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被刺杀的俄罗斯大使何许人也

更新时间:2016-12-20 18:25:36 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Who Was Andrey Karlov, the Russian Ambassador Killed in Turkey?
被刺杀的俄罗斯大使何许人也

Russia’s ambassador to Turkey, Andrey G. Karlov, was killed by a gunman on Monday in Ankara, the capital.

俄罗斯驻土耳其大使安德烈·G·卡尔洛夫(Andrey G. Karlov)周一在该国首都安卡拉被一名枪手杀害。

Turkish officials said the killer had been a police officer who, after shooting, shouted: “Don’t forget Aleppo! Don’t forget Syria!” Russia’s Foreign Ministry called the assassination a terrorist attack.

土耳其官员表示,这名杀手之前是一名警察。他在开枪之后大喊:“不要忘记阿勒颇!不要忘记叙利亚!”俄罗斯外交部称这场暗杀为恐怖袭击。

Here’s what we know about Mr. Karlov.

以下是我们所了解到的有关卡尔洛夫的信息。

What was his background?

他的背景?

• Mr. Karlov had been Russia’s ambassador to Turkey since July 2013, according to a biography on the website of the Russian Embassy.

俄罗斯大使馆网站上的一份个人简历显示,卡尔洛夫自2013年7月以来一直担任俄罗斯驻土耳其大使。

• Born in Moscow in 1954, he started his diplomatic career in his early 20s after graduating from the Moscow State Institute of International Relations and the country’s diplomatic academy.

他出生于1954年,20岁出头开启了自己的外交生涯,毕业于莫斯科国际关系学院(Moscow State Institute of International Relations)和该国的外交学院。

• Mr. Karlov previously served as the ambassador to North Korea. He was married and had a son. According to Russian news agencies, his wife fainted and was hospitalized after being informed of his death.

卡尔洛夫之前担任过俄罗斯驻朝鲜大使。他已婚,育有一子。据俄罗斯通讯社报道,他的妻子在得知死讯后晕倒,被送到了医院。

• Richard Moore, the British ambassador to Turkey, described Mr. Karlov in a tweet after the attack as soft-spoken, hospitable and professional.

袭击发生后,英国驻土耳其大使理查德·摩尔(Richard Moore)在Twitter上称卡尔洛夫说话温和、热情友好,而且十分专业。

His role in Turkey

他在土耳其的角色

Mr. Karlov was repeatedly called upon to ease tensions over Russia’s role in the Syrian civil war, which has left hundreds of thousands dead and spurred a refugee crisis that has shaken Europe. After months of fierce bombardment and failed diplomacy, the Syrian government began removing residents from the last rebel-held districts in the city of Aleppo last week.

卡尔洛夫曾多次被要求缓解因俄罗斯在叙利亚内战中扮演的角色而引发的紧张关系,这场战争已经导致数十万人死亡,并引发了一场动摇欧洲的难民危机。经过数月的猛烈轰炸和失败的外交斡旋,叙利亚政府上周开始将居民从阿勒颇最后几个被反政府武装控制的地区撤离。

• After a Russian bombing in northern Syria targeted Turkmen, who were part of the forces against President Bashar al-Assad, Mr. Karlov was summoned to Ankara and asked to convey a firm message to Moscow.

俄罗斯在叙利亚北部的轰炸将土库曼人——属于反对叙利亚总统巴沙尔·阿萨德(Bashar al-Assad)的力量——作为目标之后,卡尔洛夫被召唤到安卡拉,要求其向莫斯科传达一个强有力的信息。

“It was stressed that the Russian side’s actions were not a fight against terror, but they bombed civilian Turkmen villages, and this could lead to serious consequences,” the Turkish Foreign Ministry said at the time.

“需要强调,俄罗斯方面的行动不是打击恐怖主义,而是轰炸土库曼平民居住的村庄,这会带来严重的后果,”土耳其外交部当时表示。

• Last fall, before the Turkish government shot down the Russian jet near its border with Syria, it had repeatedly complained to Mr. Karlov about his country’s intrusions into Turkish airspace.

去年秋天,土耳其政府曾多次向卡尔洛夫抗议俄罗斯侵犯土耳其领空,之后便在靠近该国与叙利亚的边境区域击落了一架俄罗斯飞机。

Tensions escalated, culminating in the Kremlin’s cutting economic ties with Turkey.

