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当恐怖主义成为欧洲的新常态

更新时间:2016-12-21 19:01:52 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

In Turkey, a Capstone to a Violent Year. In Germany, a Realization of Fears.
当恐怖主义成为欧洲的新常态

ISTANBUL — A trim and well-dressed man, dapper in a black suit, flashes a badge to enter the most genteel of events — an exhibition of nature photographs — pulls out a pistol and guns down an ambassador, right in the middle of the diplomatic quarter of the Turkish capital, Ankara.

伊斯坦布尔——就在土耳其首都安卡拉的外交区中心,一名身材修长、穿着黑西装衣冠楚楚的男子,亮了一下徽章,进入了最为高雅的社交场合——一场摄影展——然后掏出手枪,枪杀了一名大使。

Around the same time, in the shadow of a great church in Berlin that still bears the scars of bombs from World War II, a man plows a truck through a Christmas market, killing a dozen people.

在几乎同一时间,在柏林一座依然留有二战轰炸痕迹的大教堂附近,一名男子驾驶卡车碾过一个圣诞市集,致12人死亡。

The two terrorist attacks — one in Europe, the other on the periphery of Europe — came within hours of each other Monday night, bookends to a terrible year that saw the wars of the Middle East metastasize across Europe and beyond, spawning terrorism, upending the lives of ordinary citizens and energizing right-wing political movements.

这两起恐怖袭击——一起在欧洲,一起在欧洲边缘——都发生在周一晚上,前后间隔不过几个小时。它们发生在一个恐怖年份的年末,在这一年中,中东的战争蔓延至整个欧洲内外,它滋生恐怖主义,彻底改变了普通民众的生活,给右翼政治运动注入了能量。

The attacks could not have been more different in style, but each showed, in simultaneous fashion, the modern era of terrorism brought on by the expanding blowback of the wars in the Middle East, which have defied international efforts to end them.

这些袭击手段各不相同,但他们都以同步的方式,展示了由不断增强的中东战争的反弹力带来的现代恐怖主义,国际社会的努力未能将其终止。

For Turkey, the murder of the envoy, from Russia, was a capstone to one of the most turbulent years in its modern history: The threat of terrorist attacks became a fact of everyday life. A botched coup was followed by a purge of civil society. A war against Kurdish separatists spiraled into ever-greater levels of brutality.

对土耳其来说,俄罗斯大使遭到谋杀是该国现代史上最动荡年份之一的顶点:恐怖袭击的威胁成为了日常生活的一种现实。随着一场未遂政变而来的,是对公民社会的清洗行动。针对库尔德分离主义分子的战争逐渐演化为更大程度的暴行。

For Germany, which until Monday had been spared the terrorist violence that had struck other European countries like France and Belgium, the attack was the realization of concern that it would be next. The future could be ominous: As the threat of terrorism becomes a reality, fears are growing that Germany, which had welcomed refugees from the Middle East, could see its politics upended by the rise of its own right-wing, populist movement.

对德国而言,它曾担心自己会是下一个,而这场袭击则将这种担忧变成了现实——直到周一前,德国还不曾有过法国和比利时等欧洲国家遭受的那种恐怖主义暴力行为。未来可能并不让人乐观:随着恐怖主义的威胁变成现实,恐惧情绪在德国日渐增长,这个之前一直对来自中东的难民持欢迎态度的国家,可能会看到本国政治因自身右翼民粹主义运动的崛起而遭到颠覆。

The killing of Russia’s ambassador to Turkey was a choreographed display of precision and purpose, captured on video. The elegance of the setting — the white walls, the colorful, museum-quality photographs — lent the whole episode the feel of performance art, with the killer prancing around, waving a gun and declaring his act revenge for Russia’s bombing of the Syrian city of Aleppo.

杀害俄罗斯驻土耳其大使是一出精心策划的表演,而且被监控镜头拍摄下来。其场景的优雅——雪白的墙壁、五颜六色的博物馆品质的摄影作品——赋予整个事件一种行为艺术的感觉,其中有行凶者昂首阔步挥舞着手枪,宣称自己的行动是对俄罗斯轰炸叙利亚城市阿勒颇的报复。

While the German attack remains to be sorted out, early reports attributing it to a Pakistani migrant underscored the new levels of anxiety. In any event, whoever carried out the attack sought to kill indiscriminately with a method — steering a vehicle through a crowded place — taken from the playbook of the Islamic State, the militant group that controls territory straddling the borders of Syria and Iraq.

尽管德国那场袭击的情况还没有调查清楚,但初期的报道称是由一名巴基斯坦移民所为,这凸显出焦虑已经到了新的高度。不管怎样,实施这次袭击的人有意不加区分地屠杀,而且采取了一种效仿伊斯兰国(Islamic State)的方式,即驾车开过拥挤的场所。伊斯兰国是控制着跨越叙利亚和伊拉克边境区域的激进组织。

At his apartment in Berlin, Can Dundar, a prominent Turkish newspaper editor, watched the news coverage Monday night of both events on separate televisions, as terror gripped his home country and his adopted one. Dundar moved to Germany to escape prison, having been convicted in a Turkish court on treason charges for publishing an article about Turkey’s support for Syrian rebels.

