您现在的位置: 纽约时报中英文网 >> 纽约时报中英文版 >> 观点 >> 正文

理解特朗普,从学习俄语开始

更新时间:2016-12-17 8:20:13 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

To Understand Trump, Learn Russian
理解特朗普,从学习俄语开始

The Russian language has two words for truth — a linguistic quirk that seems relevant to our current political climate, especially because of all the disturbing ties between the newly elected president and the Kremlin.

俄语中有两个表达“真相”的词——这个语言上的特点似乎与我们当下的政治气候是相关的,尤其是考虑到美国新当选总统和克里姆林宫之间那些令人不安的联系。

The word for truth in Russian that most Americans know is “pravda” — the truth that seems evident on the surface. It’s subjective and infinitely malleable, which is why the Soviet Communists called their party newspaper “Pravda.” Despots, autocrats and other cynical politicians are adept at manipulating pravda to their own ends.

大多数美国人所知道的俄语中表达真相的词是“pravda”——表面看来显而易见的真理。它是主观而极其易变的,这也是为什么苏联共产主义者将自己的党报命名为“Pravda”。专制君主、独裁者和其他见利忘义的政客十分擅长出于自身目的去歪曲pravda。

But the real truth, the underlying, cosmic, unshakable truth of things is called “istina” in Russian. You can fiddle with the pravda all you want, but you can’t change the istina.

但真正的真理,那个潜藏的、广阔无边、不可动摇的事实真相,在俄语中被称为“istina”。你可以随意歪曲pravda,但无法改变istina。

For the Trump team, the pravda of the 2016 election is that not all Trump voters are explicitly racist. But the istina of the 2016 campaign is that Trump’s base was heavily dependent on racists and xenophobes, Trump basked in and stoked their anger and hatred, and all those who voted for him cast a ballot for a man they knew to be a racist, sexist xenophobe. That was an act of racism.

对特朗普的团队而言,2016年大选的pravda是,并非所有特朗普选民都一定是种族主义者。但2016年竞选活动的istina是,特朗普的选民基础在很大程度上依赖于种族主义者和仇外者,他利用和激发了这些人的愤怒与仇恨情绪,所有给他投票的选民都是将选票投给了一个他们知道是种族主义者和存在性别歧视的仇外者的人。这是一种种族主义行径。

Trump’s team took to Twitter with lightning speed recently to sneer at the conclusion by all 17 intelligence agencies that the Kremlin hacked Democratic Party emails for the specific purpose of helping Trump and hurting Hillary Clinton. Trump said the intelligence agencies got it wrong about Iraq, and that someone else could have been responsible for the hack and that the Democrats were just finding another excuse for losing.

特朗普的团队最近以闪电般的速度在Twitter上嘲笑17家情报机构得出的结论,即克里姆林宫窃取了民主党的邮件,目的就是为了帮特朗普打击希拉里·克林顿(Hillary Clinton)。特朗普称,这些情报机构在伊拉克问题上就出了错,有可能是其他人窃取了邮件,而民主党人只是在为败选找借口。

The istina of this mess is that powerful evidence suggests that the Russians set out to interfere in American politics, and that Trump, with his rejection of Western European alliances and embrace of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, was their chosen candidate.

这种混乱局面之下的istina就是,有强有力的证据证明俄罗斯着手干预美国政治,特朗普是他们选中的候选人,因为他反对美国的西欧盟友,支持俄罗斯入侵乌克兰。

The pravda of Trump’s selection of Rex Tillerson, head of Exxon Mobil, as secretary of state is that by choosing an oil baron who has made billions for his company by collaborating with Russia, Trump will make American foreign policy beholden to American corporate interests.

有关特朗普选择让埃克森美孚公司(Exxon Mobil)的首席执行官雷克斯·W·蒂勒森(Rex Tillerson)担任国务卿,这其中的pravda是,由于选择了一位通过与俄罗斯合作为他的公司赚取了数十亿美元的石油大亨,特朗普将令美国的外交政策受制于美国企业的利益。

That’s bad enough, but the istina is far worse. For one thing, American foreign policy has been in thrall to American corporate interests since, well, since there were American corporations. Just look at the mess this country created in Latin America, the Caribbean, Southeast Asia and the Middle East to serve American companies.

