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外国游客涌入,古巴人食品匮乏加剧

更新时间:2016-12-10 10:39:25 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Cuba’s Surge in Tourism Keeps Food Off Residents’ Plates
外国游客涌入,古巴人食品匮乏加剧

HAVANA — For Lisset Felipe, privation is a standard facet of Cuban life, a struggle shared by nearly all, whether they’re enduring blackouts or hunting for toilet paper.

哈瓦那——对莉塞·费利佩(Lisset Felipe)来说,物质匮乏是古巴生活的普遍现象,一种几乎每个人都要面对的挣扎,无论是忍受停电还是四处寻购厕纸。

But this year has been different, in an even more fundamental way, she said. She has not bought a single onion this year, nor a green pepper, both staples of the Cuban diet. Garlic, she said, is a rarity, while avocado, a treat she enjoyed once in a while, is all but absent from her table.

但是她说,今年不太一样,而且是一种更加根本性的不同。今年她没买过一个洋葱,没买过青椒,这两样东西是古巴人的日常食物。大蒜很稀罕,她说,而牛油果这个以前偶尔打打牙祭的东西,现在已经完全不会出现在餐桌上。

“It’s a disaster,” said Felipe, 42, who sells air-conditioners for the government. “We never lived luxuriously, but the comfort we once had doesn’t exist anymore.”

“太惨了,”现年42岁、为政府销售空调的费利佩说。“我们的生活从来都谈不上奢侈,但是原来的那点安慰现在也没了。”

The changes in Cuba in recent years have often hinted at a new era of possibilities: a slowly opening economy, warming relations with the United States after decades of isolation, a flood of tourists meant to lift the fortunes of Cubans long marooned on the outskirts of modern prosperity.

近年在古巴出现的变化,时常暗示着一个充满可能性的新时代正在到来:缓慢开放的经济,经过几十年的隔绝后与美国关系回暖,大量游客涌入,理应有助于让一直无缘现代繁荣的古巴人致富。

But the record arrival of nearly 3.5 million visitors to Cuba last year has caused a surging demand for food, causing ripple effects that are upsetting the very promise of Fidel Castro’s Cuba.

但是去年创下纪录的近350万游客促使食品需求陡增,进而产生的涟漪效应正在动摇菲德尔·卡斯特罗(Fidel Castro)当年对古巴做出的最重要的承诺。

Tourists are quite literally eating Cuba’s lunch. Thanks in part to the U.S. embargo, but also to poor planning by the island’s government, goods that Cubans have long relied on are going to well-heeled tourists and the hundreds of private restaurants that cater to them, leading to soaring prices and empty shelves.

不夸张地说,游客正在从古巴人嘴里抢吃的。这在一定程度上要归咎于美国的禁运,但同时也跟这个岛国糟糕的政府规划有关,如今古巴人的生活必需品流向了出手阔绰的游客,以及成百上千家面向游客经营的私营餐馆,导致价格上扬,食品被抢购一空。

Without supplies to match the increased appetite, some foods have become so expensive that even basic staples are becoming unaffordable for regular Cubans.

由于供应跟不上胃口的增加,一些食物已经极为昂贵,从基本的主食变成普通古巴人难以企及的东西。

“The private tourism industry is in direct competition for good supplies with the general population,” said Richard Feinberg, a professor at the University of California, San Diego, and specialist on the Cuban economy. “There are a lot of unanticipated consequences and distortions.”

“在食物供应方面,私营旅游业和普罗大众之间是存在直接竞争的,”加州大学圣迭戈分校(University of California, San Diego)教授、古巴经济专家理查德·费恩伯格(Richard Feinberg)说。“会有许多未曾预料到的后果和变异。”

There has long been a divide between Cubans and tourists, with beach resorts and Havana hotels effectively reserved for outsiders willing to shell out money for a more comfortable version of Cuba. But with the country pinning its hopes on tourism, welcoming a surge of new travelers to feed the anemic economy, a more basic inequality has emerged amid the nation’s experiment with capitalism.

古巴人和游客之间的对立由来已久,海滩度假村和哈瓦那的酒店实际上是仅供外来客享用的,这些人愿意花很多钱领略一个更舒适的古巴。但是,随着国家寄希望于旅游业,热情接待急剧增多的新游客,来推动乏力的经济,一种更加根本的不平等正在古巴的资本主义实验中浮现。

Rising prices for staples like onions and peppers, or for modest luxuries like pineapples and limes, have left many unable to afford them. Beer and soda can be hard to find, often snapped up in bulk by restaurants.

洋葱和辣椒等主要食物以及菠萝和酸橙等略为奢侈的食物的价格上涨,已经导致很多人买不起。啤酒和苏打水很难找到,经常被餐厅大量囤积。

It is a startling evolution in Cuba, where a shared future has been a pillar of the revolution’s promise. While the influx of new money from tourists and other visitors has been a boon for the island’s growing private sector, most Cubans still work within the state-run economy and struggle to make ends meet.

这在古巴是令人震惊的变化,因为在这里,共同的未来曾是革命承诺的支柱。虽然游客等来访者的热钱对该岛不断发展的私营经济来说是福音,但大部分古巴人依然在国营经济中工作,努力维持生活。

President Raúl Castro has acknowledged the surge in agricultural prices and moved to cap them. In a speech in April, he said the government would look into the causes of the soaring costs and crack down on middlemen for price gouging, with limits on what people could charge for certain fruits and vegetables.

