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更新时间:2016-12-24 10:34:09 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Things We Learned in 2016

The Today I Learned subreddit — a forum within the website Reddit — is a quirky destination that highlights random and sometimes surprising facts. In that spirit, reporters and editors from The New York Times compiled a list of some of the most interesting things we learned from Times stories this year.

Reddit网站的子板块“今天我知道”(Today I Learned)是一个古怪的论坛,它突出的是一些任意性的、有时候令人大吃一惊的事实。本着这种精神,《纽约时报》的记者和编辑列出了一个名单,展示了我们从今年的时报报道中获得的一些最有趣的事实。

1. The world’s most-used natural resource (apart from water and air) is sand — and it’s disappearing.

1. 全球用得最多的自然资源(空气和水除外)是沙子,并且沙子正在消失。

2. Farc rebels in Colombia were not allowed to marry because they were married to the revolution.

2. 哥伦比亚革命武装力量(FARC)的成员不得结婚是因为他们已经和革命结了婚。

3. One minute of all-out exercise may provide the benefits of 45 minutes of moderate exertion.

3. 一分钟的剧烈锻炼可能会带来45分钟温和锻炼的效果。

4. A new building on Manhattan’s Upper West Side pipes a fragrance called Ocean Mist through its ductwork to make the lobby smell like a beach.

4. 曼哈顿上西区的一栋新建筑通过通风系统输送一种名为海洋迷雾(Ocean Mist)的香水,以便让大堂闻上去像海滩。

5. $8,600. That’s how much more annually travel rewards credit cardholders would have to spend on travel to earn more than they could with a cash-back card.

5. 旅游奖励信用卡的持有者每年必须在旅游上多花8600美元(约合6万元人民币),获利才能超过使用返现卡。

6. The inmate known as “Prison Houdini” was originally sentenced to four years behind bars. He has earned more than 30 additional years of incarceration because of seven successful escapes (and six failed ones).

6. 被称作“监狱霍迪尼”(Prison Houdini)的囚犯起初被判处四年监禁。因为七次成功的越狱(和六次越狱未遂),他的刑期增加了30多年。

7. It’s possible to live in a 40-square-foot crawl space in Williamsburg. The monthly rent is $450.

7. 在威廉斯堡,你可以住在40平方英尺(约合3.8平方米)的地方。月租金450美元。

8. In 1838, Georgetown University sold 272 slaves — for a sum of about $3.3 million, adjusted for inflation — to help fund the struggling college.

8. 1838年,为了筹集资金,处境困难的乔治城大学(Georgetown University)卖了272个奴隶,所得在扣除通胀因素后,相当于今天的330万美元。

9. Deep in our solar system’s outer reaches, there could be a hidden planet. If it’s there, it could explain why our solar system is tilted.

9. 在太阳系外围的深处,可能隐藏着一个星球。若真是如此,便可以解释太阳系为何是倾斜的。

10. Thirteen of the 14 contestants in Season 8 of “The Biggest Loser” have regained weight in the six years since the competition, and four are heavier now than before the contest. The results show why the body fights back hard against major weight loss.

10. 在《超级减肥王》(The Biggest Loser)第八季结束后的6年里,14名参赛者中13人又胖了回去,4人现在的体重超过了比赛前的水平。这个结果表明了为什么身体会强烈反抗体重大幅减轻。

11. About 70 percent of Americans think granola bars are healthy. Less than 30 percent of nutritionists agree.

11. 约70%的美国人认为格兰诺拉燕麦棒是健康食品。同意这一观点的营养学家不足30%。

12. People in small counties are 50 percent more likely to go to prison than people in populous counties. (That’s new in the last 10 years.)

12. 生活在小国的人入狱的可能性比人口大国里的人高50%。(这是过去十年里出现的新现象。)

13. Forty percent of Manhattan’s buildings could not be built today.

13. 放在今天,曼哈顿40%的建筑可能不会修建。

14. Urban environments can speed up the process of evolution.

14. 城市环境能够加速进化过程。

15. Plants can “learn” long-lasting behaviors, sort of like memories.

15. 植物可以“学习”持续性的行为,类似记忆一般。

16. A team’s success (at work) isn’t driven by the IQ or talent of its individuals, but its culture and interpersonal relationships.

16. 团队(在工作中)的成功不是由团队个人的智商或才能决定,而是由团队的文化和人际关系决定的。

17. For decades, New York’s public libraries marked books with three stars (***) to indicate they were erotica and to be kept away from readers.

17. 几十年来,纽约的公共图书馆会给色情书籍打上三颗星(***),并让它们远离读者。

18. There are health benefits to knitting.

18. 编织有益健康。

19. Dr. Rhea Seddon, an astronaut who flew on three space shuttle missions in the 1980s and 1990s, said, “I’m not totally sure who had the first period in space, but they came back and said, ‘Period in space, just like period on the ground. Don’t worry about it.’”