紧张关系随之升级,顶点是克里姆林宫切断了与土耳其的经贸关系。

How unusual was the assassination?

这次暗杀有多么不寻常?

Historians said the assassination might have been the first of a Russian ambassador since Pyotr Voykov, a Soviet envoy to Poland, was shot to death in Warsaw in 1927.

历史学家表示,这场暗杀行动可能是自苏联驻波兰使节彼得·沃伊科夫(Pyotr Voykov)于1927年在华沙被枪杀以来,第一次有俄罗斯大使被害。

In the 19th century, Aleksandr Griboyedov, a poet and diplomat, died in Tehran after a mob stormed the Russian Embassy.

此外在19世纪,诗人和外交家亚历山大·格里博耶多夫(Aleksandr Griboyedov)在一群暴民涌入位于德黑兰的俄罗斯大使馆后遇害。

What’s the state of relations between Turkey and Russia?

土耳其和俄罗斯的关系目前处在什么状态?

Tensions between Russia and Turkey had been easing recently, and some analysts said that the assassination might bring the countries closer as they sought to take on terrorism.

俄罗斯和土耳其的紧张关系最近走向缓和。一些分析人员表示,这场暗杀可能会让两国走得更近,因为他们都在竭力对抗恐怖主义。

Televised comments by President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia after the attack seemed to support that view. He said declared that the shooting had been a provocation meant to disrupt the nations’ ties.

袭击发生后,俄罗斯总统弗拉迪米尔·V·普京在电视上发表的评论,似乎佐证了这种判断。他表示此次枪击事件是一种挑衅,意在挑拨两国关系。

Mr. Putin added that there was only one possible reaction: Intensifying the “crackdown on terror.”

普京还表示,只可能做出一种反应:加强“对恐怖主义的打击”。

The two countries suffered a crisis in their relations last fall. In a paper released in June, Asli Aydintasbas, an international affairs expert at the European Council on Foreign Relations, traced the fault lines to the conflict in Syria.

去年秋天,两国经历了一场外交危机。在今年6月发布的一篇论文中,欧洲对外关系委员会(European Council on Foreign Relations)的国际事务专家阿斯利·艾登塔什巴什(Asli Aydintasbas)追溯了导致叙利亚冲突的分歧所在。

“Tensions first began to rise as the one-time friends were sucked into the regional struggle for Syria — while Russia backed Assad, Turkey agitated for regime change,” she wrote. “As the alliance unraveled, Moscow broke the silent pact that neither side would support the other’s separatists, and made moves to befriend the Kurds.

“紧张关系最早始于这对曾经的朋友被卷入叙利亚的区域冲突——俄罗斯支持阿萨德,土耳其则鼓动政变,”她写道。“随着联盟关系解体,莫斯科打破了不支持对方分裂主义者的默契,采取了行动,出手帮助库尔德人。”

But by June, economic actions that Russia had taken against Turkey after the jet was shot down were beginning to pay off as an absence of Russian visitors took a toll on Turkey’s tourism industry.

但是到了7月,俄罗斯在自己的飞机被击落后对土耳其采取的经济制裁开始见效,俄罗斯游客的减少对土耳其的旅游业造成打击。

That month, President Recep Tayyip Erdogan apologized for the downing, writing a letter that said he “would like to inform the family of the deceased Russian pilot that I share their pain and to offer my condolences to them.”

当月,土耳其总统雷杰普·塔伊普·埃尔多安(Recep Tayyip Erdogan)为击落飞机事件道歉,还写信表示他“想告知遇难俄罗斯飞行员的家属,我对他们的痛苦感同身受,并向他们致以我的哀悼。”

Turkey also announced that it would prosecute a man accused of killing the pilot after his plane was shot downed.

土耳其还宣布,将对那名被指控在飞机被击落后将飞行员击毙的男子提起诉讼。

At the time, experts said that Mr. Erdogan’s change of heart on Russia had more to do with the necessities of domestic politics than any kind of broader vision about Turkey’s place in the world.

与此同时,有专家表示,相比于土耳其在世界上的位置这类宽泛的愿景,埃尔多安在俄罗斯问题上改变主意,更多与国内的政治需求有关。

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