总统劳尔·卡斯特罗(Raúl Castro)承认农业价格暴涨,并采取行动进行限制。在今年4月的一次讲话中,他表示,政府将调查价格飞涨的原因,打击中间商漫天要价,限制某些水果和蔬菜的定价。

“We cannot sit with our hands crossed before the unscrupulous manner of middlemen who only think of earning more,” he told party members, according to local news reports.

据当地新闻报道称,他对党员们说,“我们不能对唯利是图的中间商肆无忌惮的行为坐视不管。”

But the government price ceilings seem to have done little to provide good, affordable produce for Cubans. Instead, they have simply moved goods to the commercial market, where farmers and vendors can fetch higher prices, or to the black market.

不过,政府的限价行动并未能帮助古巴人买得起质量好的农产品。相反,他们只是把商品推向了商业市场——在那里,农民和小贩可以索要更高的价格——或者推向了黑市。

Havana offers stark examples of this growing chasm.

在哈瓦那,能明显看到这种逐渐扩大的差距。

At two state-run markets, where the government sets prices, the shelves this past week were monuments to starch — sweet potatoes, yucca, rice, beans and bananas, plus a few malformed watermelons with pallid flesh.

在过去一周里,两个政府定价的国营市场的货架上大多是淀粉类食物——红薯、丝兰、大米、豆类和香蕉,还有几个白瓤畸形西瓜。

As for tomatoes, green peppers, onions, cucumbers, garlic or lettuce — to say nothing of avocados, pineapples or cilantro — there were only promises.

至于番茄、青椒、洋葱、黄瓜、大蒜和生菜——更别提牛油果、菠萝和香菜——它们只存在于承诺之中。

“Try back Saturday for tomatoes,” one vendor offered. It was more of a question than a suggestion.

“周六你再来看看有没有蕃茄,”一名小贩说。那更像是一个问题,而非建议。

But at a nearby co-op market, where vendors have more freedom to set their prices, the fruits and vegetables missing from the state-run stalls were elegantly stacked in abundance. Rarities like grapes, celery, ginger and an array of spices competed for shoppers’ attentions.

但是,在附近的一个合作社市场,小贩们有更多的自由定价权,国营货摊上没有的水果和蔬菜大量精致地摆在这里。葡萄、芹菜和姜等稀罕物以及各种香料竞相吸引购物者的注意。

The market has become the playground of the private restaurants that have sprung up to serve visitors. They employ cadres of buyers to scour the city each day for fruits, vegetables and nonperishable goods, bearing budgets that overwhelm those of the average household.

这个市场已成为私营餐厅的乐园,这些面向游客的餐厅近来大量涌现。每天,它们雇用大量买手在这座城市里搜索水果、蔬菜和不易腐烂的食材,它们的预算是普通家户难以承受的。

“Almost all of our buyers are paladares,” said one vendor, Ruben Martínez, using the Cuban name for private restaurants, which include about 1,700 establishments across the country. “They are the ones who can afford to pay more for the quality.”

“来买东西的几乎都是私营餐厅的人,”小贩鲁本· 马丁内斯(Ruben Martínez)说。古巴共有约1700家餐厅。“他们买得起质量更好的东西。”

While many Cubans have long been hardened to the reality of going without, never more than during what they call the “Special Period” after the collapse of the Soviet Union, a new dynamic that has emerged in recent months threatens the nation’s future, experts warn.

专家警告称,虽然很多古巴人长期以来已经适应了物资匮乏的现实,尤其是在苏联解体后他们所说的“特殊时期”,但是最近几个月新出现的情况威胁着这个国家的未来。

“The government has consistently failed to invest properly in the agriculture sector,” said Juan Alejandro Triana, an economist at the University of Havana. “We don’t just have to feed 11 million people anymore. We have to feed more than 14 million.”

“政府从没在农业领域进行适当投资,”哈瓦那大学(University of Havana)的经济学家胡安·亚历杭德罗·特里亚纳(Juan Alejandro Triana)说。“我们不再只是需要喂饱1100万人。我们得喂饱1400多万人。”

“In the next five years, if we don’t do something about it, food will become a national security issue here,” he added.

“在未来五年里,如果不采取措施,食物将成为这里的一个国家安全问题,”他补充说。

The government gives Cubans ration books to help provide staples like rice, beans and sugar, but they do not cover items like fresh produce. Tractors and trucks are limited and routinely break down, often causing the produce to spoil en route. Inefficiency, red tape and corruption at the local level also stymie productivity, while a lack of fertilizer reduces yield (though it keeps produce organic, by default).

虽然政府给古巴人提供配给票证,帮助提供大米、豆类和糖等主要食物,但不包括新鲜农产品等东西。拖拉机和卡车数量有限,故障频发,经常导致农产品在运输过程中腐烂。地方政府效率低下,手续繁杂,再加上腐败,严重影响生产效率,而化肥匮乏也影响了产量(虽然没有化肥倒是能保证这些农产品都是有机的)。

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