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哪些历史大事件塑造了今天的美国

更新时间:2016-12-20 18:29:43 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

What Events Most Shaped America in Your Lifetime? A Pew Survey Tries to Answer
哪些历史大事件塑造了今天的美国

As divided as the American public may seem, there are still some things on which most people agree.

尽管美国舆论看起来有分歧,但仍然有一些东西是大多数人都认同的。

No matter age, party or gender, Americans overwhelmingly believe that the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, played a dominant role in shaping the history of the country, according to a survey conducted by the Pew Research Center with A+E Networks’ HISTORY.

皮尤研究中心(Pew Research Center)和A+E电视网(A+E Networks)历史频道联合进行的一项问卷调查显示,不管是什么时代、党派或性别,绝大多数美国人都认为,2001年9月11日发生的恐怖袭击在塑造美国历史方面起到了主导作用。

When asked to name the events in their lifetimes that had the greatest impact on the nation, 76 percent of those surveyed listed the attacks, far surpassing any other event, according to Pew, which conducted the survey of about 2,000 people, in part, to better understand the events that drive public discourse.

皮尤研究中心表示,在被要求列出他们人生中经历的对美国影响最大的事件时,76%的受访者提到了那次袭击,这个比例远远高于其他任何事件。该中心对大约2000人进行了问卷调查,有一部分原因是为了解是哪些事件在推动公共讨论。

“We don’t think so much about history, but we know that’s one of the things that impacts the way people feel about any modern debate we’re having,” said Claudia Deane, vice president of research at Pew and lead author of a report on the study.

“我们不太关注历史,但是我们知道,在我们现在进行的所有辩论中,历史是影响我们的感受的因素之一,”皮尤研究中心副主任、这份研究报告的首席作者克劳迪娅·迪恩(Claudia Deane)说。

Sept. 11 came to mind most often, by a long-shot. President Obama’s election followed distantly, with 40 percent including it in their list. The tech revolution was next, followed closely by the assassination of President John F. Kennedy and then the Vietnam War.

无论如何,9·11是被提到最多的。奥巴马当选总统紧随其后,有40%的受访者将之列入自己的名单。排在第三位的是技术革命,与之接近的第四位是约翰·F·肯尼迪(John F. Kennedy)总统遭暗杀,再之后是越南战争。

The survey found that Americans were primarily united by their age.

调查发现,美国人的看法主要因年龄而不同。

“Like people, generations have distinctive identities that are linked, in part, to singular events that occurred during their members’ formative years,” Ms. Deane wrote with co-authors and Pew colleagues, Rich Morin and Maeve Duggan.

“和人一样,每个世代有自己独特的身份认知,这种认知在一定程度上与发生在一代人性格形成时期的特殊事件有关,”迪恩与共同作者、皮尤中心的同事里奇·莫林(Rich Morin)和梅芙·达根(Maeve Duggan)写道。

While Sept. 11 dominated each generation’s list, the other entries varied by age.

几代人都将9·11列入其中,但其他事件被提到的几率随人们所处时代不同而有变化。

The so-called “silent” and “greatest” generations, identified as Americans 71 and older, were united by the import they placed on World War II. For baby boomers — adults 52 to 70 — it was the assassination of John F. Kennedy and the Vietnam War that unified them. Millennials and members of Generation X, the groups including those 18 to 51, were united in the importance they placed on Mr. Obama’s election.

被称为“沉默的”和“最伟大”世代,也就是71及以上年龄的美国人,在看重第二次世界大战方面立场一致。现今52至70岁的婴儿潮一代,普遍看重约翰·F·肯尼迪遭暗杀和越南战争。18至51岁的千禧一代和X世代则认为,奥巴马当选总统影响非常大。

Views on history differed by race, too.

看待历史的观念也因种族不同而有差异。

Black people were the only demographic group for which Sept. 11’s primacy was challenged. Approximately 3 in 5 blacks identified the attacks as having had an impact on the country, about the same share that cited Mr. Obama’s election. For whites and Hispanics, Sept. 11 was first, by far, followed by Mr. Obama’s election.

黑人是唯一一个没有将9·11列为最重要事件的群体。每5个黑人里,大约有3个认为那次袭击对美国产生了影响,但有大约同样比例的黑人也提到了奥巴马当选。而对白人和西班牙裔来说,9·11显然是第一位的,其次才是奥巴马当选。

For white people, the third most commonly cited event was the tech revolution. For blacks, it was the civil rights movement. For Hispanics, it was the Orlando shootings. (All but a handful of the 49 victims were Hispanic or of Hispanic descent.)

被白人普遍排在第三位的是技术革命。对黑人而言,排在第三位的是人权运动。对西班牙裔来说,则是奥兰多枪击事件。(该事件中的49名受害人大多为西语裔或有西语裔血统。)

The researchers found limited and often only subtle differences by party, gender or region. The same was true of education and income level, though as either rose, so too, did views on the prominence of the tech revolution.

在不同党派、性别和地区的人群中,研究人员只发现了有限而且往往十分微小的差别。教育和收入状况不同的人群同样如此,只不过二者不管哪个水平更高,都会更加看重技术革命的重要性。

While Pew did not ask respondents to qualify the impactful events as positive or negative, it did separately ask them to describe a time or event in their lives when they were proudest or most disappointed in America.

尽管皮尤中心没有要求受访者将事件的影响标注为正面或负面的,但它特意要求他们描述自己在美国经历过的最让他们感到骄傲或失望的时期或事件。

On those topics, Pew found far less agreement. Ms. Deane said that have happened because the questions failed to elicit the kinds of answers the researchers had hoped to get, or the responses were more scattered and personal in nature. (For example, a person may have been proudest of the nation when a relative obtained citizenship, an experience not shared by a large share of Americans.)

在这些问题上,皮尤中心看到的共识要少得多。迪恩表示,之所以出现这种情况,是因为他们提出的问题没能引导出研究人员希望得到的答案,或说答案实际上更加分散、更个人化。(比如,一个人可能在一位亲戚获得公民身份时感到最自豪,但大部分美国人不会有同样的经历。)

The response to Sept. 11 topped the list of positive moments, with 19 percent of respondents citing it as the moment they felt proudest of the country. Mr. Obama’s election or presidency followed with 14 percent.

对9·11事件做出的反应,位居正面时刻的首位,有19%的受访者将之列为他们最为这个国家感到自豪的时刻。奥巴马的当选或总统任期以14%的比例排在第二位。

His election or presidency also topped the list of most disappointing moments, with 11 percent citing it, followed closely by 10 percent who cited the Donald J. Trump’s campaign as the event which made them most disappointed in the nation.

他的当选及总统任期同时位居最令人失望时刻的首位,占11%。紧随其后的是唐纳德·J·特朗普(Donald J. Trump)的竞选活动,有10%的受访者表示这件事让他们对美国最感失望。

The survey was conducted between June 16 and July 4, with 2,025 participants. Responses were weighted to match the demographic makeup of the population.

这项调查是在6月16日至7月4日之间进行,共有2025名受访者。研究人员对答复做出了权衡,以便和人口组成相匹配。

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