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2015年美国销售军火400亿美元居世界第一

更新时间:2016-12-27 18:36:11 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

U.S. Sold $40 Billion in Weapons in 2015, Topping Global Market
2015年美国销售军火400亿美元居世界第一

WASHINGTON — The United States again ranked first in global weapons sales last year, signing deals for about $40 billion, or half of all agreements in the worldwide arms bazaar, and far ahead of France, the No. 2 weapons dealer with $15 billion in sales, according to a new congressional study.

华盛顿——美国国会一项新的研究显示,2015年美国再次名列全球武器销售榜第一位,共签署了价值约400亿美元的协议,是全球武器销售协议总额的一半,而且远远领先于位居第二的法国,后者达成了150亿美元的武器销售协议。

Developing nations continued to be the largest buyers of arms in 2015, with Qatar signing deals for more than $17 billion in weapons last year, followed by Egypt, which agreed to buy almost $12 billion in arms, and Saudi Arabia, with over $8 billion in weapons purchases.

2015年,发展中国家依然是最大的武器买家,卡塔尔去年签署了超过170亿美元的武器购买协议;然后是购买了近120亿美元武器的埃及;排第三位的沙特阿拉伯则购买了超过80亿美元的武器。

Although global tensions and terrorist threats have shown few signs of diminishing, the total size of the global arms trade dropped to around $80 billion in 2015 from the 2014 total of $89 billion, the study found. Developing nations bought $65 billion in weapons in 2015, substantially lower than the previous year’s total of $79 billion.

这项研究发现,尽管全球紧张关系和恐怖主义威胁几乎没有减弱的迹象,但全球武器交易的总额从2014年的890亿美元减少到了2015年的约800亿美元。发展中国家在2015年一共购买了650亿美元的武器,大大少于前一年的790亿美元。

The United States and France increased their overseas weapons sales in 2015, as purchases of American weapons grew by around $4 billion and France’s deals increased by well over $9 billion.

2015年,美国和法国的海外武器销售额有所增长,其中美国增长了约40亿美元,法国则增加了90多亿美元。

The report, “Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2008-2015,” was prepared by the nonpartisan Congressional Research Service, a division of the Library of Congress, and delivered to legislators last week. The annual review is considered the most comprehensive assessment of global arms sales available in an unclassified form. The report adjusts for inflation, so the sales totals are comparable year to year.

这份名为《常规武器转移向发展中国家,2008-2015》(Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations,2008-2015)的报告,是由无党派的国会研究服务部(Congressional Research Service)编撰,在上周发送给了国会议员们。这份年度总结被认为是最全面的非机密全球武器销售评估报告。报告考虑了通货膨胀的因素,所以这些销售额可以进行年度比较。

Constraints on the expansion of foreign weapons sales are “due, in part, to the weakened state of the global economy,” wrote Catherine A. Theohary, a national security policy specialist at the Congressional Research Service and author of the study.

国外武器销售增长受限“有部分原因在于全球经济走弱”,这份报告的作者、国会研究服务部国家安全政策专家凯瑟琳·A·塞奥哈里斯(Catherine A. Theohary)写道。

“Concerns over their domestic budget problems have led many purchasing nations to defer or limit the purchase of new major weapon systems,” she added. “Some nations have chosen to limit their purchasing to upgrades of existing systems and to training and support services.”

“对国内预算问题的担忧导致许多购买国推迟或限制了新型重要武器系统的购买,”她接着写道。“一些国家选择限制购买,以便升级现有的系统,加强训练和支持服务。”

Russia, another dominant power in the global arms market, saw a modest decline in orders for its weapons, dropping to $11.1 billion in sales from the $11.2 billion total in 2014. Latin American nations, in particular Venezuela, have become a focus of marketing for Russian arms, the study found.

在全球武器市场占主导地位的另一个国家俄罗斯的武器订单额出现小幅下滑,从2014年的112亿美元将至2015年的111亿美元。这项研究发现,拉丁美洲国家,尤其是委内瑞拉成为俄罗斯推销武器的一个重点。

Among arms manufacturers that also are NATO allies, Germany has found success in marketing naval systems to the developing world, while Britain has done the same with warplanes, according to the report.

报告显示,在其他作为北约(NATO)成员国的武器制造商中,德国在向发展中世界推销海军武器系统方面取得了成功,英国则成功地向这些国家销售了不少战斗机。

The most significant overseas weapons sales for the United States last year included new agreements with Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Qatar and South Korea.

对美国而言,去年最重要的海外武器销售协议包括与沙特阿拉伯、伊拉克、卡塔尔和韩国达成的新协议。

Over all, the largest buyers of weapons in the developing world in 2015 were Qatar, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Pakistan, Israel, the United Arab Emirates and Iraq. After the United States, France, Russia and China, the study found that the major global arms suppliers were Sweden, Italy, Germany, Turkey, Britain and Israel.

总的来说,2015年购买武器最多的发展中国家是卡塔尔、埃及、沙特阿拉伯、韩国、巴基斯坦、以色列、阿拉伯联合酋长国和伊拉克。研究还显示,除了美国、法国、俄罗斯和中国,全球主要的武器供应国还有瑞典、意大利、德国、土耳其、英国和以色列。

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