您现在的位置: 纽约时报中英文网 >> 纽约时报中英文版 >> 观点 >> 正文

美国需要创造更多就业

更新时间:2016-12-11 10:02:31 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Using Donald Trump’s Tough Talk to Create Real Jobs
美国需要创造更多就业

Americans are ready for an economic nationalist to lead them. But that doesn’t mean what you might think.

美国人已经做好了让一个经济民族主义者来领导国家的准备。但这可能和你想的有所不同。

This country, we are taught, was founded on the principles of individualism and free enterprise. But its rise to economic pre-eminence was set in motion by nationalists like Alexander Hamilton, who delivered America’s first industrial policy, including plans for tariffs and spending on roads. Henry Clay’s American System, Abraham Lincoln’s land-grant research universities and Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s New Deal can all be counted as legacies of Hamilton’s vision.

我们知道,美国是在个人主义和自由企业的原则上建立起来的。但是美国在经济上的崛起是由亚历山大·汉密尔顿(Alexander Hamilton)等民族主义者的政策推动的。汉密尔顿提出了美国第一个工业政策,其中包括关税和修路计划。亨利·克莱(Henry Clay)的美国制度(American System)、亚伯拉罕·林肯(Abraham Lincoln)为研究型大学拨赠土地,以及富兰克林·德拉诺·罗斯福(Franklin Delano Roosevelt)的新政(New Deal),都可以看作汉密尔顿的愿景遗产。

Thanks to these leaders’ pragmatism, the United States became the world’s industrial powerhouse and, spurred by the rise of trade unions, built a prosperous middle class. That provided a foundation for economic and political stability in a rapidly changing world.

这些领导的务实主义态度,加之工会发展的推动,使得美国成为了世界工业大国,并造就了一个繁荣的中产阶层。在一个快速变化的世界里,这为经济和政治的稳定奠定了基础。

But since 2000, the United States has shed almost one-third of its manufacturing jobs, and millions of Americans have been permanently shuffled into work for the service industry. Some jobs vanished because of automation, but many were also lost because of a flood of Chinese imports.

不过,自2000年以降,美国的制造业岗位已经减少了近三分之一,数以百万计的美国人已经被永久性地转移到了服务业。一些工作以内自动化生产而消失,但也有很多人是因为中国进口产品的洪流而失业。

President-elect Donald J. Trump talks like an economic nationalist, but a wall of tariffs alone won’t create 21st-century manufacturing jobs. The Carrier deal last week captured outsize attention not because of its scale, but rather because of its inelegance: Mr. Trump shamed a company for sending jobs out of the country.

候任总统唐纳德·J·特朗普(Donald J. Trump)说话的方式很像是一个经济民族主义者,但在21世纪,单靠关税壁垒是不会带来制造业工作机会的。上周开利(Carrier)公司的事情引发了大量的关注,这并非因其规模,而是这种做法欠妥:因为一家公司想把工作岗位搬到国外去,特朗普就羞辱它。

And Mr. Trump can’t simply tweet back into existence every factory job that has disappeared. A pragmatic economic nationalism — one not hobbled by a philosophy, and one that can imagine an economy that will work even for its forgotten corners — offers solutions.

特朗普仅靠发推是不能让消失的制造业岗位回来的。务实的经济民族主义者不受一种哲学束缚,可以设计出一个连那些被遗忘的角落都能适用的经济制度,他们拿得出解决方案。

First, we need to negotiate a new manufacturing deal with China to end its trade war on the United States. We need to reduce Chinese imports.

首先,我们需要与中国谈判一项新的制造业协议,结束中国针对美国的贸易战争。我们需要减少来自中国的进口。

We are in a surprisingly strong position to make such a deal. China has a big incentive to get along with the United States: America is the destination for nearly one in five Chinese exports, making us a market China can’t afford to lose. American exports to China, meanwhile, account for less than 1 percent of our gross domestic product.

我们目前的处境对于达成这个协议非常有利。中国与美国搞好关系的动机强烈:美国是中国近五分之一出口产品的目的地,中国不能失去我们这个市场。而美国对中国的出口仅占美国国内生产总值的1%不到。

There are also precedents for using tariffs to back up negotiations. President Ronald Reagan imposed tariffs on Japanese semiconductors in 1987, and the Obama administration imposed tariffs on some Chinese steel earlier this year.

