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戈尔巴乔夫总统与老布什的最后一通电话

更新时间:2016-12-27 11:01:06 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

President Gorbachev’s Last Phone Call
戈尔巴乔夫总统与老布什的最后一通电话

WASHINGTON — Less than two hours before announcing his resignation as president of the Soviet Union on Dec. 25, 1991, Mikhail S. Gorbachev placed a telephone call to President George H. W. Bush, who was celebrating Christmas with his grandchildren at Camp David.

华盛顿——在1991年12月25日宣布辞任苏联总统不到两小时之前,米哈伊尔·S·戈尔巴乔夫(Mikhail S. Gorbachev)给美国总统乔治·H·W·布什(George H. W. Bush)打了个电话,后者正在戴维营(Camp David)和孙辈们过圣诞节。

In the weeks before, it was clear that the Soviet Union was disintegrating: Ukrainians had voted for independence in a national referendum, and other Soviet republics were following suit. Boris N. Yeltsin’s star was rising as a leader, and he was determined to get rid of the “center” and Mr. Gorbachev.

之前几周,苏联明显在走向解体:乌克兰在全民公投中投票决定独立,其他苏联共和国也在采取同样的行动。作为明日之星,鲍里斯·N·叶利钦(Boris N. Yeltsin)正冉冉升起,他决心摆脱“中央”和戈尔巴乔夫。

Mr. Bush and Mr. Gorbachev had been working together to try to prevent a bloody breakup of the Soviet Union and to solve regional conflicts like the Middle East. Over the course of conversations dating from 1987, when Mr. Bush was vice president, they had developed trust and familiarity.

布什和戈尔巴乔夫一直在携手竭力避免出现一场流血的苏联解体,努力解决中东等地区冲突。早在1987年布什担任副总统时,二人就开始对话,在这个过程中,他们建立起信任,也熟悉起来。

What follows is the last conversation between the two men as the leaders of the two superpowers — now partners rather than Cold War rivals. The warmth and appreciation they have for each other is evident, as is their pride in having accomplished so much together.

下面是他们以两个超级大国——如今是伙伴而非冷战中的对手——领导人的身份进行的最后一次对话。两人之间的温情与赞赏是显而易见的,同样明显的还有他们为一起成就那么多而感到的自豪之情。

Mr. Gorbachev sounds high-minded and statesmanlike as he discusses the future, asking Mr. Bush to support Mr. Yeltsin and Russia’s reforms, and to help the former Soviet republics achieve separation without disintegrating further. Mr. Gorbachev expresses his own determination to support Mr. Yeltsin despite the latter’s instrumental role in breaking up the Soviet Union, and to remain active in political life. He also tells Mr. Bush how much he values “our cooperation together, our partnership and friendship.” Mr. Bush responds with praise and affection. The American president would come to miss this unprecedented partnership, which helped transform the world.

在谈论未来时,戈尔巴乔夫显得高尚而有政治家风范,他请求布什支持叶利钦和俄罗斯的改革,并帮助各前苏联共和国在避免进一步分裂的情况下实现分离。戈尔巴乔夫表达了自己支持叶利钦的决心——尽管后者是苏联解体的一个重要原因——还决心继续积极参与政治生活。他也告诉布什,自己多么看重“我们的合作,我们的伙伴关系和友谊”。布什则表达了赞扬与喜爱。这种前所未有的伙伴关系推动了世界的变革,布什日后对此念念不忘。

George H. W. Bush: Hello, Mikhail.

乔治·H·W·布什:你好,米哈伊尔。

Mikhail S. Gorbachev: George, my dear friend. It is good to hear your voice.

米哈伊尔·S·戈尔巴乔夫:乔治,我亲爱的朋友。很高兴听到你的声音。

G.B.: I greet you on this momentous day, this historic day. I appreciate your calling me.

GB:在这个重大的、有历史意义的日子里,我要向你致以问候。很高兴你能打来电话。

M.G.: Let me begin by saying something pleasant to you: Merry Christmas to you, Barbara and your family. I had been thinking about when to make my statement, Tuesday or today. I finally decided to do it today, at the end of the day. So let me say first Merry Christmas and very best wishes.