这已经够糟糕的了,但istina更加不堪。其一,自美国企业诞生以来,美国政策就一直受到企业界利益的制约。只需看看这个国家在拉丁美洲、加勒比地区、南亚和中东为服务于美国企业的利益而制造的混乱局面,便可知晓。

Yes, Tillerson has ignored American interests repeatedly, including in Russia and Iraq, and has been trying to remove sanctions imposed after Russia’s seizure of Crimea because they interfered with one of his many business deals. But take him out of the equation in the Trump cabinet and nothing changes. Trump has made it plain, with every action he takes, that he is going to put every facet of policy, domestic and foreign, at the service of corporate America. The istina here is that Tillerson is just a symptom of a much bigger problem.

没错,蒂勒森曾多次无视美国的利益,包括在俄罗斯和伊拉克问题上,他还在俄罗斯占领克里米亚半岛之后,一直竭力取消对它实施的制裁,因为这些制裁影响了他的诸多交易中的一项。但把他从特朗普的内阁中排除,也改变不了什么。特朗普的一言一行已经清楚地表明,他会让所有的政策,不管是国内的还是国外的,都服务于美国企业界。这里的istina是,蒂勒森只是一种征兆,预示着一个比他大得多的问题。

The pravda is that Trump was right in saying that the intelligence agencies got it wrong about Saddam Hussein and weapons of mass destruction.

Pravda是,特朗普说得对,这些情报机构的确在萨达姆·侯赛因(Saddam Hussein)和大规模杀伤性武器的问题上搞错了。

But the istina is that Trump’s contempt for the intelligence services is profound and dangerous. He’s not getting daily intelligence briefings anymore, apparently because they are just too dull to hold his attention.

但istina是,特朗普极为蔑视情报机构,而这非常危险。他不再接收每日的情报简报,显然是因为那些东西太枯燥,无法吸引他的注意力。

And now we know that Condoleezza Rice was instrumental in bringing Tillerson to Trump’s attention. As national security adviser and then secretary of state for president George W. Bush, Rice was not just wrong about Iraq, she helped fabricate the story that Hussein had nuclear weapons.

现在我们知道,在让特朗普注意到蒂勒森方面,康多莉扎·赖斯(Condoleezza Rice)起到了很大的作用。作为国土安全顾问,以及后来担任乔治·W·布什(George W. Bush)总统的国务卿,赖斯不仅在伊拉克问题上出了错,还协助伪造了萨达姆·侯赛因持有核武器的故事。

Trump and Tillerson clearly think they are a match for the wily and infinitely dangerous Putin, but as they move foward with their plan to collaborate with Russia instead of opposing its imperialist tendencies, they might keep in mind another Russian saying, this one from Lenin.

特朗普和蒂勒森显然觉得,自己和诡计多端且极为危险的普京棋逢对手,但是在朝着与俄罗斯合作而非反对它的帝国主义倾向的方向迈进时,他们或许应该记住另一句俄罗斯格言,这一句出自列宁之口。

“There are no morals in politics; there is only expedience,” he wrote. “A scoundrel may be of use to us just because he is a scoundrel.”

“政治中没有道义可言,只有眼前的利益,”他写道。“一个无赖或许会为我们所用,恰恰因为他是个无赖。”

Putin has that philosophy hard-wired into his political soul. When it comes to using scoundrels to get what he wants, he is a professional, and Trump is only an amateur. That is the istina of the matter.

这种理念深深印在普京的政治灵魂之中。在利用无赖达到自己的目的方面,普京是专业人士,而特朗普不过是个业余选手。这就是这件事情的istina。

“全文请访问纽约时报中文网,本文发表于纽约时报中文网(http://cn.nytimes.com),版权归纽约时报公司所有。任何单位及个人未经许可,不得擅自转载或翻译。订阅纽约时报中文网新闻电邮:http://nytcn.me/subscription/”

相关文章列表