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俄罗斯首次承认系统性使用禁药,否认政府涉事

更新时间:2016-12-29 7:21:38 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Russians No Longer Dispute Olympic Doping Operation
俄罗斯首次承认系统性使用禁药,否认政府涉事

MOSCOW — Russia is for the first time conceding that its officials carried out one of the biggest conspiracies in sports history: a far-reaching doping operation that implicated scores of Russian athletes, tainting not just the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi but also the entire Olympic movement.

莫斯科――俄罗斯首次承认,该国官员实施了体育史上最大的阴谋之一:一次范围极广的兴奋剂运作,涉及大量俄罗斯运动员,不仅玷污了2014年索契冬季奥运会,也令整个奥林匹克运动蒙羞。

Over several days of interviews here with The New York Times, the Russian officials said they no longer disputed a damning set of facts that detailed a doping program with few, if any, historical precedents.

在接受《纽约时报》为时数天的访谈时,俄罗斯官员们说,他们不再对一系列令人沮丧的事实表示异议,这些事实详细说明了一项少有先例,甚至是绝无先例的兴奋剂使用计划。

“It was an institutional conspiracy,” Anna Antseliovich, the acting director general of Russia’s national antidoping agency, said of years’ worth of cheating schemes.

“这是一次有组织的阴谋,”俄罗斯国家反兴奋剂机构代理总干事安娜·安采里奥维奇(Anna Antseliovich)谈及这桩历时多年的作弊计划时说。

A lab director tampered with urine samples at the Olympics and provided cocktails of performance-enhancing drugs, corrupting some of the world’s most prestigious competitions. Members of the Federal Security Service, a successor to the K.G.B., broke into sample bottles holding urine. And a deputy sports minister for years ordered cover-ups of top athletes’ use of banned substances.

一个实验室主任在奥运会上篡改了尿样,提供了能够提高运动成绩的鸡尾酒式药物,破坏了世界上最负盛名的若干赛事。俄罗斯的联邦安全局是克格勃(KGB)的后继者,其特工曾偷换装着尿液的样品瓶。此外,一位体育部副部长多年下令掩盖顶级运动员使用禁药的事实。

Russian sports officials had vehemently denied the doping operation’s existence despite a detailed confession by the nation’s former antidoping lab chief, Dr. Grigory Rodchenkov, in a New York Times article last May that was subsequently confirmed by global antidoping regulators.

俄罗斯体育官员曾强烈否认兴奋剂运作的存在,尽管在去年5月《纽约时报》的一篇文章中,俄罗斯国家反兴奋剂实验室前负责人格里戈里·罗琴科夫(Grigory Rodchenkov)博士对此作了详细的供认,随后若干全球反兴奋剂监管机构确认了他的说法。

An investigator appointed by the World Anti-Doping Agency, Richard McLaren, published more extensive evidence this month that prompted the International Olympic Committee to open disciplinary proceedings against dozens of additional Russian athletes.

世界反兴奋剂机构任命的调查员理查德·麦克拉伦(Richard McLaren)本月发表了更多的广泛证据,促使国际奥林匹克委员会对其他数十名俄罗斯运动员展开纪律审查程序。

The drastic shift in tone may be motivated by Russia’s desire to reconcile with the regulators, who have stipulated that the nation accept the findings of the recent investigation before the country is recertified to conduct drug testing and be a host again of Olympic competitions.

俄罗斯在态度上的剧变可能是由于该国想与监管机构和解,这些监管机构要求俄罗斯接受近期调查的结果,然后重新取得禁药检测认证,才可以再次成为奥运赛事主办国的竞争者。

The officials, however, continue to reject the accusation that the doping program was state-sponsored. They define the Russian state as President Vladimir V. Putin and his closest associates.

然而,官员们继续否认该国的兴奋剂计划背后有国家赞助这一指责。他们所说的“国家”是指弗拉基米尔·V·普京(Vladimir V. Putin)总统和他最亲密的伙伴们。

Ms. Antseliovich, who has not been directly implicated in the investigations, said she was shocked by the revelations. She and others emphasized that the government’s top officials were not involved.

没有直接参与调查的安采里奥维奇说,这些事实的披露令她感到震惊。她和其他人强调,政府的高层领导没有参与其中。

“I don’t want to speak for the people responsible,” said Vitaly Smirnov, 81, a top sports official whose career dates back to the Soviet era and who was appointed this year by Mr. Putin to reform the nation’s antidoping system. Mr. Smirnov said he had not met most of the individuals implicated in a report by Mr. McLaren — emphasizing that they had been dismissed as a result — nor did he know where they were.

“我不想为那些该为此事负责的人辩护,”81岁的高级体育官员维塔利·斯米尔诺夫(Vitaly Smirnov)说,他的职业生涯可追溯到苏联时代。他于今年接受普京任命,改革国家的反兴奋剂系统。斯米尔诺夫说,他没有见过麦克拉伦报告中涉及的大多数人,也不知道他们在哪里,并强调因为该报告,他们已遭解雇。

“From my point of view, as a former minister of sport, president of Olympic committee — we made a lot of mistakes,” he said, echoing Mr. Putin’s broad denials of a state-sponsored system and noting that he would defer to the global governing bodies of each sport to rule on the evidence.

