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在这座泰国寺院,发财与拜佛两不误

更新时间:2016-12-22 11:48:07 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Where Buddhism’s Eight-Fold Path Can Be Followed With a Six-Figure Salary
在这座泰国寺院,发财与拜佛两不误

PATHUM THANI, Thailand — It is a temple for a changing Thailand: clean, unadorned, high-tech and unashamed of praying for wealth.

泰国巴吞他尼——这座寺庙体现着一个正在改变的泰国:干净、朴素、高科技且对祈求发财不感到羞耻。

“Sit here and get rich” read small medallions embedded in the floor under each white plastic chair in a vast, open-sided meditation center. In his sermons, the temple’s charismatic 72-year-old leader, Phra Dhammachayo, often exhorts his adherents, “Be rich, be rich, be rich!”

在一个宽敞的开放式禅修中心里,每一把白色塑料椅子下面的地板上都镶嵌着小巧的圆形雕饰,上面写着“坐此处者发财”。72岁的寺庙住持拍·达马查育(Phra Dhammachayo)是个很有感召力的人,常告诫自己的信徒要“发财,发财,发财!”

With its endorsement of worldly comforts and its no-nonsense approach to ritual, the temple, known as Wat Dhammakaya and the largest in Thailand, has attracted the allegiance of growing numbers of followers in a movement whose popularity has unsettled the government and the Buddhist hierarchy.

这里名为法身寺(Wat Dhammakaya),是泰国最大的寺庙。通过支持世俗的慰藉,并对仪式持一种务实态度,这里吸引了越来越多忠诚的信徒。但该运动的大受欢迎引起了政府和佛教高层的不安。

The authorities have long tried to clip its wings, and for the past month the police have been threatening to arrest Phra Dhammachayo despite a warning by the temple that it would mobilize a human shield of chanting monks to protect him.

当局一直都在试图削弱法身寺的影响力。过去一个月,警方一直威胁要逮捕拍·达马查育,但该寺警告称将动员僧侣组成人盾,诵经保护他。

The charge against him is embezzlement, the latest of many accusations that stretch decades, while the top body of Buddhism has accused him of heresy. Last week, it stripped him of his title, though that does not seem to have threatened his status on the grounds of Wat Dhammakaya.

对拍·达马查育的指控是挪用资金,这是持续了数十年的众多指控中最新的一项。佛教管理机构则指控他离经叛道。上周,该机构剥夺了他的头衔,但这似乎并没有威胁到他在法身寺的地位。

The temple is the spiritual embodiment of the social and economic dislocations that have shaken Thailand. The economic boom of the 1980s created a well-to-do middle class for whom moneymaking rivaled Buddhist tradition as a core value. They needed something that brought the two together.

该寺是动摇泰国的社会和经济混乱在宗教领域的体现。80年代的经济繁荣创造出了一个富裕的中产阶级。对这个群体而言,赚钱是与佛教传统不相上下的一个核心价值。他们需要某种东西将二者统一起来。

Cash machines are placed conveniently near a meditation hall with screens that declare, “Shortcut to making merit,” the important virtue of doing good deeds. As a merit-making bonus, credit card points earned by the transaction can go directly to the temple.

为了方便,一处禅堂附近安放了多台自动取款机,机器屏幕上写着“积德捷径”,即行善事的重要好处。交易获得的信用卡积分能够直接转给寺庙,算是一项额外的积德。

“Buddha never taught us to live in hardship,” said the temple spokesman, Phra Pasura Dantamano. He added: “Buddha teaches moderation, but there are different levels of society. If I were a businessman or a farmer I would define moderation in a different way.”

“佛祖从来没教我们要艰难度日,”寺庙发言人拍·帕苏拉·丹塔玛诺(Phra Pasura Dantamano)说。他接着说:“佛祖教导我们要有节制,但社会有不同的层级。如果我是一个商人或农民,我对节制的定义会有所不同。”

This perspective is a departure from traditional Thai Buddhism, in which there is less acceptance of wealth, said Suwanna Satha-Anand, a professor of philosophy at Chulalongkorn University.

朱拉隆功大学(Chulalongkorn University)哲学教授素旺娜·沙塔-阿南德(Suwanna Satha-Anand)表示,这种观点违背了传统的泰国佛教,后者不那么认可财富。

“They crafted a possibility of a new form of Buddhism which is friendly to capitalism or wealth,” she said. “This is the voice of the urban middle or upper class who are looking for a more modern image of what a Buddhist can be.”

“他们让一种对资本主义或财富友好的新型佛教成为了可能,”她说。这是城市中上层阶级的声音,他们正在寻求一种更现代的佛教徒形象。”

Well-designed websites promise a form of meditation that is “simple, easy and effective.” The temple itself manifests cleanliness and efficiency alongside tech-savvy sophistication. Its huge boxy buildings are aggressively plain, finished with unpainted gray concrete. It has no spire, few bells and little incense.

精心设计的网站承诺提供一种“简单、轻松、有效”的禅修形式。寺庙本身也表现出了干净、效率和精通科技的先进特点。其庞大的主体建筑极其简朴,表面是未上漆的灰色混凝土。庙里没有尖顶,也几乎不鸣钟焚香。

But it does not lack grandeur. Its centerpiece is a huge, flat dome more than 2,000 feet in diameter that even the temple concedes looks like a flying saucer. It radiates wealth. The dome’s surface consists of 300,000 small Buddha statues made of silicon gold, each as tall as an open hand and engraved with the name of a donor — suggested donation 10,000 baht, or about $300.

