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实现“美国制造”,特朗普得先拿女儿的品牌开刀

更新时间:2016-12-29 18:44:48 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

For the Trumps, ‘Made in U.S.A.’ May Be a Tricky Label to Stitch
实现“美国制造”,特朗普得先拿女儿的品牌开刀

At Saks Off Fifth recently, an Ivanka Trump white polyester and spandex blouse made in Indonesia was marked down to $34.99, from $69. A few racks over, her black and white jacket came from Vietnam, while several blocks away, at Macy’s, her leather bootee manufactured in China sold for more than $100.

在萨克斯第五大道百货(Saks Off Fifth),产自印度尼西亚的伊万卡·特朗普(Ivanka Trump)品牌白色涤纶和氨纶衬衫从69美元(约合人民币480元)降价到了34.99美元。在几个架子之外,该品牌黑色和白色夹克产自越南,而在相隔几个街区的梅西百货公司,该品牌产自中国的短皮靴100多美元一双。

At the Trump Tower on Fifth Avenue, a $35 blue cotton cap embroidered with “Trump National Golf Club” was made in Bangladesh. A Trump Tower hoodie from Pakistan set tourists back $50.

在第五大道的特朗普大厦,一款35美元蓝色棉帽子上绣着“特朗普国家高尔夫俱乐部”的字样,它产自孟加拉国。特朗普大厦的连帽衫产自巴基斯坦,卖给游客的价格是50美元。

A majority of clothes these days are made anywhere but in America. And in this era of local pride and nationalistic fervor, that has become a political liability. The conflict is starkly evident in the apparel brands made and marketed by President-elect Donald J. Trump and his daughter Ivanka.

如今大多数服装都不在美国生产。在这个本土自豪感和民族主义热情高涨的时代,那已经成为了一种政治责任。但在候任总统唐纳德·J·特朗普(Donald J. Trump)和他女儿伊万卡拥有的服装品牌中,这种冲突显而易见。

Mr. Trump has cast companies that make goods in China and other foreign countries as economic pariahs, siphoning off jobs better left at home. He has blamed the system, a set of policies in the United States that Mr. Trump acknowledged using for his own gain. And since being elected, he has continued to rail against global forces, threatening to punish companies with high tariffs if they don’t move production to the United States.

特朗普把那些在中国和其他国家进行生产的公司视为经济叛徒,称他们带走了本该留在国内的工作机会。他指责这种体系,但也承认自己从构成这个体系的政策中受益。自当选美国总统之后,他继续抱怨全球力量,威胁要用高关税惩罚一些公司,除非它们把生产岗位转移到美国。

Should Mr. Trump make good on such promises, he would take aim at not only his own brand, but his daughter’s as well.

如果特朗普要兑现这样的承诺,那么他不仅要拿自己的品牌开刀,还有女儿的品牌。

Mr. Trump doesn’t stand to lose much. While his goods are largely manufactured overseas, most of his retail ventures have gone the way of Trump vodka and steaks. And what products can be found — at his hotels and golf courses and on Amazon sold by independent sellers — are the vestiges of a mostly defunct clothing line or sporadic shipments of Trump sweatshirts and hats.

特朗普不会损失太大。虽然他的货物主要是在海外制造,但在他的绝大多数零售店铺中,已经不大看得到特朗普伏特加和牛排。在他的酒店、高尔夫球场以及亚马逊上的独立卖家那里,你能找到的无非是一个垂死服装系列的残余,或者销售不畅的特朗普品牌的运动衫和帽子。

Ivanka Trump’s company, by contrast, is the type of operation that Mr. Trump is squarely aiming for. Her shoes and dresses largely retail for less than $150. Coats cost as much as $400.

相比之下,伊万卡·特朗普的公司是特朗普真正要针对的那种类型。她大部分鞋子和衣服的零售价低于150美元。大衣差不多400美元一件。

Factored into those prices is the cost of materials and production, as well as shipping, tariffs, marketing and advertising expenses. Cheap production overseas means more coin in the coffers of Ms. Trump and the shoe, accessory and clothing makers that are her partners, among them Marc Fisher footwear, the G-III Apparel Group and Mondani. (Ms. Trump’s company, which is privately held, does not disclose its financials.)

影响定价的因素包括材料和生产成本,以及运费、关税、营销和广告费用。在海外生产产品价格便宜,这意味着伊万卡和她的鞋履、配饰及服装制造合作伙伴可以赚到更多钱,这些合作伙伴包括Marc Fisher鞋业、G-III服装集团,以及Mondani(伊万卡的公司,这是一家私人持有的企业,不披露财务数据)。

Almost all of her goods are made overseas, according to a New York Times review of shipments compiled separately by Panjiva and ImportGenius, two trade databases. ImportGenius tallied 193 shipments for imported goods associated with Ms. Trump for the year through Dec. 5, mostly Chinese-made shoes and handbags. Her dresses and blouses are made in China, Indonesia and Vietnam, according to a review of hundreds of clothing tags and financial documents filed by G-III.