“作为前体育部部长与奥林匹克委员会主席,从我的角度来看,我们犯了很多错误,”他的话呼应了普京对于国家系统性赞助的断然否认,他指出,他会尊重每项运动的全球理事机构对证据的裁决。

The 2014 Olympics in Sochi were a pet project for Mr. Putin, who was closely involved in politicking and preparing for them. Proud references to the Sochi Games overwhelm the Russian Olympic Committee’s offices along the Moscow River, including a nesting doll standing roughly six feet tall in the building’s lobby signed by Russian Olympians.

2014年的索契奥运会是普京引以为傲的项目,他密切参与了相关的政治活动与筹备活动。俄罗斯奥林匹克委员会位于莫斯科河畔的办公室里到处都是索契奥运会的骄傲证明,包括一个大约六英尺(约合1.8米)高的俄罗斯套娃,矗立在奥委会大厦的大厅里,上面布满了俄罗斯奥林匹克运动员们的签名。

Many of the athletes whose pictures decorate the Olympic committee’s offices have been implicated in this year’s doping scandal, with scores formally disciplined and more than 650 others now accused. One photo shows Russians kissing medals and another shows Paralympians in wheelchairs holding victory bouquets above their heads.

奥林匹克委员会的办公室里装点着运动员们的照片,其中许多人都涉及今年的兴奋剂丑闻,几十人遭到纪律惩戒,此外超过650人目前正被指控。一张照片上,几个俄国人正在亲吻奖牌,另一张照片上,残奥会运动员们坐在轮椅上,把胜利花束举过头顶。

“We have to find those reasons why young sportsmen are taking doping, why they agree to be doped,” Mr. Smirnov said, expressing eagerness to move forward rather than assign responsibility for previous violations.

“我们必须找到年轻运动员使用兴奋剂的原因,为什么他们同意接受兴奋剂,”斯米尔诺夫说,他表示出了对不断前进的热烈愿望,而不是为以前的违法行为划分责任。

But even as he and other officials signaled their acceptance of the fundamental findings of Mr. McLaren’s investigation, they were largely unconciliatory, suggesting that cheating to benefit Russia had served to offset what they perceived as preferential treatment for Western nations by global sports authorities.

但是,即使他和其他官员表示接受麦克拉伦调查的根本结论,他们在很大程度上仍然未被说服,认为在他们心目中,有利于俄罗斯的作弊行为只是抵消了全球体育权威机构对西方国家的优惠待遇。

“Have you seen the Fancy Bear records?” Mr. Smirnov said, invoking medical records hacked by a cyberespionage group believed to be associated with G.R.U., the Russian military intelligence agency suspected of hacking computers at the Democratic National Committee. The medical records revealed that hundreds of Western athletes had been given special medical permission to take banned drugs for legitimate therapeutic reasons.

“你看过漂亮小熊(Fancy Bear)档案吗?”斯米尔诺夫说,他指的是一些被网络攻击组织以黑客方式窃取的医疗记录,该组织被认为同俄罗斯军事情报机构GRU有联系,GRU则被怀疑对民主党全国委员会的电脑进行了黑客攻击。这些医疗记录显示,数百名西方运动员因合理的治疗原因获得服用违禁药物的特别医疗许可。

“Russia never had the opportunities that were given to other countries,” Mr. Smirnov said.

“俄罗斯从没有像其他国家那样得到这些机会,”斯米尔诺夫说。

“The general feeling in Russia is that we didn’t have a chance,” he added, acknowledging that anabolic steroids like those taken by Russian athletes have never been deemed medically excusable by regulators.

“俄罗斯的总体感觉是我们没有得到机会,”他补充说,并承认俄罗斯运动员使用的合成代谢类固醇从未被监管者视为有医学理由可被允许使用的药物。

The supposedly tamper-proof bottles that held Russian athletes’ doping samples in Sochi were manipulated — enabling officials to switch out their steroid-laced urine. Mr. Smirnov and his advisers suggested that the same thing had happened at other Olympics.

盛放索契奥运会上俄罗斯运动员兴奋剂检测样品的瓶子本应是防篡改的,但却被动了手脚,使得俄罗斯官员可以把这些运动员含类固醇的尿液替换掉。斯米尔诺夫先生及其顾问们认为,在其他奥运会上也发生过同样的事情。

“It’s lucky that the WADA had Rodchenkov,” said Victor Berezov, a lawyer for Russia’s Olympic Committee. “Maybe in London and everywhere — maybe the same things could happen. Because the system is broken.”

“世界反兴奋剂机构(WADA)得到罗琴科夫真是幸运,”俄罗斯奥林匹克委员会的律师维克托·贝雷佐夫(Victor Berezov)说,“也许在伦敦和所有地方——同样的事情也可能发生。因为整个系统都崩坏了。”

Now, as Russia’s global track-and-field athletes remain barred from competition and its drug-testing operations decertified, Mr. Smirnov and a team of about two dozen people are focused on overhauling Russia’s antidoping system to satisfy global authorities. The group, selected over the summer, includes Russian politicians, Olympians, business people and even a celebrated pianist.

现在,由于俄罗斯田径运动员仍在全球遭到禁赛,且其药物测试机构被取消认证,斯米尔诺夫和一个大约20多人的团队专注于彻底修复俄罗斯的反兴奋剂系统,以满足全球权威机构的要求。这个小组的人选是在今年夏天决定的,其中包括俄罗斯政治家、奥运会运动员、商界人士,甚至还有一位著名钢琴家。

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