而且把关税作为谈判的筹码也并非没有先例。比如罗纳德·里根(Ronald Reagan)总统1987年对日本半导体征收关税;奥巴马政府今年早些时候对中国的部分钢铁征收了关税。

Next, we must ensure that domestic demand is increased through direct investments in infrastructure and research. Mr. Trump in his presidential campaign said we needed at least $500 billion in new infrastructure investment. America’s civil engineers would like seven times that.

接下来,我们就必须确保通过对基础设施和研究的直接投资来拉动国内需求。特朗普在总统竞选期间表示,我们需要至少5000亿美元来投资新的基础设施。美国的土木工程师希望这个数字能翻七倍。

Mr. Trump’s team has already proposed federal tax credits for infrastructure, but those alone aren’t sufficient. Attaching “buy American” preferences on material would greatly help the economy and would spare us national embarrassments, like the use of Chinese steel on the recently rebuilt San Franciso-Oakland Bay Bridge.

特朗普的团队已经提出要减免基础设施的联邦税,但仅仅这样是不够的。给建筑材料附加上优先“购买美国产品”的要求将大大有助于经济的发展,而且会让我们国家减少一些尴尬,例如,最近重建旧金山-奥克兰海湾大桥(San Franciso-Oakland Bay Bridge)的时候使用了中国钢铁。

And the new administration should expand the fledgling network of manufacturing research and development institutions established under President Obama. This network, pulling together government, academia and industry, operates like a virtual Bell Labs, producing small-scale innovations that can be widely shared.

新政府应该扩大奥巴马总统任内新设立的制造业创新网络。这个网络将政府、学术界和产业联系起来,像虚拟的贝尔实验室(Bell Labs)那样运作,推出可以广泛分享的小规模创新。

Third, tax breaks to manufacturers for capital expenditures could help keep factory jobs in the United States. Companies that want to build factories face high capital costs on Wall Street, largely because it’s easier to turn a quick buck on the latest financial product than to make a long-term investment in a factory. If a government is going to offer tax breaks, it makes sense to direct them to the manufacturing sector, which can support a larger number of well-paying jobs.

第三,对制造商的资本支出减税或许有助于将工厂岗位保留在美国。希望建立工厂的公司在华尔街面临着高额的资本成本,这主要是因为投资最新的金融产品很快就能看到回报,而投资工厂则相当慢。如果政府要减免税收,那就要将资金引导到制造业,让该行业可以提供更多报酬优厚的工作。

Lastly, the Obama administration has embraced some ideas from Germany on promoting apprenticeships and other vocational training in a wider variety of industries than just construction. We’re not Germany, with its high-wage, high-export and stable manufacturing sector, but its model for building a dynamic work force offers lessons for the incoming administration.

最后,奥巴马政府借鉴了德国的一些做法,比如在更多的行业中推行学徒制和其他职业培训机制,而不仅仅是在建筑行业这么做。我们不是德国,德国工资高,出口量大,制造业稳定,但他们建立充满活力的工人队伍的模式给我们的下一任政府提供了可借鉴之处。

Struggling American workers aren’t the only class of people under stress today: Global companies are taking note of Mr. Trump’s stream of threats. And while there is a certain satisfaction from knowing that executives may now feel an unease that many workers have endured for years with the constant threat of losing their livelihoods, this isn’t about score-settling.

美国工人处境不佳,但承受压力的不只是他们:跨国公司正在留意特朗普的一系列口头威胁。企业高管们现在可能感到坐立不安,这虽然让一些人窃喜,因为多年来工人们一直饱受着失业的威胁,但这件事的重点并不是报仇。

This is about a resurgent manufacturing sector that is in the interest of both workers and businesses. Its success will ultimately strengthen America’s middle class, where the bulk of our national wealth once resided. It can again.

重点是制造业的复兴要符合工人和企业的利益。它的成功最终将令美国的中产阶级受益,我们的很大一部分财富曾经掌握在中产阶级手中。这种情况可以重现。

“全文请访问纽约时报中文网,本文发表于纽约时报中文网(http://cn.nytimes.com),版权归纽约时报公司所有。任何单位及个人未经许可,不得擅自转载或翻译。订阅纽约时报中文网新闻电邮:http://nytcn.me/subscription/”

相关文章列表