China Machado: A Breakthrough Model Until the End
China Machado, the first non-Caucasian to appear on the cover of a glossy fashion magazine and a model who broke not only the race barrier but also the age barrier, died Sunday in Brookhaven, New York, on Long Island. She was 86.
Her family said the cause was cardiac arrest.
Many reports have come out about her highly colorful life: She was born Noelie de Souza Machado on Christmas Day 1929, in Shanghai; fled the country with her parents in 1946 after the Japanese occupation; had an affair with Luis Dominguín, the Spanish bullfighter, who left her for Ava Gardner; and socialized with François Truffaut.
很多媒体报道了她的多彩人生：她于1929年的圣诞日出生在上海，本名诺艾莉·德索萨·马沙多(Noelie de Souza Machado)；在中国被日本人占领后随父母于1946年逃离；跟西班牙斗牛士路易斯·多明圭因(Luis Dominguín)有过一段情事，后者为了艾娃·加德纳(Ava Gardner)离开了她；和弗朗索瓦·奥朗德(François Hollande)有过交往。
But at a time when the fashion industry is still struggling with diversity, it is worth pausing to consider what “colorful” really meant when it came to Machado, what her career represented and how far we still have to go.
Her legacy extends far beyond the pictures she created, and the poses she struck, to make us rethink our assumptions about what is considered beautiful, and why. And it is as relevant today as when she first stepped on a runway, in the 1950s.
“China Machado was one of the first great pioneers in the firmament of haute couture,” André Leon Talley, the fashion and style director of i.am+, the tech firm founded by Will.i.am, and the former Vogue editor at large, wrote in an email. He added that she “made of her ethnicity something powerful. Internationally, she paved the way for diversity and other races, as well as paving the way for the rise of the black model in print and on the runway.”
“希纳·马沙多是高级定制时装的伟大先驱者之一，”目前在威廉(Will.I.Am)创办的科技企业i.am+担任时尚和造型总监的《时尚》(Vogue)杂志前自由编辑安德烈·莱昂·塔利(André Leon Talley)在一封电子邮件中写道。他还表示，她“把自身的种族性变成了某种强大的东西。在国际上，她为多样性以及其他种族铺平了道路，也为黑人模特在出版物和伸展台上的崛起铺平了道路。”
Stefano Tonchi, the editor of W, said: “She was the first to put in front of the audience the idea of the otherness, bringing out memories of different cultures and fragments of other imagery. She always did it with irony, without posing, modeling or vogueing. Somehow she showed it all while dancing.”
《W》杂志主编斯蒂法诺·汤奇( Stefano Tonchi)说：“她是第一个把‘他者性’的概念摆在读者面前的人，唤起了关于不同文化的记忆，让人看到他者意象的碎片。她总是以讽刺的方式这样做，而不是通过摆姿势、当模特儿或者模仿模特儿的姿势跳舞。不知怎的，她在举手投足之间就将其全部展现了出来。”
And though she did not do it consciously in the beginning, by the time she was aware of her historic place in the fashion world, her daughter Emmanuelle LaSalle-Hill said, she “was proud to wear that mantle. She thought so much of fashion looked the same, and she wanted to celebrate the idea that everyone could be who they were.” Machado certainly was.
It began in 1959, when Machado became the first nonwhite model featured in the pages of Harper’s Bazaar. She had started modeling in Paris, most notably for Hubert de Givenchy and Balenciaga (so successfully that she was the highest-paid runway model in Europe), and Oleg Cassini brought her to New York for his runway show in 1958.
事情是从1959年开始的。当时，马沙多成为了第一个出现在《时尚芭莎》(Harper's Bazaar)上的非白人模特。她此前在巴黎做过模特，最引人注目的经历是服务于休伯特·德·纪梵希(Hubert de Givenchy)和Balenciaga（她做得非常成功，是欧洲酬劳最高的伸展台模特儿）。奥莱格·卡西尼(Oleg Cassini)在1958年把她带到纽约，为自己的新系列走秀。
She caught the eye of Diana Vreeland, who sent her to Richard Avedon, then Harper’s Bazaar’s star photographer and a crucial player in forming the magazine’s identity. He christened her his “muse” and began photographing her exclusively — in looks that, Talley pointed out, had previously been worn only “by white models.”