19. 曾于1980、90年代三次乘坐航天飞机执行任务的宇航员蕾亚·塞顿(Rhea Seddon)博士说:“我不完全确定究竟是谁第一次在太空里来月经,但她们回来都说,‘在太空来月经,就和在地面上来月经一样。别担心。’”

20. Our belief in the power of breakfast is based on misinterpreted research and poor studies.

20. 错误的研究和拙劣的调查令我们对早餐的力量深信不疑。

21. It’s a myth that closing unused apps on your smartphone will prolong battery life. And turning off Wi-Fi doesn’t always help, either.

21. 关闭智能手机上不在使用中的应用程序可以延长电池寿命,这是一个普遍的错误观念。关闭Wi-Fi也不见得一定有用。

22. Sixth graders in the richest school districts are four grade levels ahead of children in the poorest districts.

22. 最富裕学区的六年级学生比最贫困地区儿童领先四个年级。

23. Birth control without visiting a doctor? There are more and more apps for that.

23. 不用去看医生的节育?有越来越多的手机应用程序可以帮忙。

24. Death from gun homicide in the United States is as common as dying a car accident. In Japan, it’s as rare as a fatal lightning strike.

24. 在美国,死于枪杀同死于车祸一样常见。在日本则同死于雷击一样罕见。

25. Long-distance running may be the best exercise for your brain.

25. 长跑可能是对大脑的最佳锻炼。

26. American men in the top 1 percent in income live 15 years longer than the poorest 1 percent; for women, the gap is 10 years.

26. 在美国男性当中,收入最高的1%人群平均寿命比收入最低的1%人群长15年;在女性当中,这个差距是10年。

27. A North Carolina man owns the only known recording of Super Bowl I, but the N.F.L. doesn’t want to buy the tapes or let him sell them to outside parties.

27. 一名北卡罗来纳男子拥有目前已知的唯一一份第一届超级碗(Super Bowl I)冠军赛录像,但国家橄榄球联盟(NFL)不想买下这些录像,也不想让他卖给别人。

28. Deaths from overdoses are reaching levels similar to the H.I.V. epidemic at its peak.

28. 药物过量导致的死亡人数已经与HIV流行高峰期相当。

29. Thousands of dogs are slaughtered and served in restaurants in Yulin, China, for the annual dog meat festival.

29. 在中国玉林一年一度的狗肉节上,数以千计的狗被屠宰并送进餐馆。

30. Women have moved into historically male jobs much more in white-collar fields than in blue-collar ones. Yet the gender pay gap is largest in higher-paying white-collar jobs.

30. 在白领工作中,女性进入传统上的男性工作领域的机会,比在蓝领工作中多。然而,在高薪白领工作中,因性别导致的工资差距也是最大的。

31. Meditation can change your brain.

31. 冥想可以改变你的大脑。

32. You can weigh 119 pounds and have Type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and fatty liver — all the problems of a very obese person.

32. 就算你体重只有119磅(约合54公斤),你也可以身患II型糖尿病、高血压、高胆固醇和脂肪肝等过于肥胖者的疾病。

33. Giraffes have been keeping a secret from us for a long time: They’re really four different species, not one.

33. 长期以来,长颈鹿一直对我们保守着一个秘密:它们其实是四个不同的物种,而不是一个。

34. The Greenland shark lives at least 272 years and it could live as long as 512 years. That makes it the oldest living thing with a backbone on Earth.

34. 格陵兰鲨的寿命至少272年,最长可达512年。这使它成为地球上寿命最长的脊椎动物。

35. Freezing your coffee beans can actually make your cup of coffee tastier.

35. 冷冻咖啡豆可以令咖啡更美味。

36. Earth is old. The sun is old. But do you know what may be even older than both? The water we drink.

36. 地球很古老。太阳很古老。但你知道什么可能比这两者都古老?那就是我们喝的水。

37. Private equity firms are taking over services usually reserved for the government — from water to public transportation to 911 call centers.

37. 私募股权公司正在接管通常由政府承担的服务――从水到公共交通,乃至911呼叫中心。

38. What does it sounds like when two black holes collide a billion light years away? Scientists learned this year, and you’ve never heard a more beautiful chirp.

38. 十亿光年之外的两个黑洞碰撞时会发出什么声音?今年科学家发现那是一种啁啾之声,美得你无法想象。

39. In 1940, a child born into the average American household had a 92 percent chance of making more money than his or her parents. For Americans born in 1980 – today’s 36-year-olds – that figure dropped to 50 percent.

39. 1940年出生在普通美国家庭的孩子有92%的机会比他或她的父母赚更多的钱。对于1980年出生的美国人(今年36岁)来说,这个数字下降到50%。

40. There were more than 700,000 Google searches looking into self-induced abortions in 2015.

40. 2015年,用谷歌搜索“self-induced abortions”(自我人工流产)的次数增加了70万次以上。

41. The Bramble Cay melomys were long-tailed, whiskered creatures who lived on an island in the Great Barrier Reef; today none exist. It is the first documented extinction of a mammal species as a result of human-caused climate change.

