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淘宝又被美国列入假货黑名单,阿里不服

更新时间:2016-12-24 10:25:46 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Alibaba Faces Growing Pressure Over Counterfeit Goods
淘宝又被美国列入假货黑名单,阿里不服

Alibaba has a fakes problem.

阿里巴巴有假货问题。

On Wednesday, American trade officials said that they had added Taobao, the Alibaba Group’s sprawling online shopping bazaar in China, to their list of the world’s most notorious markets for counterfeit goods. The addition — an embarrassing setback four years after Alibaba successfully lobbied American officials to drop the platform from the list — comes as the owners of brands increasingly complain about the proliferation of fakes on the company’s sales platforms.

本周三,美国贸易官员表示,他们将阿里巴巴旗下的淘宝——中国一个庞大的在线购物市场——列入全球假货泛滥最严重的恶名市场名单中。四年前,阿里巴巴成功地游说美国官员将其从这份名单中移除,随着品牌拥有者越来越多地抱怨其销售平台上假货泛滥,它再次被列入名单,这是一个令人尴尬的挫折。

It also comes as Alibaba moves to satisfy increasingly sophisticated Chinese consumers who want higher quality goods — a shift that has also drawn intensifying competition from Alibaba’s rivals.

而且如今中国消费者正在变得日益精明老练,对产品质量提出了更高的要求,阿里巴巴开始迎合这种需要,而它的对手也在加大竞争力度。

Alibaba says it has increased efforts to find and eliminate counterfeit goods. In its report on Wednesday, the Office of the United States Trade Representative acknowledged those efforts — but said they were not enough.

阿里巴巴表示,它已经做出了更大的努力来寻找和清除假货。美国贸易代表办公室(Office of the United States Trade Representative)在周三的报告中承认了这种努力——但表示这还不够。

Taobao “is an important concern due to the large volume of allegedly counterfeit and pirated goods available and the challenges right holders experience in removing and preventing illicit sales and offers of such goods,” said the agency, citing complaints from brand owners about the proliferation of fakes on Taobao.

淘宝“备受关注,因为那里可以买到大量假冒和盗版商品,权利持有人在清除、防止此类商品的非法销售和提供上遇到了挑战”,该机构表示。他们提到了一些品牌的拥有者抱怨淘宝上假货泛滥。

“While recent steps set positive expectations for the future,” it added, “current levels of reported counterfeiting and piracy are unacceptably high.”

“虽然他们最近采取的一些做法让人期待一个积极正面的未来,”报告说,“目前遭到举报的假冒和盗版商品仍然多到令人无法接受。”

Alibaba, which maintains that counterfeit goods are an industrywide problem, called the move “counterproductive” and questioned the motives behind the agency’s decision. In a statement from Michael Evans, the president of Alibaba, the company said the decision “leads us to question whether the U.S.T.R. acted based on the actual facts or was influenced by the current political climate” — an apparent reference to the negative language about China that Donald J. Trump espoused during the campaign and as president-elect.

阿里巴巴坚称假货是一个行业性的问题,他们说此举将“适得其反”,并质疑该机构做出这个决定背后的动机。阿里巴巴总裁迈克尔·埃文斯(Michael Evans)在一份声明中说,该公司认为这个决定“令我们质疑美国贸易代表是在根据实际情况行事,还是受到了当前政治气候的影响”——显然指的是唐纳德·J·特朗普(Donald J. Trump)在竞选期间和胜选之后提到中国时使用了消极措辞。

In an email to the group that oversees how Alibaba’s platforms are governed, Daniel Zhang, the company’s chief executive, pushed the group to continue fighting counterfeiters, whom he described as being “like bacteria in the air that we breathe.” But he also compared the American move to trade protectionism and said Alibaba would face similar efforts elsewhere as it expanded abroad.

阿里巴巴首席执行官张勇(Daniel Zhang)向监督该公司平台治理状况的部门发了一封电邮,敦促他们继续打击假冒者,电邮称假冒者像“空气里的细菌”。但他也把美国此举和贸易保护主义联系起来,表示阿里巴巴在进行海外扩张时,在其他国家也会面对类似的举动。

“It wouldn’t come as a surprise if we encounter other situations similar to that of ‘Notorious Markets’ in the future, where protectionism leads to malicious acts to players in the market,” he wrote in the email, which the company shared publicly.

他在电邮中写道:“将来用类似‘恶名市场’的事情,来自贸易保护的‘市场恶意’行为,可能还会发生,也许会越来越多。”这封电邮在公司内部公开传阅。

The decision by the agency, which does not come with any official punishments, will have little practical impact on Alibaba’s main China operations. The company is enjoying rising sales as Chinese consumers shrug off the country’s slowing economic growth and continue their online buying spree. In after-hours trading on Wednesday after the announcement, its shares fell less than 1 percent.

没有任何官方惩罚措施与该机构的决定一同发布,它对阿里巴巴在中国的主要业务也没有实质影响。该公司的销售额正在增长,中国消费者并未受到该国经济增长放缓的影响,继续在电商上大买特买。周三这个消息公布之后,阿里巴巴的股价在盘后交易中下跌不到1%。

But the listing could complicate the Chinese company’s ambitions to move into other markets. Alibaba has made forays into the United States, Southeast Asia and elsewhere, and it is moving into industries like entertainment that could take it further abroad. The listing is also a blemish for a company that symbolized China’s rising sophistication when it held a landmark initial public offering of stock two years ago in the United States.

