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中国职业打假人,这条路还能走多远?

更新时间:2016-12-4 11:45:38 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Though Awash in Fakes, China Rethinks Counterfeit Hunters
中国职业打假人,这条路还能走多远?

BEIJING — Ji Wanchang strolled through a Beijing luxury mall one recent morning with an eye out for luxury coats. But at one store, a clerk told him a fur-collared Moncler and other coats were “sample sizes” and not for sale.

北京——最近的一个上午,纪万昌在北京一个豪华购物中心漫步,他在仔细挑选奢华大衣,但一家商店的售货员告诉他,那里的一件带毛皮领子的盟可睐(Moncler)羽绒服及其他大衣都是“尺码样品”,不出售。

A second clerk, selling a wolf fur-lined Yves Salomon, said the coat was reserved.

另一位出售伊夫萨露蒙(Yves Salomon)牌的狼毛皮衬里服装的售货员说,大衣已被人预定了。

Mr. Ji sighed. In both cases, the fur wouldn’t match their labels, he suspected — and the clerks knew selling a fake to Mr. Ji, who is well known on sight in many of China’s shops, meant big trouble.

纪万昌叹了口气。他怀疑这两件皮大衣都与它们的标签不匹配,而且店员也知道,把它们卖给纪万昌意味着会有大麻烦,他在许多中国商店里都能被人认出来。

“Ma’am, I don’t want to make things difficult for you,” he told a sales clerk, who nodded and bowed. “I’ve found problems with your clothes, so please correct them.”

“女士,我不想给你制造麻烦,”他对一名售货员说,售货员点着头,向他鞠了个躬。“我发现你们卖的衣服有问题,所以请你们自行改正。”

Mr. Ji is what is known in China as a professional counterfeit hunter. Part Ralph Nader, part bounty hunter, Mr. Ji rummages for fake or substandard goods in shops. Then, using China’s consumer protection laws, he collects tens of thousands of dollars from the companies that make or sell them. The laws are part of China’s growing effort to weed out the fake clothes, electronics, food and furniture that swamp its stores and frustrate companies and consumers alike.

纪万昌在中国从事所谓职业打假的工作,他有点像拉尔夫·纳德(Ralph Nader),也有点像赏金猎人。纪万昌在商店里搜寻假商品或不合格的商品。然后,他利用中国的消费者保护法,从制造或销售这些商品的公司那里索取数万美元的赔偿。消费者保护法是中国不断努力清除假冒商品的行动的一部分,中国的商店里到处都是假牌子的衣服、电子设备、食品和家具,让厂家和消费者很无奈。

But Mr. Ji’s livelihood is now under threat. Some government officials say Mr. Ji and the unknown number of others like him abuse a law that was meant merely to empower consumers to report fakes. If proposed new government rules get accepted, people like Mr. Ji will no longer be able to go pro.

但是现在,纪万昌的生计受到了威胁。一些政府官员表示,纪万昌和像他这样的数量不详的职业打假者在滥用消费者保护法,该法律原来只是为了赋予消费者举报假货的权利。如果政府新起草的规则得到通过的话,像纪万昌这样的人将不再能以打假为职业。

Even as China grows and matures, and moves to protect brands and ideas, it still struggles with how to get rid of fakes. Overseas governments, overseas companies and even its own increasingly choosy consumers complain that China’s counterfeit products hurt brand names and common people alike. Chinese leaders have stepped up efforts to cull them, in part to protect homegrown companies that are starting to produce their own innovative products. Last year, China’s courts handled about 120,000 intellectual property cases, up 9 percent from 2014, according to official media.

即使中国在发展成熟,也开始更加注重保护品牌和创意,但在如何摆脱假货的问题上,情况依然不容乐观。外国政府、海外公司,甚至日益挑剔的消费者自己也抱怨说,中国的假冒产品损害了品牌和普通人的利益。中国领导人已经加大了打假力度,目的之一是保护正在生产自主创新产品的中国公司。去年,据官方媒体报道,中国法院处理了大约12万件知识产权案件,比2014年增长了9%。

One anti-fake effort was intended to empower the consumer. In 2009, the government promised consumers that if they found a product that flouted food safety laws, they could win 10 times the value of that product in compensation. In 2013, China bolstered an earlier consumer protection law by increasing payouts to buyers of other kinds of fake goods, while a decision from China’s supreme court was widely seen as supporting counterfeit hunters.