《纽约时报》看到的贸易数据库Panjiva和ImportGenius各自编制的货物运送信息显示,伊万卡几乎所有的产品都是在海外生产的。ImportGenius提供的数据显示,今年截至12月5日与伊万卡有关的进口商品共有193批,主要是中国制造的鞋子和手袋。通过对数以百计的服装标签所做的一份评估报告和G-III服装集团提供的财务文件显示,她的衣服和衬衫产地在中国、印度尼西亚和越南。

It is the harsh reality of the clothing business.

这就是服装业所面临的严峻现实。

In retail, where margins are slim, overseas manufacturers are crucial to profits. Most of the clothing Americans buy at Walmart, Macy’s and Target are made abroad, including 97 percent of apparel and 98 percent of shoes, according to the American Apparel and Footwear Association.

零售业的利润率很低,所以在海外制造产品对公司的利润至关重要。美国服装与鞋业协会(American Apparel and Footwear Association)的数据显示,美国人在沃尔玛、梅西百货和塔吉特(Target)购买的大部分服饰——97%的服装和98%的鞋履,都是在国外生产的。

It is part of a long history of American garment manufacturers chasing cheap labor. They moved to China in the 1980s, then elsewhere in Asia. Now, Chinese shoemakers are building factories in Africa, where wages are about $40 a month, compared with $400 in China.

美国服装制造商追逐廉价劳动力有着悠久的历史,他们在20世纪80年代搬到中国生产产品,然后搬到亚洲其他地方。现在,中国鞋履制造商在非洲建了工厂,那里的工资每人每月约40美元,而在中国为400美元。

Even then, an overseas strategy does not portend survival, as Mr. Trump’s experience shows.

即使如此,开展海外战略也不一定就能生存下来,特朗普自己就有这样的经历。

At Trump Tower on Fifth Avenue, the Trump Store is downstairs from the lobby, sandwiched between a restaurant and an ice cream parlor. While a $65 white polo golf shirt from Lesotho in southern Africa was available, there was no sign of many of Mr. Trump’s other items, like the dress shirt made in Vietnam on display upstairs.

在第五大道的特朗普大厦,特朗普商店(Trump Store)位于大堂楼下,夹在餐厅和冰淇淋店之间。你可以买到65美元一件的白色高尔夫球衫,产自南部非洲国家莱索托,但是这里看不到其他太多的特朗普品牌产品,比如在楼上陈列的产自越南的正装衬衫。

Last year, Macy’s dropped Mr. Trump’s clothing line over inflammatory comments he made about Mexican immigrants. Now about the best place to find his ties, dress shirts and accessories is on Amazon.com — and even that stock is just a hodgepodge.

去年,梅西百货不再销售特朗普品牌的服装系列,原因是他对墨西哥移民做出了煽动性的评论。现在寻找该品牌领带、正装衬衫和配饰的最好地方是亚马逊网站——即使在那里也只是一堆大杂烩。

The company that made Trump-branded comforters and sheets, Downlite, said it had ended its relationship with him last year. His beds, designed by Dorya, aren’t in stores, either. They are made to order overseas, according to the company.

为特朗普品牌生产床罩和床单的公司Downlite说,该公司去年已经结束了与他的合作。由Dorya设计的特朗普品牌寝具也没有存货。该公司表示,他们接到订单后会在海外进行制造。

Mr. Trump said in campaign interviews that he would like to make his apparel in the United States, but that it was hard to find companies that did. When George Stephanopoulos of ABC pressed him to explain, Mr. Trump said, “They don’t even make the stuff here.”

特朗普在竞选访谈中说,他也想在美国生产自己品牌的服装,但很难找到接单的公司。当ABC电视台的乔治·斯蒂芬诺普洛斯(George Stephanopoulos)请他进一步解释时,特朗普说,“他们根本不在这里生产服装。”

That is not exactly true.

事实并非完全如此。

B J Nickol, president of the All American Clothing Company, based in Arcanum, Ohio, said he employed 15 people, as well as subcontractors in about 20 states who cut, sew and ship shirts, jeans and sweaters. He estimated it cost All American $10 to $15 to manufacture a polo shirt, including fabric and labor. He sells them for about $28 to $38, or about half of what a polo shirt costs at Trump Tower.

