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为什么世界对叙利亚的悲剧视而不见?

更新时间:2016-12-17 8:12:58 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

How the World Closed Its Eyes to Syria’s Horror
为什么世界对叙利亚的悲剧视而不见?

They keep coming, both the bombs and the images from Aleppo, so many of them, the munitions raining indiscriminately on trapped families, aid workers and children. The Russian and Syrian government forces wouldn’t let them leave.

炸弹和来自阿勒颇的图像,这两样东西不断到来,实在是太多了,炮火恣意落在被困的家庭、援助工作者与孩子们头上。俄罗斯和叙利亚政府军不让他们离开。

But the photographs and videos have made it out. The faces of the besieged, staring into the camera, at us, and at death, pleading for help, baffled by our indifference to the slaughter, describing the atrocities outside their bedrooms or just on the other side of the door. We see their faces from an angle we ordinarily see a friend’s face, up close, staring straight into our eyes.

但照片和视频传出来了。那些受困的面孔凝视着镜头,凝视着我们,也凝视着死亡,他们在祈求帮助,对于我们在屠杀面前的冷漠,他们感到困惑,他们描述着自己卧室之外或一门之隔所发生的暴行。我们从平日注视朋友面孔的角度看着他们的脸,这是近距离的凝视,他们的眼睛直视我们的眼睛。

They are bearing witness, in real time, refusing to disappear without a trace. And in this era of connectedness, they are refusing to let us off the hook. These images, spread via social media, unmediated, confirm that the people making them are still alive — in that moment, anyway.

他们实时做了见证,拒绝不留痕迹地消失。在这个连通的时代,他们拒绝让我们从中解脱。这些图像通过社交媒体传播,没有中间步骤,确认制作它们的人仍然活着――至少是在那一刻还活着。

We have never before received such a deluge of images from any front, never gotten such an intimate, minute-by-minute, look at what the United Nations high commissioner for human rights said on Wednesday most likely constituted war crimes.

我们从来没有从任何前线收到过这么多的图像,从来没有以如此亲近的角度,一分钟一分钟地观看过这样的场景——联合国人权高级专员在周三说,这些情景极有可能构成战争罪。

“Please, save us, thank you,” says Bana al-Abed, a 7-year-old Syrian girl, in one video posted to Twitter. Bana has been tweeting for a few months with her mother from eastern Aleppo, where Syrian government and Russian forces bombed her family out of their home. This week she said she knew she was going to die. It is hard for me to imagine anyone watching the video without feeling intense horror and shame.

“请救救我们,谢谢你们,”七岁的叙利亚女孩芭娜·阿拉拜德(Bana al-Abed)在一则发布到Twitter的视频中说。几个月来,芭娜和她的母亲从阿勒颇东部发送推文,叙利亚政府和俄罗斯军队轰炸了她们在那里的家,令她们全家流离失所。这个星期,她说她知道自己要死了。我很难想象任何人在观看这个视频时不会感到强烈的恐怖和羞愧。

Bana’s feed has prompted Western news outlets to fiddle over whether her tweets and videos are propaganda, whether Bana or her location can be authenticated.

芭娜提供的消息促使西方新闻媒体调查她的推文和视频是否属于宣传,她和她的位置究竟是不是真的。

And Aleppo continues to burn.

而阿勒颇依然在燃烧。

“When a free-trade agreement with the U.S.A. drives hundreds of thousands of people to the streets, but such horrible bombings as in Aleppo do not trigger any protest, then something is not right,” said Germany’s chancellor, Angela Merkel.

“与美国的自由贸易协定可以驱使几十万人上街游行,但像发生在阿勒颇这样可怕的轰炸却没有引发任何抗议,那么,肯定是哪里出了问题,”德国总理安格拉·默克尔(Angela Merkel)说。

No, not right. Pictures of war and suffering have pricked the public conscience and provoked action before. There was Kevin Carter’s photograph from 1993 of a starving toddler and a vulture in Sudan. There was the photograph of the dead American soldier dragged through Mogadishu, which hastened the United States’ retreat from Somalia. There was Nick Ut’s 1972 photograph from South Vietnam of the naked 9-year-old Phan Thi Kim Phuc, screaming, burned by napalm. These pictures drove news cycles for weeks, months, years, helping tip the scales of policy.

不,不对。关于战争和痛苦的图像曾经刺激公众的良心,激发起他们的行动。比如凯文·卡特(Kevin Carter)1993年在苏丹拍下的饥饿幼儿与秃鹫。美国士兵尸体被拖过摩加迪沙的照片曾加速了美国从索马里撤退。黄功吾(Nick Ut)1972年在南越为9岁的潘金福(Phan Thi Kim Phuc)拍下照片,照片上的她全身赤裸,尖叫着,被凝固汽油弹燃伤。这些图片在几个周、几个月,乃至几年的时间里推动着新闻的循环更替,为政策的天平加上了砝码。

To be sure, the policy response was usually withdrawal. What might be done in a situation like Aleppo is not so linear. But that isn’t the whole story.