她得到戴安娜·弗里兰(Diana Vreeland)的青睐，被送到理查德·埃夫登(Richard Avedon)面前。后者当时是《时尚芭莎》的明星摄影师，在该杂志形成自身特色的过程中起到了至关重要的作用。他把她称为自己的“谬斯”，开始专门拍她——塔利指出，她拍照时脸上挂着“以前只属于白人模特儿”的表情。
Avedon wanted his photos of Machado in Bazaar’s February issue. But according to an interview Machado did with CNN in 2011, Robert F. MacLeod, the magazine’s publisher at the time, said: “Listen, we can’t publish these pictures. The girl is not white.”
埃夫登想要把为马沙多拍的照片发表在《时尚芭莎》的2月号上。但马沙多于2011年接受CNN采访时表示，杂志的时任出版人罗伯特·F·麦克里奥德(Robert F. MacLeod)说：“听着，我们不能刊发这些照片，这个女孩不是白人。”
“I knew I was considered kind of ‘exotic,’ if you want to use that word, in Europe, but it wasn’t any kind of a slur,” Machado told New York magazine this year.
Avedon’s contract with Bazaar was up for renewal at the time, however, and, according to Machado, he threatened not to re-sign unless his photos of Machado appeared in the magazine, and such was his power that the editors finally agreed. He “sort of blackmailed them into putting these pictures into the magazine,” she said.
It wasn’t the only boundary she and Avedon pushed for the magazine. She was also its first nude, in 1961. And it wasn’t the only racism she encountered.
After she appeared on Cassini’s runway in 1958, she said in New York magazine, he spoke to a group of “Southern buyers” because they were ignoring all the dresses Machado had worn in the show. He asked why, and they said, Machado reported, “Oh, she’s black.” (Actually, she was mixed race, with Portuguese, Chinese and Indian roots.)
And even later, when she was at the height of her fame, she told CNN: “Every advert that came out, it would say stupidly: ‘The Great China’ on it. I felt like ... a circus!”
With the notable exceptions of a Bazaar cover in 1971, when she became the first nonwhite woman on the cover of the magazine, and the Battle of Versailles in 1973, when she walked in the American contingent, Machado had, by 1962, segued from her role in front of the camera to one behind it. She became fashion director of Harper’s Bazaar, thus clearing yet another professional pathway (one later followed by such models turned editors as Grace Coddington and Tonne Goodman), and helped introduce Lear’s magazine, aimed at the over-50 set. Then, at age 81, she signed with IMG Models, becoming an effective octogenarian supermodel.
到了1962年，马沙多已经完成了从镜头前到幕后的转变，但也有引人注目的例外——她曾于1971年出现在《时尚芭莎》封面上，成为登上该杂志封面的第一个非白人女性；也曾于1973年代表美国参与“凡尔赛宫之战”(Battle of Versailles)时装秀。她当上了《时尚芭莎》的时尚总监，由此开拓出另一条专业道路（模特出身的编辑格蕾丝·柯丁顿[Grace Coddington]、托恩·古德曼[Tonne Goodman]等人都是循着她的脚步），还帮助推出了面向50岁以上人群的《Lear’s》杂志。后来，她在81岁那年和IMG模特公司(IMG Models)签约，成为了一名真正的八旬超模。
She starred in ad campaigns for Barneys and Cole Haan, and was once again in the pages of Harper’s Bazaar. Only last month, she was modeling for a new Ray-Ban shoot by the photographer Steven Klein. All without ever having plastic surgery.
她在巴尼斯(Barneys)和科尔哈恩(Cole Haan)的广告宣传活动中当上了主角，并重新登上了《时尚芭莎》杂志。就在上个月，她还在摄影师史蒂芬·克雷恩(Steven Klein)为雷朋(Ray-Ban)新拍的大片中做了模特。她从来没有整过容。
“You can’t worry about aging because that’s the worst thing,” she once said. “If you start, then you just keep finding more things you don’t like, and then you’re finished. There are a lot of things I could have done to my face, but it would never stop.”
According to Ivan Bart, the president of IMG Models, “China was instrumental in teaching younger models, ‘Own yourself, own your beauty.'” Her life showed them how.
Machado was always an exception. But if fashion learns anything from her example, someday, perhaps, she will be the rule.