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更新时间:2016-12-29 7:21:38 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Russians No Longer Dispute Olympic Doping Operation

MOSCOW — Russia is for the first time conceding that its officials carried out one of the biggest conspiracies in sports history: a far-reaching doping operation that implicated scores of Russian athletes, tainting not just the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi but also the entire Olympic movement.


Over several days of interviews here with The New York Times, the Russian officials said they no longer disputed a damning set of facts that detailed a doping program with few, if any, historical precedents.


“It was an institutional conspiracy,” Anna Antseliovich, the acting director general of Russia’s national antidoping agency, said of years’ worth of cheating schemes.

“这是一次有组织的阴谋,”俄罗斯国家反兴奋剂机构代理总干事安娜·安采里奥维奇(Anna Antseliovich)谈及这桩历时多年的作弊计划时说。

A lab director tampered with urine samples at the Olympics and provided cocktails of performance-enhancing drugs, corrupting some of the world’s most prestigious competitions. Members of the Federal Security Service, a successor to the K.G.B., broke into sample bottles holding urine. And a deputy sports minister for years ordered cover-ups of top athletes’ use of banned substances.


Russian sports officials had vehemently denied the doping operation’s existence despite a detailed confession by the nation’s former antidoping lab chief, Dr. Grigory Rodchenkov, in a New York Times article last May that was subsequently confirmed by global antidoping regulators.

俄罗斯体育官员曾强烈否认兴奋剂运作的存在,尽管在去年5月《纽约时报》的一篇文章中,俄罗斯国家反兴奋剂实验室前负责人格里戈里·罗琴科夫(Grigory Rodchenkov)博士对此作了详细的供认,随后若干全球反兴奋剂监管机构确认了他的说法。

An investigator appointed by the World Anti-Doping Agency, Richard McLaren, published more extensive evidence this month that prompted the International Olympic Committee to open disciplinary proceedings against dozens of additional Russian athletes.

世界反兴奋剂机构任命的调查员理查德·麦克拉伦(Richard McLaren)本月发表了更多的广泛证据,促使国际奥林匹克委员会对其他数十名俄罗斯运动员展开纪律审查程序。

The drastic shift in tone may be motivated by Russia’s desire to reconcile with the regulators, who have stipulated that the nation accept the findings of the recent investigation before the country is recertified to conduct drug testing and be a host again of Olympic competitions.


The officials, however, continue to reject the accusation that the doping program was state-sponsored. They define the Russian state as President Vladimir V. Putin and his closest associates.

然而,官员们继续否认该国的兴奋剂计划背后有国家赞助这一指责。他们所说的“国家”是指弗拉基米尔·V·普京(Vladimir V. Putin)总统和他最亲密的伙伴们。

Ms. Antseliovich, who has not been directly implicated in the investigations, said she was shocked by the revelations. She and others emphasized that the government’s top officials were not involved.


“I don’t want to speak for the people responsible,” said Vitaly Smirnov, 81, a top sports official whose career dates back to the Soviet era and who was appointed this year by Mr. Putin to reform the nation’s antidoping system. Mr. Smirnov said he had not met most of the individuals implicated in a report by Mr. McLaren — emphasizing that they had been dismissed as a result — nor did he know where they were.

“我不想为那些该为此事负责的人辩护,”81岁的高级体育官员维塔利·斯米尔诺夫(Vitaly Smirnov)说,他的职业生涯可追溯到苏联时代。他于今年接受普京任命,改革国家的反兴奋剂系统。斯米尔诺夫说,他没有见过麦克拉伦报告中涉及的大多数人,也不知道他们在哪里,并强调因为该报告,他们已遭解雇。

“From my point of view, as a former minister of sport, president of Olympic committee — we made a lot of mistakes,” he said, echoing Mr. Putin’s broad denials of a state-sponsored system and noting that he would defer to the global governing bodies of each sport to rule on the evidence.


The 2014 Olympics in Sochi were a pet project for Mr. Putin, who was closely involved in politicking and preparing for them. Proud references to the Sochi Games overwhelm the Russian Olympic Committee’s offices along the Moscow River, including a nesting doll standing roughly six feet tall in the building’s lobby signed by Russian Olympians.


Many of the athletes whose pictures decorate the Olympic committee’s offices have been implicated in this year’s doping scandal, with scores formally disciplined and more than 650 others now accused. One photo shows Russians kissing medals and another shows Paralympians in wheelchairs holding victory bouquets above their heads.


“We have to find those reasons why young sportsmen are taking doping, why they agree to be doped,” Mr. Smirnov said, expressing eagerness to move forward rather than assign responsibility for previous violations.


But even as he and other officials signaled their acceptance of the fundamental findings of Mr. McLaren’s investigation, they were largely unconciliatory, suggesting that cheating to benefit Russia had served to offset what they perceived as preferential treatment for Western nations by global sports authorities.


“Have you seen the Fancy Bear records?” Mr. Smirnov said, invoking medical records hacked by a cyberespionage group believed to be associated with G.R.U., the Russian military intelligence agency suspected of hacking computers at the Democratic National Committee. The medical records revealed that hundreds of Western athletes had been given special medical permission to take banned drugs for legitimate therapeutic reasons.

“你看过漂亮小熊(Fancy Bear)档案吗?”斯米尔诺夫说,他指的是一些被网络攻击组织以黑客方式窃取的医疗记录,该组织被认为同俄罗斯军事情报机构GRU有联系,GRU则被怀疑对民主党全国委员会的电脑进行了黑客攻击。这些医疗记录显示,数百名西方运动员因合理的治疗原因获得服用违禁药物的特别医疗许可。

“Russia never had the opportunities that were given to other countries,” Mr. Smirnov said.


“The general feeling in Russia is that we didn’t have a chance,” he added, acknowledging that anabolic steroids like those taken by Russian athletes have never been deemed medically excusable by regulators.


The supposedly tamper-proof bottles that held Russian athletes’ doping samples in Sochi were manipulated — enabling officials to switch out their steroid-laced urine. Mr. Smirnov and his advisers suggested that the same thing had happened at other Olympics.


“It’s lucky that the WADA had Rodchenkov,” said Victor Berezov, a lawyer for Russia’s Olympic Committee. “Maybe in London and everywhere — maybe the same things could happen. Because the system is broken.”

“世界反兴奋剂机构(WADA)得到罗琴科夫真是幸运,”俄罗斯奥林匹克委员会的律师维克托·贝雷佐夫(Victor Berezov)说,“也许在伦敦和所有地方——同样的事情也可能发生。因为整个系统都崩坏了。”

Now, as Russia’s global track-and-field athletes remain barred from competition and its drug-testing operations decertified, Mr. Smirnov and a team of about two dozen people are focused on overhauling Russia’s antidoping system to satisfy global authorities. The group, selected over the summer, includes Russian politicians, Olympians, business people and even a celebrated pianist.