MG:让我先讲一些让你愉快的事吧:祝你、芭芭拉和家人们圣诞快乐。我一直在考虑何时发布我的声明,是周二还是今天。在这一天快要结束的时候,我最终决定今天来做这件事。所以让我先对你说一声圣诞快乐,并致以最美好的祝福。

Well, let me say that in about two hours I will speak on Moscow TV and will make a short statement about my decision. I have sent a letter to you, George. I hope you will receive it shortly. I said in the letter a most important thing. And I would like to reaffirm to you that I greatly value what we did working together with you, first as vice president and then as president of the United States. I hope that all leaders of the commonwealth and, above all, Russia understand what kind of assets we have accrued between the leaders of our two countries. I hope they understand their responsibility to preserve and expand this important source of capital.

是这样,我想告诉你,再过大约两个小时,我会通过莫斯科的电视台发表讲话,就我的决定发布一项简短的声明。我已经给你寄了一封信,乔治。我希望你很快就能收到。我在信中讲了一件非常重要的事。我想向你重申,从你当副总统的时候,到后来成为美国总统,我都非常看重自己和你一起努力做的事。我希望联合体所有国家的领导人,尤其是俄罗斯领导人能明白,我们两个大国的领导人之间累积了什么样的资产。我希望他们能明白,自己有责任去保存和扩大这一重要资本来源。

The debate in our union on what kind of state to create took a different track from what I thought right. But let me say that I will use my political authority and role to make sure that this new commonwealth will be effective. I am pleased that already at Alma-Ata the leaders of the commonwealth worked out important nuclear and strategic agreements. I hope that in Minsk they will take decisions on other questions to assure a mechanism of cooperation among republics.

我们联盟内就应该创造一个怎样的国家产生的争执,偏离了我认为正确的轨道。但我想说,我会利用自己的政治权威和角色,确保这个新的联合体起到它的作用。我很高兴联合体成员国的领导人已经在阿拉木图达成重要的核武器与战略协议。我希望在他们能在明斯克就其他问题达成决议,以确保在各共和国之间形成一套合作机制。

George, let me say something to you that I regard as very important.

乔治,我要跟你说一些我认为非常重要的话。

G.B.: O.K.

GB:好的。

M.G.: Of course, it is necessary to move to recognize all of these countries. But I would like you to bear in mind the importance for the future of the commonwealth that the process of disintegration and destruction does not grow worse. So helping the process of cooperation among republics is our common duty. I would really like to emphasize this to you.

MG:宣布对所有这些国家的承认当然是有必要的。但我希望你能铭记,分离与破坏的过程不再进一步恶化,对联合体的未来而言至关重要。所以推动共和国之间的合作,是我们共同的责任。我很想跟你强调这一点。

Now, about Russia — this is the second-most important emphasis in our conversations. I have here on my desk a decree of the president of the U.S.S.R. on my resignation. I will also resign my duties as commander in chief and will transfer authority to use the nuclear weapons to the president of the Russian Federation. So I am conducting affairs until the completion of the constitutional process. I can assure you that everything is under strict control. As soon as I announce my resignation, I will put these decrees into effect. There will be no disconnection. You can have a very quiet Christmas evening. Again, about Russia, let me say we should all do our best to support it. I will do this to support Russia. But our partners should do this, too, and should play a role to help and support it.

现在来谈一下俄罗斯——这是我们的谈话中第二重要的话题。我的桌子上放着一张宣布我辞职的苏联总统令。我也会辞去总司令的职务,会把使用核武器的权力转交给俄罗斯联邦的总统。所以我是在宪法程序完成之前继续处理事务。我可以向你保证,一切都处在严格的控制之下。只要我一宣布辞职,这些法令就会生效。中间不会有间隔。你可以过一个非常平静的圣诞夜。有关俄罗斯,我还想说,我们都应该尽自己最大的努力支持它。我会支持俄罗斯。但我们的伙伴也该这么做,它们应该在帮助和支持俄罗斯方面发挥作用。

As for me, I do not intend to hide in the taiga, in the woods. I will be active politically, in political life. My main intention is to help all the processes here begun by perestroika and new thinking in world affairs. Your people, the press here, have been asking me about my personal relationship with you. I want you to know at this historic time that I value greatly our cooperation together, our partnership and friendship. Our roles may change, but I want to assure you that what we have developed will not change. Raisa and I send to you and Barbara our very best wishes.

