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完美武器:俄罗斯网络袭击如何入侵美国政治

更新时间:2016-12-15 10:51:58 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The Perfect Weapon: How Russian Cyberpower Invaded the U.S.
完美武器:俄罗斯网络袭击如何入侵美国政治

WASHINGTON — When Special Agent Adrian Hawkins of the FBI called the Democratic National Committee in September 2015 to pass along some troubling news about its computer network, he was transferred, naturally, to the help desk.

华盛顿——2015年9月,联邦调查局(FBI)特工阿德里安·霍金斯(Adrian Hawkins)打电话给民主党全国委员会(Democratic National Committee,简称DNC),通报关于对方计算机网络的一些令人不安的消息,电话自然就被转到了服务部门。

His message was brief, if alarming. At least one computer system belonging to the DNC had been compromised by hackers federal investigators had named “the Dukes,” a cyberespionage team linked to the Russian government.

他的话很简短,但令人担忧:至少有一个属于DNC的计算机系统已遭黑客入侵,联邦调查人员称这个黑客组织为“the Dukes”,这是一个与俄罗斯政府有关系的网络间谍团队。

The FBI knew it well: The bureau had spent the last few years trying to kick the Dukes out of the unclassified email systems of the White House, the State Department and even the Joint Chiefs of Staff, one of the government’s best-protected networks.

FBI知道得很清楚:该局最近几年都在试图将这个黑客组织踢出白宫、国务院,甚至参谋长联席会议的邮件系统,后者是保护措施最严密的网络之一。

Yared Tamene, the tech-support contractor at the DNC who fielded the call, was no expert in cyberattacks. His first moves were to check Google for “the Dukes” and conduct a cursory search of the DNC computer system logs to look for hints of such a cyberintrusion. By his own account, he did not look too hard even after Hawkins called back repeatedly over the next several weeks — in part because he wasn’t certain the caller was a real FBI agent and not an impostor.

答复电话的DNC技术支持承包商亚利德·塔敏(Yared Tamene)并非网络攻防专家。他的第一个行动就是到谷歌上搜索“the Dukes”,然后粗略查看了DNC的电脑系统日志,寻找这种网络入侵的痕迹。据他自己说,即使在接下来的几周里,霍金斯打过几次电话之后,他始终没有特别仔细地查找——部分原因是,他不确定来电者是真的FBI特工,还是江湖骗子。

“I had no way of differentiating the call I just received from a prank call,” Tamene wrote in an internal memo, obtained by The New York Times, that detailed his contact with the FBI.

《纽约时报》获得的一份内部备忘录中,塔敏详细介绍了他与FBI之间的通话情况,他在这份记录中说:“我没法辨别这是不是在搞恶作剧。”

It was the cryptic first sign of a cyberespionage and information-warfare campaign devised to disrupt the 2016 presidential election, the first such attempt by a foreign power in American history. What started as an information-gathering operation, intelligence officials believe, ultimately morphed into an effort to harm one candidate, Hillary Clinton, and tip the election to her opponent, Donald Trump.

这是一场网络间谍—信息战行动的第一个神秘迹象,该行动旨在干扰2016年的总统大选,在美国的历史上,这还是第一次有外国势力有这样的举动。情报官员认为,这个行动一开始是为了收集信息,后来它的目标变成了削弱候选人希拉里·克林顿(Hillary Clinton),让选举偏向她的竞争对手唐纳德·特朗普。

Like another famous American election scandal, it started with a break-in at the DNC. The first time, 44 years ago at the committee’s old offices in the Watergate complex, the burglars planted listening devices and jimmied a filing cabinet. This time, the burglary was conducted from afar, directed by the Kremlin, with spear-phishing emails and zeros and ones.

美国另一次著名的选举丑闻最开始也是从侵入DNC入手的。那次是44年前,闯入者在DNC当时位于水门(Watergate)大楼的旧办公室里安装了窃听装置,并撬开了一个文件柜。而这一次,闯入者在克里姆林宫的指挥下,远程采取了行动,工具是钓鱼邮件和黑客技术。

An examination by The Times of the Russian operation — based on interviews with dozens of players targeted in the attack, intelligence officials who investigated it and Obama administration officials who deliberated over the best response — reveals a series of missed signals, slow responses and a continuing underestimation of the seriousness of the cyberattack.