但这件事可能会让中国公司进入其他市场的努力变得更加复杂。阿里巴巴已经进入了美国、东南亚和其他地区,目前它正在进军的娱乐业等行业,可能会让它进一步走向海外。而且,两年前阿里巴巴在美国进行了里程碑式的首次公开募股时,它成为了中国日益复杂老练的一个象征,对于这样一家公司来说,此事也是个污点。
 
The listing represents a stumble in Alibaba’s lobbying efforts in the United States. Four years ago, American officials removed Taobao from the list, citing its efforts to fight fakes. The move came after Alibaba tapped a former official from the trade representative’s office, James Mendenhall, to work on its behalf.

这次被列入名单,意味着阿里巴巴在美国开展游说的努力遇到了挫折。四年前,美国官员从这份列表中移除了淘宝,理由是淘宝在打击假货。在那之前,阿里巴巴请来贸易代表办公室的前官员詹姆斯·门登霍尔(James Mendenhall)为其奔走。

In recent years Alibaba has de-emphasized Taobao, a vast platform where sellers big and small can set up online stores, resembling eBay. Analysts say its growth prospects are limited, and a growing number of Chinese consumers say they want to buy from sources they can better trust.

近年来,阿里巴巴不再把淘宝作为一个重点。淘宝是个庞大的平台,有点类似于eBay,大大小小的卖家都可以在该平台上开网店。分析师认为其增长前景有限,而越来越多的中国消费者也表示他们想从更加可信的渠道购买商品。

“The problem is that anybody can open a Taobao shop and sell anything,” said Shaun Rein, founder and managing director of China Market Research Group.

“问题在于任何人都可以开淘宝店,卖任何东西,”中国市场研究(China Market Research Group)的创始人兼董事总经理雷小山(Shaun Rein)说。

Yu Yang, a 36-year-old information technology engineer in Beijing, said he started using Taobao more than a decade ago. “But I almost stopped completely about three or four years ago,” he said, adding that it had become difficult to tell fake from real basketball sneakers, which he collects.

北京36岁的信息技术工程师于洋说他十多年前就开始用淘宝了。“但三四年前,我几乎完全不用了,”他说。收藏篮球鞋的他接着表示,球鞋的真假很难区分。

“Fakes are getting more and more real,” said Mr. Yu, who said he had switched to shopping on JD.com and also buys more when he travels to South Korea or Japan. “Unless you compare a fake with an authentic, it would be almost impossible to tell.”

“假货变得越来越真,”他说。于洋称自己转向了京东,也会在去韩国或日本时多买一些。“除非把真货和假货拿在一起对比,否则几乎分辨不出来。”

Alibaba said its core Chinese retail business had 439 million annual active users during the year that ended in September, though it does not break out how many of them are Taobao users. That business makes its money by charging fees to, and providing advertising for, vendors.

阿里巴巴称在9月份结束的年度里,其核心的中国零售业务年活跃用户达4.39亿,但它未透露其中有多少是淘宝用户。这项业务通过向商家收费和为其提供广告赚钱。

Alibaba has tried to steer business to its Tmall platform, which is geared toward larger sellers of higher-end name brands like Nike and Estée Lauder. But that business faces intense competition from JD.com and others that manage their own inventory and act more as curators for finicky customers.

阿里巴巴试图将业务引向自己的天猫平台,后者面向的是耐克(Nike)和雅诗兰黛(Estée Lauder)等规模更大的高端品牌卖家。但这项业务面临来自京东和其他公司的激烈竞争。这些公司自己管理仓储,充当的角色更像是为挑剔的消费者提供服务的监督者。

Tmall is the dominant player in the business to consumer segment, as Tmall and its rivals are called, with a little more than half of the market, according to figures from the data firm iResearch. But the data also shows that it has slowly lost market share to others.

天猫及其竞争对手所在的领域被称作B2C(商家对消费者),数据公司艾瑞咨询(iResearch)的数据显示,天猫在该领域占据主导地位,市场份额略超一半。但相关数据额也表明,天猫的市场份额正在慢慢流向竞争对手。

Last year, in a warning to Alibaba, the United States Trade Representative also mentioned Tmall as a source of complaints about fakes, though the platform was not mentioned in this year’s list. Alibaba has also defended Tmall’s efforts to fight fakes.

去年,在对阿里巴巴的警告中,美国贸易代表也提到天猫是假货投诉的源头之一,不过该平台没有出现在今年的名单中。阿里巴巴也为天猫的打假行动进行了辩护。

The American government’s move adds to mounting pressure on Alibaba to do something about fakes. Last year, the owner of the Gucci and Yves Saint Laurent brands sued Alibaba in New York federal court, claiming that the company encouraged sales of fakes on its online platforms. In October an industry group, the American Apparel and Footwear Association and others openly called for Alibaba to be added to the government’s notorious markets list, saying its members saw little change despite the company’s efforts to fight fakes.

美国政府的举动增加了阿里巴巴应对假货的压力。去年,古驰(Gucci)和圣罗兰(Yves Saint Laurent)品牌的拥有者将阿里巴巴告上了纽约联邦法院,声称该公司鼓励在其在线平台上售假。10月,行业机构美国服装与鞋业协会(American Apparel and Footwear Association)和其他一些团体公开要求将阿里巴巴加入政府的恶名市场名单,称尽管该公司采取了多项打假行动,但该协会的成员几乎没有看到变化。

In May, the International Anticounterfeiting Coalition backed away from a plan to give Alibaba membership in its ranks as part of a united effort to fight fakes, after other members objected and raised questions about financial ties between Alibaba and the group’s leadership. The group defended its leadership but said it had hired an outside firm to review its internal controls.

5月,国际反假联盟(International Anticounterfeiting Coalition)在其他成员反对并对阿里巴巴和该组织的领导层之间的经济往来提出质疑后,放弃了让阿里巴巴加入联盟,这本来是一项联合打假行动的一部分。国际反假联盟为自己的领导层进行了辩护,但表示已聘请一家外部公司对其内部管控措施进行审查。

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