至于我自己,我无意退隐山林。我会在政治上依然保持活跃。主要的目的是在这里推动因改革和世界事务中的新思想开启的进程。你的民众和这里的媒体都在询问我与你的个人关系。在这个历史性的时刻,我想让你知道,我非常看重我们之间的合作、我们的合作关系和友谊。我们的角色可能会发生变化,但我想向你保证,我们之间的情谊不会改变。赖莎和我向你与芭芭拉致以最美好的祝愿。

G.B.: Mikhail, let me say first how grateful I am for this call. I listened to your presentation with great interest. We will stay involved, particularly with the Russian republic, whose enormous problems could get worse this winter. I am delighted you won’t plan to hide in the woods and that you will be active politically. I have total confidence that will benefit the new commonwealth.

GB:米哈伊尔,首先我想说,你能打来电话,我非常感激。我以极大的兴趣聆听你的赠言。我们会继续参与,尤其是俄罗斯共和国的事务,这个国家的无数问题可能会在今年冬天恶化。我很高兴你不打算归隐山林,会继续在政治上保持活跃。我非常有信心,这会有益于这个新的联合体。

I have written you a letter to be posted today. And in it I express the conviction that what you have done will live in history and be fully appreciated by historians.

我给你写了封信,在今天寄出。我在里面表达了这样的坚定信念:你所做的事情会永垂青史,并得到历史学家的充分体认。

I appreciate your comments on nuclear weapons. This is of vital significance internationally, and I commend you and the leaders of the republics for what has been a great process. I note with interest that the constitutional responsibilities on this issue have been passed to Boris Yeltsin. I assure you we will have good cooperation on this.

我欣赏你有关核武器的言论——这在国际上有着十分重要的意义——十分赞赏你和各共和国领导人推进的重大进程。我也特别注意到,有关这个问题的宪法责任已经被转交给鲍里斯·叶利钦。我向你保证,我们会在这个问题上展开良好的合作。

And now, Mikhail, on the personal side. I have noticed the wonderfully strong statements from you on your relationships with me and Jim Baker. I appreciate them very much since it is exactly the way I feel. You found me at Camp David with Barbara and three of our kids and grandchildren. One of our kids is in Florida and the other with family in Virginia.

然后,米哈伊尔,我想在个人层面讲几句话。我看到了你就与我、与吉姆·贝克(Jim Baker)的关系所做的精彩而坚定的声明。我对此深表感激,因为那也正是我的感觉。你打电话来的时候,我和芭芭拉,还有我们的三个孩子与孙辈正在戴维营。我的一个孩子在佛罗里达,另一个在弗吉尼亚和家人在一起。

The horseshoe pit where you threw that ringer is still in good shape. That reminds me that in my letter to you, I say that I hope our paths will cross soon again. You are most welcome in the U.S. Perhaps we could even meet here at Camp David when you have straightened out your affairs. Our friendship is as strong as ever and will continue to be as events unfold. There is no question about that.

你掷马蹄铁的那个沙坑依然完好。这让我想起,在写给你的信中,我说希望我们很快能有机会再度相遇。十分欢迎你来美国。等你解决了自己的事务,也许我们甚至可以在戴维营见面。我们的友谊会一如既往,随着事件发展也会依然如此。这是毫无疑问的。

I will, of course, deal with respect, and openly, with the leaders of the Russian republic and the other republics. We will move forward with recognition and respect for the sovereignty that each has. We will be working with them on a wide array of issues. None will interfere with my desire to stay in touch, and I welcome suggestions from you, whatever your new role may be. But I do want to keep intact the friendships that Barbara and I value very, very much.

当然,我会带着敬意坦率地与俄罗斯共和国及其他共和国的领导人打交道。我们会带着对彼此主权的认可与尊重继续向前。我们会与在各种各样的问题上与他们展开合作。没人能妨碍我与你保持联系的渴望,我也欢迎你给我提供建议,不管你会担任什么样的新角色。不过我的确希望这段友谊能不受影响,我和芭芭拉非常非常看重它。

And so at this special time of year and at this historic time, We salute you and thank you for what you have done for world peace. Thank you very much.

所以在这个特殊的历史性时刻,我们向你致敬,感谢你为世界和平所做的贡献。非常感谢你。

M.G.: Thank you, George. I was glad to hear all of this today. I am saying good bye and shaking your hands. You have said to me many important things, and I appreciate it.

MG:谢谢你,乔治。今天能听到这些,我感到非常高兴。我要与你握手言别了。你对我讲了许多重要的事,我心存感激。

G.B.: All the best to you, Mikhail.

GB:祝你事事顺心,米哈伊尔。

M.G.: Goodbye.

MG:再见。

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