通过对俄罗斯行动的调查,时报发现了一系列错过的信号、迟钝的反应,以及对网络袭击严重性的持续低估。这项调查是基于数十个采访,其中包括袭击目标、负责调查该事件的情报官员,以及在思考如何做出最佳回应的奥巴马政府官员。

The DNC’s fumbling encounter with the FBI meant the best chance to halt the Russian intrusion was lost. The failure to grasp the scope of the attacks undercut efforts to minimize their impact. And the White House’s reluctance to respond forcefully meant the Russians have not paid a heavy price for their actions, a decision that could prove critical in deterring future cyberattacks.

从DNC疏于应对FBI的情况可以判断,阻止俄罗斯入侵的最佳时机已经失去。因为不知道袭击的范围有多大,因此将影响最小化的努力大打折扣。白宫不愿做出有力的回应,则意味着俄罗斯并没有为自己的行为付出沉重的代价,在防止未来再次遭到网络袭击方面,这个决心可能至关重要。

The low-key approach of the FBI meant that Russian hackers could roam freely through the committee’s network for nearly seven months before top DNC officials were alerted to the attack and hired cyberexperts to protect their systems. In the meantime, the hackers moved on to targets outside the DNC, including Clinton’s campaign chairman, John D. Podesta, whose private email account was hacked months later.

FBI的低调处理意味着,俄罗斯黑客可能在DNC的网络里无拘无束地逛了近七个月,之后,DNC的高级官员才被警告有黑客袭击,才雇用网络专家保护他们的系统。与此同时,黑客继续攻击DNC之外的目标,包括克林顿的竞选团队主席约翰·D·波德斯塔(John D. Podesta),他的私人邮件账户数月后也遭到黑客袭击。

Even Podesta, a savvy Washington insider who had written a 2014 report on cyberprivacy for President Barack Obama, did not truly understand the gravity of the hacking.

甚至连波德斯塔也没有真正理解这次袭击的严重性。这位通晓这方面事务的华盛顿局内人在2014年曾为贝拉克·奥巴马总统(Barack Obama)撰写过一个关于网络隐私的报告。

By last summer, Democrats watched in helpless fury as their private emails and confidential documents appeared online day after day — procured by Russian intelligence agents, posted on WikiLeaks and other websites, then eagerly reported on by the American media, including The Times. Trump gleefully cited many of the purloined emails on the campaign trail.

到去年夏天,民主党在无助的愤怒中看着自己的私人邮件和机密文件日复一日地出现在网络上——被俄罗斯情报人员窃取,发布在维基解密(WikiLeaks)等网站上,得到包括时报在内的美国媒体的广泛报道。特朗普在竞选期间愉快地引用了其中很多窃取来的邮件。

The fallout included the resignation of Rep. Debbie Wasserman Schultz of Florida, the chairwoman of the DNC, and most of her top party aides. Leading Democrats were sidelined at the height of the campaign, silenced by revelations of embarrassing emails or consumed by the scramble to deal with the hacking. Though little-noticed by the public, confidential documents taken by the Russian hackers from the DNC’s sister organization, the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee, turned up in congressional races in a dozen states, tainting some of them with accusations of scandal.

这造成的后果包括佛罗里达州众议员、DNC主席黛比·沃瑟曼·舒尔茨(Debbie Wasserman Schultz)以及她的大部分党内高级助手辞职。在竞选的高潮阶段,民主党的多个领导人物被迫出局,或因曝光的难堪邮件而保持沉默,或在应对这次袭击的混乱中垮台。虽然公众很少注意到,但是俄罗斯黑客从DNC的姐妹组织民主党国会竞选委员会(Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee)窃取的机密文件在十几个州的国会竞选中出现,有些州的竞选受到了丑闻指控的影响。

In recent days, a skeptical president-elect, the nation’s intelligence agencies and the two major parties have become embroiled in an extraordinary public dispute over what evidence exists that President Vladimir Putin of Russia moved beyond mere espionage to deliberately try to subvert American democracy and pick the winner of the presidential election.

近些天,心怀质疑的候任总统、美国的情报机构以及两大政党卷入了一场不同寻常的公众辩论,问题在于哪些证据可以证明俄罗斯总统弗拉基米尔·普京(Vladimir Putin)不只是组织了间谍活动,还蓄意颠覆美国的民主,挑选总统大选的获胜者。

Many of Clinton’s closest aides believe that the Russian assault had a profound effect on the election, while conceding that other factors — from Clinton’s weaknesses as a candidate, to her private email server, to the public statements of FBI Director James A. Comey about her handling of classified information — were also important.