一些打假活动旨在赋予消费者权力。2009年,政府向消费者承诺,如果发现违反食品安全法的产品,他们可以获得该产品10倍价值的赔偿。2013年,中国通过增加对其他类型假货的买家的赔偿力度,强化了之前发布的消费者保护法,而中国最高法院的一个裁定也被广泛视为对职业打假人的支持。

Mr. Ji and his peers have used these laws to their advantage, buying knockoffs in bulk — the more they turn in, the more they are paid — and filling their storerooms withcounterfeit products. Mr. Ji’s group, the Jinan Old Ji Anti-Counterfeit Rights Defense Work Studio, has a network of about 20 informers who report suspected fake products. He says his biggest success to date is collecting about $178,000 in compensation from a company that tried to pass off its blankets as pure cashmere.

纪万昌和同行们利用这些法律来获益,他们大量购买仿冒产品——买得越多,获得的赔偿也越多——他们的仓库里装满了假冒产品。纪万昌的团队济南老纪维权工作室有大约20个线人,向他们汇报疑似假冒产品。他说迄今为止,他最成功的一个案例是从一家公司那里获得了大约17.8万美元(约合人民币120万元)的赔偿,这家公司出售的毯子号称是纯羊绒的。

China’s e-commerce boom has given counterfeit hunters a new front.

中国的电子商务繁荣给打假者带来了新的阵地。

“The main purpose of suing them is to ask them to correct themselves,” said Yu Fengsheng, another counterfeit hunter, who chases merchants who sell fakes on online marketplaces run by the Alibaba Group, China’s largest e-commerce company. He became an e-commerce counterfeit hunter after he bought an item marketed by a merchant on Alibaba’s Tmall platform as a foot treatment and discovered that it was probably just makeup. In a statement, Alibaba said it was committed to fighting fakes on its platforms.

另一位职业打假人于凤星说,“起诉他们的的目的是要他们整改自己。”喻凤生在中国最大的电商阿里巴巴集团经营的网上集市里寻找销售假冒商品的卖家。最初他在阿里巴巴的天猫超市购买了一款商家所谓脚部护理产品,结果发现它根本是假的,此后他就成为了电商职业打假人。在一份声明中,阿里巴巴表示将致力于旗下平台的打假。

Among overseas companies, people like Mr. Ji have fans. “A lot of my clients would, in some circumstances, support the activities of these kinds of consumer warriors because ultimately they may be uncovering information that helps us do our job,” said Scott Palmer, an intellectual property lawyer at Sheppard, Mullin, Richter & Hampton, which represents American corporations in China.

像纪万昌这样的人在海外公司里也有粉丝。美国盛智律师事务所(Sheppard, Mullin, Richter& Hampton)的知识产权律师彭明(Scott Palmer)说:“在某些情况下,我的很多客户都会支持这些打假斗士的活动,因为他们最终可能会发现一些信息,有助于我们做好工作。”

But government officials complain that the program is increasingly expensive and increasingly abused. Even some foreign business groups complain. Counterfeit hunters often profit “from complaints that target minor product labeling errors instead of true quality or safety issues,” said James Zimmerman, chairman of the American Chamber of Commerce in China, in emailed comments.

但政府官员也抱怨说,这个法律程序的成本越来越昂贵,遭到滥用的时候也越来越多。甚至一些外国商业团体也有怨言。中国美国商会主席吉莫曼(James Zimmerman)通过电邮评论说,职业打假人通常会“从小产品的标识错误,而不是真正的质量或安全问题投诉”中获利。

Proposed government rules released in August and under official consideration said that payouts for fakes would not be available to those who sought them “for commercial purposes.”

政府8月发布了一个拟议的规则,目前处于正式考虑阶段。规定说,为了“商业目的”而购买这些假货的人不会获得赔偿。

Mr. Ji, defending his work, says he has to recoup his legal fees, which he incurs when the companies he accuses of selling fakes fight back. He says he makes about $148,000 a year but his take-home pay is only about $30,000 to $44,000 after expenses.