但它并不缺少宏伟之气。寺庙的核心是一个巨大而平坦的穹顶,直径超过2000英尺(约合610米)。就连法身寺自己也承认它看上去像一个飞碟。它散发出财富的光芒。穹顶的表面由30万尊用硅金做成的小佛像组成,每尊佛像与张开的手掌齐高,上面刻着捐赠人的姓名——表明此人捐了一万泰铢(约合2000元人民币)。

On special occasions, the vast plaza around the dome is the scene of spectacular gatherings — tens of thousands of monks in orange and worshippers in white — that rival an Olympics opening ceremony. The monks circle the dome as if the little statues had come to life, and they sit in perfect, ordered rows that seem to stretch to the horizon. At night, they march with glowing lights, and thousands of lighter-than-air lanterns float into the sky.

在特殊的场合,穹顶四周的广场会举行盛大的聚会,数万名身着橙色僧衣的僧人和身穿白色服饰的信徒齐聚一堂,堪比奥运会的开幕式。僧侣们把穹顶围在中间,仿佛那些小佛像有了生命一般。他们成排地坐着,队列精准有序,似乎要延伸至远处的地平线。夜里,他们在明亮的灯光下齐步行进,成千上万盏比空气还轻的灯笼飘向空中。

In keeping with the stark design of the temple, even these extravagant displays are marked by almost militaristic order and precision.

为了和寺庙的简朴设计保持一致,就连这些绚丽的表演也体现出了近乎军国主义的秩序和精确。

The same rapid rise to prosperity that inspired the popularity of Wat Dhammakaya also underlies the political divisions and outbreaks of violence that have shaken Thailand in recent years.

快速到来的繁荣促使法身寺大受欢迎,同时也是近年来动摇泰国社会的政治分歧和暴力事件频发的根本原因。

Those divisions are being held in check by a military junta that seized power in 2014. “When you have hundreds of thousands of devotees, some people with power would be scared of that,” Phra Pasura said.

在2014年夺权的军政府正在遏制这些分歧。“当你拥有数十万虔诚的信徒时,一些手握权力的人会害怕,”拍·帕苏那说。

He compared the Dhammakaya movement to the populist rise of Thaksin Shinawatra, a prime minister who was ousted in another coup, in 2006, and now lives in exile.

他把法身寺运动和前民粹主义总理他信·西那瓦(Thaksin Shinawatra)的崛起相提并论。后者在2006年的另一场政变中被赶下台,现流亡在外。

“People are afraid that if we get too large we could be a threat,” Phra Pasura said. He would not estimate the number of followers, but said they were in the hundreds of thousands.

“人们害怕我们发展得太大,可能会成为一个威胁,”拍·帕苏拉说。他不愿估计信众的人数,但称他们数以万计。

At the moment, the government is pursuing several cases against Phra Dhammachayo, the foremost of which is a charge that he embezzled $40 million from a credit union. He has said he was unaware of the source of the funds, and his followers have paid off the debt.

目前,政府正在就多起案件起诉拍·达马查育,最重要的一起案件是指控他从一家信用合作社挪用4000万美元。他自称不知道相关资金的来源,且他的信徒已经还清了债务。

But the government is still trying to bring him to court. For weeks, the police have been threatening to seize him, at one point saying they were ready to deploy 2,000 officers to confront what was likely to be a phalanx of monks.

但政府仍试图把他带上法庭。数周来,警方一直威胁要逮捕他,并一度表示已准备好部署2000名警察,以应对可能会出现的僧侣人墙。

It is a common pattern in Thailand of threat and retreat, whether for the surrender of “red shirt” demonstrators in 2010 or for monks at another temple earlier this year to give up their tame tigers at a moneymaking petting zoo.

在泰国,威胁和妥协是一种常见的模式,不管是对2010年抗议示威的“红衫军”投降,还是今年早些时候,另一座寺庙的僧侣放弃了他们在一家利润丰厚的爱畜动物园里的驯化老虎。

Phra Dhammachayo has refused to turn himself in, asserting that he suffers from diabetes and Turner syndrome, a chromosomal disorder. He has not been seen in public for six months, and there is no confirmation that he is still inside the temple.

拍·达马查育拒绝自首,声称自己患有糖尿病和特纳综合征,后者是一种和染色体有关的失调。他已有六个月未公开露面,目前不清楚他本人是否仍在寺庙里。

Wherever he is, Phra Dhammachayo remains a magnetic figure who draws intense devotion from his followers.

不管身在何处,拍·达马查育仍是一个富有魅力的人物,深得信徒的热爱。

“I am what I am because of him,” said Watjana Suriyatham, 51, an assistant professor of English at Thammasat University.

“因为他,我才得以成为现在的我,”泰国国立法政大学(Thammasat University)51岁的助理英语教授瓦特亚纳·苏里亚坦(Watjana Suriyatham)说。

Mirella Kampus, 34, a Swiss member of the staff, said she had been at the temple for six years and had found her calling there.

34岁的瑞士籍寺庙工作人员米雷拉·坎普斯(Mirella Kampus)说自己已经在法身寺里待了六年,并称她在那里找到了自己的使命。

“If I had not known him, my life would be difficult,” she said. “I would not have found a reason for my life.”

“如果没认识他,我的生活会困难重重,”她说。“我不会找到活下去的理由。”

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