克林顿的很多亲信认为,俄罗斯的网络袭击对美国大选产生了深刻影响,同时他们也承认其他因素也很重要,包括克林顿作为候选人的弱点,她的私人邮件服务器,以及FBI局长詹姆斯·B·科米(James B. Comey)关于她的机密信息处理方式的公开声明。

While there’s no way to be certain of the ultimate effect of the hack, this much is clear: A low-cost, high-impact weapon that Russia had test-fired in elections from Ukraine to Europe was trained on the United States, with devastating effectiveness. For Russia, with an enfeebled economy and a nuclear arsenal it cannot use short of all-out war, cyberpower proved the perfect weapon: cheap, hard to see coming, hard to trace.

虽然无法确定这次黑客袭击的最终影响,但以下这些是明确的:俄罗斯在乌克兰和欧洲的选举中试用过的低成本、高威力武器,也被用在了美国身上,产生了极强的破坏力。俄罗斯经济衰退,手中掌握着的核武器在没有全面战争的情况下也不能使用,因此它发现网络袭击是个完美的武器:廉价且难以被发现和追踪。

“There shouldn’t be any doubt in anybody’s mind,” Adm. Michael S. Rogers, the director of the National Security Agency and commander of U.S Cyber Command, said at a postelection conference. “This was not something that was done casually, this was not something that was done by chance, this was not a target that was selected purely arbitrarily,” he said. “This was a conscious effort by a nation-state to attempt to achieve a specific effect.”

“任何人都不应该有任何怀疑,”国家安全局局长、美国网络司令部(Cyber Command)指挥官迈克尔·S·罗杰斯海军上将(Adm. Michael S. Rogers)在大选后的一次会议上说。“这不是随意做出的行为,不是偶然的,目标的选择也不是随意的,”他说,“这是一个国家为达到特定效果而进行的一次有意识的行动。”

For the people whose emails were stolen, this new form of political sabotage has left a trail of shock and professional damage. Neera Tanden, president of the Center for American Progress and a key Clinton supporter, recalls walking into the busy Clinton transition offices, humiliated to see her face on television screens as pundits discussed a leaked email in which she had called Clinton’s instincts “suboptimal.”

这种新型政治破坏震惊了那些邮件被盗的人,严重破坏了他们的职业前途。美国进步中心(Center for American Progress)主席、克林顿的重要支持者尼拉·坦登(Neera Tanden)回忆说,有一次,她走进克林顿繁忙的过渡办公室,羞愧地看见自己的脸出现在电视屏幕上,专家们在讨论她的一封被泄露的邮件,她在其中称,克林顿的直觉“并非最佳”。

“It was just a sucker punch to the gut every day,” Tanden said. “It was the worst professional experience of my life.”

“那感觉就像是每天被人从背后捅一刀,”坦登说,“那是我一生中最糟糕的职业经历。”

The United States, too, has carried out cyberattacks, and in decades past the CIA tried to subvert foreign elections. But the Russian attack is increasingly understood across the political spectrum as an ominous historic landmark — with one notable exception: Trump has rejected the findings of the intelligence agencies he will soon oversee as “ridiculous,” insisting that the hacker may be American, but that “they have no idea.”

美国也会发起网络攻击,在过去几十年里, CIA也曾试图颠覆外国的选举。但是,俄罗斯的攻击被政治光谱上的所有人越来越视为一个不祥的历史里程碑——只有一个明显的例外:特朗普将这个很快将归自己管辖的情报机构的发现斥为“荒谬”,坚持认为黑客可能是美国人,而“他们完全没概念”。

Trump cited the reported disagreements between the agencies about whether Putin intended to help elect him. On Tuesday, a Russian government spokesman echoed Trump’s scorn.

特朗普的依据是,据报道,情报机构对普京是否试图帮助他赢得大选存在分歧。周二,俄罗斯的一名政府发言人响应了特朗普的嘲笑。

“This tale of ‘hacks’ resembles a banal brawl between American security officials over spheres of influence,” Maria Zakharova, the spokeswoman for the Russian Foreign Ministry, wrote on Facebook.

“这个‘黑客袭击’的故事很像美国安全官员们对于各自势力范围的无聊争吵,”俄罗斯外交部发言人玛利亚·扎哈罗娃(Maria Zakharova)在Facebook上写道。

Julian Assange, the WikiLeaks founder and editor, has resisted the conclusion that his site became a pass-through for Russian hackers working for Putin’s government or that he was deliberately trying to undermine Clinton’s candidacy. But the evidence on both counts appears compelling.

