factory.

政府办理海关业务的地方就在富士康工厂的外面。

The newly assembled iPhone is transported a few hundred yards beyond the factory gate, where China built a large customs facility. The customs operation sits in a so-called bonded zone, which allows Apple to sell the iPhones more easily to Chinese consumers.

刚组装好的iPhone被运送到距离工厂大门几百米的地方。在那里,中国修建了一处大型海关设施。该设施坐落在一个人们所说的保税区内,这让苹果可以更便捷地把iPhone销售给中国消费者。

As the final point of assembly for the iPhone, China also serves as a starting point for Apple’s global tax strategy. In Zhengzhou, often in the customs facility, Foxconn sells the completed iPhones to Apple, which in turn resells them to Apple affiliates around the world.

中国既是iPhone组装流程中的最后一站,也是苹果全球税务战略的起点。在郑州,通常是在上述海关设施里,富士康会将iPhone成品卖给苹果,后者转而再将它们卖给其遍布全球的分支机构。

The process, most of which takes place electronically, allows Apple to assign a portion of its profits to an affiliate in Ireland, a tax-advantageous locale. The system is not unique to China.

这个过程大部分都是用电子方式进行的。它让苹果能够把部分利润分给一个设在爱尔兰的分支机构。爱尔兰在税收方面具有优势。这一系统并非中国所独有的。

Shipping Abroad

运往国外

Smartphones travel in Boeing 747s.

智能手机的运输使用的是波音747。

IPhones bound for the United States and other parts of the world leave customs by truck and are transported three miles to the Zhengzhou airport. The airport has been significantly expanded in recent years, as production of the iPhone has increased.

卡车会将发往美国和世界其他地方的iPhone从前述海关设施运送至三英里外的郑州机场。最近几年,该机场的规模明显扩大,因为iPhone产量增加。

Some years ago, personal computers that were made in China were transported to the United States by container ship, with a trip lasting about a month. Smartphones are small enough to be shipped by plane in huge quantities — and cost effectively. A single wide-body Boeing 747 can easily carry 150,000 iPhones tucked into its aluminum canisters.

几年前,用集装箱船将在中国制造的个人电脑运往美国需要大约一个月。智能手机体积足够小,可以用飞机大量运输,而且颇为经济。一架宽体波音747轻而易举就能运载15万部装在多个铝罐里的iPhone。

From Zhengzhou, UPS, FedEx and other freight carriers typically fly United States-bound iPhones to Anchorage. There, they refuel, before going on to Louisville, Ky., a major logistics hub, or other points in the country.

从郑州出发,联合包裹服务公司(UPS)、联邦快递(FedEx)和其他货运公司往往会将发往美国的iPhone运输至安克雷奇。在那里,飞机会补充燃油,然后再前往主要的物流枢纽、肯塔基州的路易斯维尔,或是美国其他地方。

Staying in China

留在中国

It takes almost as long to get a phone to Shanghai as it does to San Francisco.

把手机运到上海要花费的时间和运到旧金山差不多。

For an iPhone headed for the China market, customs officials use an electronic system to virtually stamp the goods as “exports” and then restamp them as “imports.” In Zhengzhou, the process happens in the same customs facility just outside the factory.

对于投向中国市场的手机,海关工作人员会利用一个电子系统先将货物标记为“出口”,再重新标记为“进口”。在郑州,这样的程序就在工厂外的同一个海关设施里进行。

Once the products are declared an import, customs can collect a 17 percent value-added tax, a kind of national tax, based on the import price. Afterward, the goods are approved for transport around China.

一旦它们被宣布为进口产品,海关就可以在进口价格的基础上征收17%的增值税,这是一种国家税。随后,这些产品便获准运往中国各地。

Domestic-bound iPhones are typically loaded onto a large truck and taken on an 18-hour drive from Zhengzhou to Shanghai, in eastern China, where Apple has set up its national distribution center. A single tractor-trailer holds up to 36,000 iPhones. Because the vehicles have about $27 million worth of freight on board, they are equipped with cameras and sometimes accompanied by armed security guards.

内销的iPhone通常会被装上一辆大卡车,从郑州出发,经过18个小时的旅程,抵达位于华东地区的上海,苹果在那里开办了自己的全国分销中心。一辆大卡车可以容纳3.6万部iPhone。由于载有价值2700万美元的货物,这样的车辆常常配有摄像头,有时还会由全副武装的安保人员押送。

After the iPhone leaves the Foxconn factory in Zhengzhou, it takes two days, on average, to get to a store in Shanghai, a 590-mile trip. It takes three days, on average, to get a store in San Francisco, some 6,300 miles away.

iPhone离开富士康郑州工厂后,通常再过两天就会抵达上海的一家门店,全程590英里。抵达旧金山的门店通常需要3天,全程约6300英里。

Differing Prices

不同的价格

IPhones can sell for nearly 20 percent more in China than in the United States.

iPhone在中国的售价会比美国高出将近20%。

Chinese customers can pay much higher prices, because of currency fluctuations and the country’s hefty value-added tax.

由于汇率的波动以及中国的高额增值税,中国消费者会支付高得多的价格。

A 32-gigabyte iPhone 7 sells for about $776 at the Apple Store in Shanghai. In New York, it goes for $649.

一部内存为32G的iPhone在上海的苹果门店里要卖到776美元左右。在纽约的售价则为649美元。

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