可以肯定的是,政策对此的反应通常是撤军。在像阿勒颇这样的情况下,政策反应可能不是直线发展的。但这不是故事的全部。

Does it matter that victims in Syria are Muslims? America’s president-elect won the election while playing to anti-Muslim bigotry. He sold himself to the American public as a transactional leader, promising deals, not necessarily decency. He said he admired Russia’s strongman president, Vladimir V. Putin, and campaigned on an isolationist retreat from global involvement.

身在叙利亚的受害者是穆斯林,这有什么关系吗?美国候任总统靠着反穆斯林的偏见赢得了选举。他向美国公众推销自己,说自己是一个会做交易的领导人,他承诺的是交易,而不是正派的行为。他说自己钦佩俄罗斯的铁腕总统弗拉基米尔·V·普京(Vladimir V. Putin),并倡导孤立主义,从全球事务中抽身。

We each turn to the news we like. During the Vietnam War, Americans watched the same network broadcasts and thumbed through the same magazine photographs. There was a draft. The war was in everyone’s home. Today a tiny percentage of Americans fight our battles. We watch desperate young strangers from faraway Aleppo from the comfort of a Facebook feed. The images and voices start to blur together. A tweet by President-elect Donald J. Trump or some scandal over fake news distracts us.

我们所有人都关注自己喜欢的新闻。在越南战争期间,美国人观看同样的电视节目,翻阅相同的杂志照片。当时有兵役。战争影响每个人的家庭。今天,我们的战争由一小部分美国人来打。我们通过大量Facebook信息流看着遥远的阿勒颇那些绝望的陌生年轻人。图像和声音开始模糊在一起。候任总统唐纳德·J·特朗普(Donald J. Trump)的推文,或一些关于假新闻的丑闻分散了我们的注意力。

Briefly, we have mourned on a significant scale two photographs, the ones of Alan Kurdi, the dead 2-year-old washed up on the beach in Turkey, and of Omran Daqneesh, 5, pulled from the ashes of Aleppo, sitting in the ambulance, wiping blood from his face. We also paused over drone footage from a neighborhood in Aleppo pulverized by the Syrian government and Russia. Then those images dropped down the collective memory hole, too.

在短暂的时间里,我们为两张照片深深哀悼,一张是死在土耳其海滩上的两岁孩子阿兰·库尔迪(Alan Kurdi)的照片,还有一张是五岁孩子奥姆兰·达克尼什(Omran Daqnees)的照片,他从从阿勒颇的废墟中被救出来,坐在救护车上,从自己的脸上擦去血迹。我们还看着无人机在阿勒颇遭叙利亚政府和俄罗斯摧毁的地区拍下的视频沉默无语。然后,那些图像也掉进了人们集体记忆里的黑洞。

That’s because all images are Rorschach tests. Many thousands of people have been killed in Aleppo, millions displaced across Syria. Syrian, Iranian and Russian forces have laid waste to half the country, instigating a refugee crisis that threatens to unmake Europe and America.

这是因为所有的图像都是罗夏(Rorschach)墨迹测试。在阿勒颇,成千上万人死于非命,在叙利亚,数以百万计的人们流离失所。叙利亚、伊朗与俄罗斯部队将半个国家化为焦土,导致了威胁着毁掉欧洲与美国的难民危机。

But Washington shrugs. There have been no sanctions as there were over Russia’s annexation of Crimea. There turned out to be no red lines, even after chemical weapons killed and maimed hundreds, no marches on the Mall or big campus rallies. Russia and Syria bomb civilians with impunity.

但华盛顿只是耸了耸肩,没有做出制裁,就像针对俄罗斯吞并克里米亚所采取的制裁行动那样。最后证明,即便化学武器令数以百计的人们丧生和致残,也根本没有什么不能越过的红线可言,没有向国家广场行进的大游行,校园里也没有大型集会。而俄罗斯与叙利亚还在有恃无恐地轰炸平民。

And all we do is watch, helplessly, as Syrians refuse to go quietly, determined to get us to know them, their lives, all that has been lost.

叙利亚人拒绝让一切无声地逝去,他们决心让我们认识他们、认识他们的生活,以及他们失去的一切,而我们所做的只是无奈地旁观。

Some of the public’s indifference can of course be chalked up to compassion fatigue and disillusionment with a war in its sixth year. Promises to end the conflict were broken over and over. There were assurances about popular uprisings. Social media today supercharges protest movements, which burn out almost as fast. Such movements used to require a slow, brick-by-brick construction. They didn’t rely on Facebook videos and Instagram photos.

公众的冷漠当然可以部分归结为同情心的疲惫,以及对为时六年的战争所产生的幻灭感。结束这场冲突的诺言一再被打破。有人承诺人民会起义。如今的社交媒体可以极快地催生抗议活动,但它们消失的速度也几乎同样快。这类运动需要一砖一瓦地缓慢建立。它们不依赖于Facebook视频和Instagram照片。

Truth be told, no sane person wants to see these images anyway. What’s happening in Aleppo is almost unbearable to look at.

说实话,没有任何有理智的人希望看到这些图像。在阿勒颇所发生的事情几乎让人根本不忍心看。

But that’s the point. Bana looks us straight in the eye and asks us to save her, please.

但这就是关键。芭娜在直视着我们的眼睛,请求我们救她,求求你们。

We have done nothing to help.

而我们没有伸出援手。

The very least we should do is look back.

那我们至少应当报以回望。

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