维基解密的创始人兼主编朱利安·阿桑奇(Julian Assange)否认自己的网站沦为为普京政府工作的俄罗斯黑客中转站,也否认蓄意破坏克林顿的竞选。不过,这两项指控的证据似乎都很有力。

Over the weekend, four prominent senators, two Republicans and two Democrats, joined forces to pledge an investigation while pointedly ignoring Trump’s skeptical claims.

在过去的这个周末,四名资深参议员——两名共和党人和两名民主党人——承诺进行调查,直截了当地无视了特朗普的质疑。

“Democrats and Republicans must work together, and across the jurisdictional lines of the Congress, to examine these recent incidents thoroughly and devise comprehensive solutions to deter and defend against further cyberattacks,” said Sens. John McCain, Lindsey Graham, Chuck Schumer and Jack Reed.

“民主党人和共和党人必须携手合作,在国会的所有管辖领域,彻底调查这些最新事件,制订全面解决方案,以遏制和打击更多的网络袭击,”参议员约翰·麦凯恩(John McCain)、林赛·格雷厄姆(Lindsey Graham)、查克·舒默(Chuck Schumer)和杰克·瑞德(Jack Reed)称。

“This cannot become a partisan issue,” they said. “The stakes are too high for our country.”

“这不能被理解为党派纠纷,”他们说,“对我们国家来说,这风险太大了。”

As the year draws to a close, it now seems possible that there will be multiple investigations of the Russian hacking — the intelligence review Obama has ordered completed by Jan. 20, the day he leaves office, and one or more congressional inquiries. They will wrestle with, among other things, Putin’s motive.

随着年末将至,现在看起来,可能会有多项关于俄罗斯黑客袭击的调查——奥巴马下令在1月20日他卸任前完成的情报复核,以及一项或多项国会质询。他们将努力弄清普京的动机等问题。

Did he seek to mar the brand of American democracy, to forestall anti-Russian activism for both Russians and their neighbors? Or to weaken the next American president, since presumably Putin had no reason to doubt U.S. forecasts that Clinton would win easily? Or was it, as the CIA concluded last month, a deliberate attempt to elect Trump?

他是企图玷污美国的民主形象,预防俄罗斯及邻邦的反俄罗斯行动主义?还是想削弱美国的下一任总统,因为照理说普京没理由质疑美国关于克林顿将轻松获胜的预测?还是像CIA上个月得出的结论,他是有意企图让特朗普胜选?

In fact, the Russian hack-and-dox scheme accomplished all three goals.

事实上,俄罗斯的黑客袭击和曝光计划实现了所有这三个目标。

What seems clear is that Russian hacking, given its success, is not going to stop. Two weeks ago, the German intelligence chief, Bruno Kahl, warned that Russia might target elections in Germany next year. “The perpetrators have an interest to delegitimize the democratic process as such,” Kahl said. Now, he added, “Europe is in the focus of these attempts of disturbance, and Germany to a particularly great extent.”

有一点似乎很明确:鉴于已经取得的成功,俄罗斯的黑客袭击不会停止。两周前,德国情报局局长布鲁诺·卡尔(Bruno Kahl)警告称,俄罗斯可能会把目标对准明年的德国大选。“像这样破坏民主进程的正当性,对作恶者是有利的,”卡尔说。他还说,现在“欧洲是这种破坏企图的焦点,尤其是德国”。

But Russia’s cybertsars have by no means forgotten the American target. On the day after the presidential election, the cybersecurity company Volexity reported five new waves of phishing emails, evidently from Cozy Bear — the nickname for one of the two Russian hacking groups the cybersecurity firm CrowdStrike found at work inside the DNC network — aimed at think tanks and nonprofits in the United States.

不过,俄罗斯的网络沙皇们绝对没有忘记美国这个目标。在总统大选结束后的那天,网络安全公司Volexity报告了五波新的网络钓鱼邮件,有证据显示都来自“安逸熊”(Cozy Bear)——它是网络安全公司CrowdStrike发现的攻击DNC网络的两个俄罗斯黑客组织之一——针对的是美国的智库和非盈利机构。

One of them purported to be from Harvard University, attaching a fake paper. Its title: “Why American Elections Are Flawed.”

其中一封钓鱼邮件声称来自哈佛大学(Harvard University),附带一个假证书。邮件标题是:“为什么美国大选是有缺陷的”。

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