总部位于俄亥俄州阿凯纳姆的全美服装公司(All American Clothing Company)总裁B·J·尼科尔(B J Nickol)表示,他雇佣了15人剪裁、缝制和运送衬衫、牛仔裤和毛线衣,还在约20个州有自己的分包商。据他估计,全美公司制作一件马球衫的成本为10到15美金,包括材料和人工。他给它们设定的售价为28至38美元左右,大概为特朗普大厦售卖的马球衫价格的一半。

While the company mostly sells shirts to individuals, Mr. Nickol said he would welcome a big-time customer like Mr. Trump. Mr. Nickol said he had witnessed the impact on his community when apparel manufacturers moved away. “And the only way we could think of to fix that was to keep jobs here,” he said.

尽管这家公司主要是向个人销售衬衫,但尼科尔说他会欢迎特朗普这样的大客户。尼科尔表示,他亲眼见证了服装制造厂搬走对他所在社区的影响。“我们能想到的弥补那种影响唯一办法,就是保住这里的工作机会,”他说。

While large-scale clothing manufacturing is unlikely to return to the United States, specialty items or high-end apparel has promise. Todd Shelton, a fashion designer who makes sleek separates and sells them online, sews his clothes at a factory in East Rutherford, N.J.

尽管服装制造不太可能大规模重返美国,但特色产品或高端服装有可能做到。时装设计师托德·谢尔顿(Todd Shelton)就是在新泽西州东拉瑟福德的一家工厂加工自己的服装。他制作时髦的单品,在网上进行销售。

But there are trade-offs, namely price. A pair of women’s jeans made by Todd Shelton costs $200; an Oxford shirt is $180.

但这中间也存在权衡,也就是说价格。托德·谢尔顿的女式牛仔裤要200美元一条,牛津布衬衫则需180美元一件。

And cost is only one factor. Fashion is another.

而且成本只是其中一个因素。还有一个是时尚。

Recently, Ms. Trump tried to make a flip-flop in the United States. She and one of her main partners, Marc Fisher, shopped a design to retailers, according to a person with knowledge of the venture. Buyers, though, didn’t like the design — and it never got made.

最近,伊万卡试图在美国推出一款人字拖。据知情人士透露,她和主要的合伙人之一马克·费希尔(Marc Fisher)给零售商们提供了一款设计。但买家们不喜欢这个设计——它没能面世。

With the Ivanka Trump brand, another variable now comes into play: politics.

对于伊万卡-特朗普这个品牌,现在还出现了另一种变量:政治。

Ms. Trump served as a more polished emissary of her father’s messages during the campaign, and she is under pressure to bring jobs home. And in a postelection era, her carefully crafted public persona, which is at the heart of the brand, is at risk.

在竞选期间,伊万卡担当着为父亲传话的更为优雅的特使角色,现在她承受着将工作机会带回美国的压力。在选举结束后的时代,她精心塑造的公众形象——也是这个品牌的核心所在——面临风险。

She was criticized for meeting with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe of Japan while completing a licensing deal with a company whose largest shareholder is wholly owned by the Japanese government. Consumers offended by her father’s inflammatory comments about minorities continue to boycott her line.

她被指控在与一家公司达成一项许可权交易时,与日本首先安倍晋三(Shinzo Abe)进行会面,这家公司最大的股东是日本政府的全资子公司。被她父亲针对少数族裔的煽动性言论冒犯的消费者,持续抵制她的产品。

Ms. Trump acknowledged the potential appearance of conflicts as her father prepared to move into the White House. She said she would step down as the head of her namesake brand if asked to become an adviser to her father and the Trump administration.

伊万卡承认,在父亲准备进入白宫之时,会存在一些利益冲突。她表示,如果被要求担任父亲及特朗普政府的顾问,她会辞掉自己同名品牌掌门人的职位。

“I would completely separate myself from my businesses,” said Ms. Trump, who is also considering a leave of absence from the Trump Organization, where she serves as an executive vice president for development and acquisitions. Representatives for Mr. Trump declined to comment.

“我会完全脱离自己的生意,”伊万卡说。她也在考虑暂时离开特朗普集团,她目前是该集团负责开发与收购业务的执行副总裁。特朗普的代表拒绝置评。

But it will not drastically change her company’s strategy. She and her team do not plan to move manufacturing back just to quell critics.

但这并不会使得其公司的战略发生巨大改变。她和她的团队不打算单单为了平息外界的批评而将生产环节搬回美国。

“It’s great to say we want to do all of this, but we want to make responsible business decisions, too,” said Abigail Klem, president of the Ivanka Trump brand. “From a business perspective, we have to have longevity.”

“说我们想这么做当然是好事,但我们也想做出负责任的商业决策,”伊万卡·特朗普品牌的总裁阿比盖尔·克莱姆(Abigail Klem)说。“从商业角度看,我们必须基业常青。”

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