在恐怖主义分别侵袭他的祖国和移居国时,土耳其知名报纸编辑卡恩·丁达尔(Can Dundar)在自己位于柏林的公寓内,在不同的电视上观看了有关周一晚上两起事件的报道。丁达尔移居德国是为逃避牢狱之灾——因为发表了一篇有关土耳其支持叙利亚反政府武装的文章,他在土耳其的一个法庭上被判处叛国罪。

“It’s impossible to get rid of it,” he said. “These troubles are following me.” In Germany, he said, “everyone I talked to was waiting for such an attack.”

“要摆脱它是不可能的,”他说。“这些麻烦会一直跟着我。”他还表示,在德国,“我交谈过的人都预料到会发生这样的袭击。”

“You could feel the tension,” Dundar said. “Berlin was untouched so far. People were waiting for such a thing. But not the German police, perhaps. I didn’t see so much security around.”

“你能感觉到那种紧张气氛,”丁达尔说。“在此之前,柏林一直没有被袭击过。人们知道会发生这样的事。但德国警察可能不这么想。我在附近并没有看到太多安保人员。”

The gunman in Ankara, who shouted jihadist slogans, has been identified as an off-duty policeman. But little other solid information about his background has emerged. Turkish news outlets have suggested he was affiliated with Fethullah Gulen, a Muslim preacher who lives in exile in Pennsylvania and has been accused of orchestrating the coup last summer. But analysts dismissed that notion, saying it was more likely that the man was linked to jihadist groups operating in Syria, or was acting alone.

在安卡拉呼喊圣战口号的那名枪手,被确认是一名不当班的警察。但目前有关其背景的可靠信息非常少。土耳其新闻机构暗示他与穆斯林神职人员费特胡拉·居伦(Fethullah Gulen)有关联,后者被指控策划了去年夏天的那场政变,目前流亡于美国宾夕法尼亚州。但分析人士否定了这种说法,称更有可能的情况是,这名男子与在叙利亚开展行动的圣战组织有关联,或者是自己单独行动。

Turkey may be accustomed to frequent terrorist attacks — a recent bombing at a soccer stadium in central Istanbul killed dozens — but Germany is not. The effect of the threat of terrorism on an open society like Germany’s could be profound.

土耳其或许已经习惯频繁遭到恐怖袭击——最近在伊斯坦布尔中心的一个足球场发生的爆炸又导致几十人死亡——但德国并非如此。恐怖主义威胁对德国这样的开放社会产生的影响可能十分深远。

“As a Frenchman, my first thought was, this was Nice all over again,” said Marc Pierini, a former European Union ambassador to Turkey who is now a visiting scholar at Carnegie Europe. He was referring to an attack in France last summer in which a man drove a truck through a busy pedestrian thoroughfare, killing more than 80 people. “This has been the threat that everyone knows about. We are open societies. Western Europe is not Israel. You walk around Israel and everything is protected.”

“作为一名法国人,我的第一反应是,这是尼斯事件的重演,”之前担任欧盟驻土耳其大使、现为卡内基欧洲中心(Carnegie Europe)访问学者的马克·皮耶里尼(Marc Pierini)说。他指的是去年夏天在法国发生的一场恐怖袭击,当时一名男子开着卡车压过一条热闹的步行街,导致80多人死亡。“这是所有人都知晓的威胁。我们是开放的社会。西欧不是以色列。你在以色列到处走,一切都是受到保护的。”

Europeans, he said, are “slowly going through the motions that terrorism is our new normal.”

他还表示,欧洲在“缓慢地经历恐怖主义成为新常态的过程”。

“Our societies are not used to that,” Pierini added.

“我们的社会还不习惯那一点,”皮耶里尼接着讲道。

Turkey and Germany have been at odds over a number of issues, including a deal to stem the flow of migrants from Turkey to the European continent and Germany’s opposition to Turkey’s crackdown after the failed coup. But they are bound together in other ways: For decades there have been thousands of Turkish citizens working in Germany, and more recently intellectuals and others have sought asylum there to escape the growing authoritarianism in their home country.

土耳其和德国在许多议题上存在分歧,包括一项阻止移民从土耳其流往欧洲大陆的协议,以及德国对土耳其在那场未遂政变后打压行动的反对。但它们在其他方面被绑在了一起:几十年以来,有成千上万的土耳其公民在德国工作,最近则有更多知识分子和其他人士在德国寻求庇护,以逃避祖国日益增长的独裁主义。

Tulin Yazici, a Turkish-German academic, moved back to Frankfurt, where she was born, after the Turkish government began targeting academics for arrest after the failed coup.

土耳其政府在那场未遂政变后开始将学者作为逮捕目标,之后土耳其籍德国学者蒂林·亚泽哲(Tulin Yazici)便回到了自己的出生地法兰克福。

“Nowhere in the world felt more like home than Istanbul,” Yazici said. “I established my career there, fell in love, had children and bought a home. But after the coup attempt the country spiraled out of control, and the level of threat just kept creeping closer and closer to home.”

“世界上没有哪个地方比伊斯坦布尔更像我的故乡,”亚泽哲说。“我在那里确立了自己的职业,恋爱生子,还买了房子。但那次政变企图之后,这个国家开始失控,威胁越来越潜近家门。”

Even after Monday’s attack in Germany, she said, “it’s obvious to me that I made the right decision.”

即便是在德国周一遭遇袭击后,她依然表示,“在我看来,我的决策显然是对的。”

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