41. 珊瑚裸尾鼠(Bramble Cay melomys)是生活在大堡礁一个岛屿上的一种动物,长着胡须和长长的尾巴,如今已经不复存在。这是人类引起的气候变化第一次导致哺乳动物物种灭绝。

42. Cybersecurity became a national concern only after President Ronald Reagan saw the Matthew Broderick movie “WarGames.”

42. 罗纳德·里根(Ronald Reagan)总统看过马修·布罗德里克(Matthew Broderick)主演的电影《战争游戏》(WarGames)之后,网络安全才成为全国关注的问题。

43. All of the drinking water coming from the Catskills to New York City is delivered by gravity.

43. 从卡茨基尔山到纽约市的所有饮用水都是通过重力输送的。

44. Belgium has opened a two-mile beer pipeline.

44. 比利时开放了一条长达两英里的啤酒输送管道。

45. No one really knows what’s buried under the streets of New York until it’s time to dig. Workers in the field sometimes call it “peek and shriek.”

45. 在开始挖掘之前,没有人知道在纽约的街道之下掩埋了什么。现场的工人有时称之为“偷看并尖叫”。

46. Wealthy black families live in areas far less well off than whites of even moderate income.

46. 富裕黑人家庭居住地区的环境远不如中等收入的白人。

47. Terrorism deaths have increased in the West. But, worldwide, they’re declining.

47. 在西方,因恐怖主义导致的死亡人数增加了,但在全球范围内正在下降。

48. There are more than 100 words for added sugar. Sixty-eight percent of grocery store foods contain at least one.

48. 用来表示“添加糖”的词有一百多种。68%的杂货店食品上有至少一个这样的词。

49. Angela Mao was as famous as Bruce Lee when she was a martial arts film star during the 1970s. Then she seemed to vanish. It turns out she’s been in Queens this whole time.

49. 茅瑛(Angela Mao)是1970年代的武打片明星,曾与李小龙齐名。后来她似乎消失了。原来她多年来一直住在皇后区。

50. If nothing is done about climate change, by 2100 the Dallas area is projected to be above 95 degrees for more than four months a year.

50. 如果不对气候变化采取任何措施,到2100年,达拉斯地区的温度预计每年将有超过四个月在95华氏度以上(合35摄氏度)。

51. Nearly 40 percent of millennials say they don’t eat cereal for breakfast because “they have to clean up after eating it.”

51. 将近40%的千禧一代说他们早餐不吃麦片是因为“吃完之后还得清洗”。

52. Rooming houses for “career-minded professional women” still exist in New York City, and men aren’t allowed above the first floor.

52. 在纽约市仍然有面向“为着重事业的职业女性”的出租屋,男性不得进入一楼以上的范围。

53. After steady declines over the last four decades, highway deaths last year recorded the largest annual percentage increase in 50 years. Blame Snapchat and other apps.

53. 经历了过去40年的稳步下降之后,去年的公路死亡增长率达到了50年来的最高值。原因是Snapchat和其他手机应用。

54. Archaeologists have found more than 40 shipwrecks in the Black Sea, some more than a millennium old. The vessels are surprisingly well preserved because the Black Sea has no oxygen at its bottom.

54. 考古学家在黑海发现了40多艘沉船,有些已超过一千年。这些船的保存状况好得惊人,因为黑海底部没有氧气。

55. It’s not a problem most are likely to encounter, but for those who do, shuffling fortunes through trusts and accounts across borders can help hide outrageous amounts of money.

55. 这不是大多数人可能遇到的问题,但是的确有人通过信托基金和跨国账户洗钱,以此隐藏大量的金钱。

56. The TV and movie action star Lorenzo Lamas (“Renegade”) will fly you in a helicopter to the Grand Canyon.

56. 主演《叛变》(Renegade)的影视动作明星洛伦佐·拉马斯(Lorenzo Lamas) 可以用直升机搭你飞往大峡谷。

57. Lin-Manuel Miranda’s father, the political consultant Luis Miranda, stands to earn more than $300,000 a year from “Hamilton,” as the royalty deal (unusually) includes him in the share of profits.

57. 林-曼努埃尔·米兰达(Lin-Manuel Miranda)的父亲、政治顾问路易斯·米兰达(Luis Miranda),每年可因《汉密尔顿》(Hamilton)得到超过30万美元,因为版税协议(颇不寻常地)把他也列为获利分享人。

58. Rising sea levels are changing the way people think about waterfront real estate. People across the nation are growing wary of buying property in areas most vulnerable to the effects of climate change.

58. 海平面上升正在改变人们对海滨房地产的看法。全国人民都对在最易受气候变化影响的地区购买房产感到越来越担心。

59. More convicted terrorists live in prisons throughout the United States — 443 of them — than the number who remain imprisoned at Guantánamo Bay, Cuba.

59. 被关押在美国各地监狱的已定罪恐怖分子(共443人)比关押在古巴关塔那摩湾的恐怖分子人数多。

60. In the Rio Olympics, women won more total medals than men in 29 countries.

60. 里约奥运会上,有29个国家的女子获得奖牌数多于男子。