纪万昌辩解说,如果他指控售卖假冒产品的公司进行反击,就会产生法律费用,他需要收回这些成本。他说自己每年赚大约14.8万美元,但是支付了这些费用之后,只有大约3万到4.4万美元的入账。

“When they encounter a fake product, more than 80 percent of Chinese people will just suck it up and not take it very seriously, as long as their lives are not in danger,” Mr. Ji said. “If there are more professional counterfeit warriors, the quality of goods will improve at once.”

“80%中国人忍气吞声,面对假货只要不危及生命就不很认真对待,”纪万昌说。“如果有更多职业打假人,商品质量一下子就提高。”

Mr. Ji never set out to be a consumer rights activist. Born in the northern region of Inner Mongolia, he was so poor he could not afford to enroll in a university. His jobs have included running a carwash, selling clothes on the street and operating a late-night food stall.

纪万昌一开始并没有想过要成为消费者权益活动人士。他出生在内蒙古北部,家里很穷,读不起大学。他曾经开过洗车店,在街头卖过衣服,还经营过夜间食品摊。

In 2000, a friend of his bought a children’s educational compact disc that turned out to contain pornographic content. Furious, he and his friends “laid siege” to the store where they had bought it, demanding compensation, Mr. Ji said. “At that time, I did not understand what defending your rights is,” he said.

2000年,他的朋友买了一张儿童教育光盘,发现里面有色情内容。他和朋友们愤怒地“围攻”了出售这张光盘的商店,要求赔偿,纪万昌说道。“当时不懂维权,”他说。

Later, Mr. Ji bought a copy of China’s consumer law and a manual on how to tell fakes from genuine products. From that point, he had a new career.

后来,纪万昌买了一本中国消费者法律和一本关于如何辨别真假商品的手册。从那以后,他开始了新的职业生涯。

On a recent week in October, Mr. Ji traveled to four courthouses in five days across China, filing lawsuits against shopping malls, accusing them of fraud for selling substandard goods. Based in the eastern city of Jinan, he says he goes to court about 100 times a year.

在今年10月的一周,纪万昌在五天时间里前往位于不同地方的四家法院起诉了一些商店,指控他们欺诈,销售不合格商品。他住在中国东部城市济南,他说每年大约要去100次法院。

Mr. Ji’s work has earned him the enmity of counterfeiters and their thugs, who he says have beaten him up, bound his hands and feet, and telephoned him with death threats. In 2007, police in the southern province of Fujian detained him for 37 days, charging him with extortion, but released him.

纪万昌的活动引来了造假者及其打手的敌意,他说这些人殴打他,绑住他的手脚,还打电话威胁说要杀了他。2007年,南部省份福建的警方拘留了他37天,指控他敲诈勒索,但后来将其释放。

Still, Mr. Ji views the work as necessary. Every month, he says, he receives more than a hundred phone calls from people curious about how to get compensation from a fake product.

不过,纪万昌还是认为这项工作必须有人来做。他说自己每个月都会接到一百多个电话,来电者想知道买到假货后如何获得赔偿。

On a recent afternoon, a man from the eastern city of Tai’an called Mr. Ji, who was en route to check out a shopping mall in Beijing. How, the caller asked, could he emulate Mr. Ji?

近日一个下午,一个来自东部城市泰安的男子给纪万昌打电话,当时他正在北京的一个购物中心寻找假货。那名男子问,要怎样才能仿效纪万昌的做法?

Mr. Ji told the aspiring fraud-buster that he could not “just casually enter any shop and buy eight or 10 pieces and demand compensation.” His profession was built on navigating tricky relationships with local courthouses and police, Mr. Ji said, adding that recently some thugs from Tai’an wanted “my life, my arms and my legs.”

纪万昌对这个想当打假者的男子说,你不能“随随便便走进一家商店,买上十件八件假货,然后要求赔偿”。如何处理与当地法院和警方的棘手关系是他打假事业的基础,纪万昌说,最近一些来自泰安的暴徒“想要我的命、我的胳膊和腿”。

“Not everyone can be a counterfeit hunter. This industry isn’t a gift that falls down from heaven,” Mr. Ji told the caller. “You haven’t seen the hardships and suffering we’ve gone through. You’ve only seen our glorious side.”

“职业维权人,不是说人家要干都能干的。这个行业不是天上掉馅儿饼,”纪万昌对那名男子说。“我们辛酸的过程你们没看到,你们只看到我们辉煌的一面。”

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