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7步走,保护你的网络隐私安全

更新时间:2016-11-21 11:08:56 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Protecting Your Digital Life in 7 Easy Steps
7步走,保护你的网络隐私安全

There are more reasons than ever to understand how to protect your personal information.

现在比过去任何时候都更需要搞清楚如何保护你的个人信息。

Major hacks seem ever more frequent. Investigators believe that a set of top-secret National Security Agency hacking tools were offered to online bidders this summer.

大规模的黑客袭击似乎比以前更加频繁了。调查人员相信,一系列绝密国家安全机构黑客工具在今年夏天被提供给了网上的竞拍者。

And many of those worried about expanded government surveillance by the N.S.A. and other agencies have taken steps to secure their communications.

他们中有许多人对美国国家安全局(NSA)和其他政府机构不断扩大的监控感到担忧,开始采取措施,保障自身的通信安全。

In a recent Medium post, Quincy Larson, the founder of Free Code Camp, an open-source community for learning to code, detailed the reasons it might be useful for people to make their personal data more difficult for attackers to access.

学习编程的开源社区自由编程营(Free Code Camp)创始人昆西·拉森(Quincy Larson)最近在Medium网站发表了一篇文章,详细解释了为何人们将个人数据变得更难让袭击者获得是有益的。

“When I use the term ‘attacker’ I mean anyone trying to access your data whom you haven’t given express permission to,” he wrote. “Whether it’s a hacker, a corporation, or even a government.”

“这里的‘袭击者’,是指任何未经你的允许试图获取你的数据的人,”他写道。“不管它是黑客、企业,还是政府。”

In an interview, Mr. Larson walked us through some of the basic steps he recommended. We added a few of our own, based on additional interviews.

在接受采访时,拉森给我介绍了一些他推荐的基本步骤。我们基于其他采访又增添了几条自己的建议。

We encourage you to write back with feedback on this article. If the instructions are too vague, the apps aren’t working for you or you have additional questions, we want to hear about it.

我们鼓励你就这篇文章写下反馈发给我们。如果你觉得文字说明不够清楚,应用不起作用,或有其他疑问,我们也很乐于知道。

Now, let’s encrypt.

现在,让我们开始加密。

1. Download Signal, or Start Using WhatsApp to send text messages.

1.下载Signal,或使用WhatsApp发送短信。

Encryption is a fancy computer-person word for scrambling your data until no one can understand what it says without a key. But encrypting is more complex than just switching a couple of letters around.

加密是一个高大上的计算机术语,意思是对你的数据加以处理,直到没有密钥就没有人能理解它为止。但加密绝不仅仅是调换几个字母那么简单。

Mr. Larson said that by some estimates, with the default encryption scheme that Apple uses, “you’d have to have a supercomputer crunching day and night for years to be able to unlock a single computer.”

拉尔森说,据估计,使用苹果的默认加密方案,“你必须有一台超级计算机昼夜不停的运转很多年,才能解锁一台计算机。”

He said that the best way to destroy data was not to delete it, because it could potentially be resurrected from a hard drive, but to encode it in “a secure form of cryptography.”

他说,销毁数据的最佳方法是不删除数据,而是以“加密安全形式”进行编码,因为删除的数据可以从硬盘驱动器里恢复。

Signal is one of the most popular apps for those who want to protect their text messaging. It is free and extremely easy to use. And unlike Apple’s iMessage, which is also encrypted, the code it uses to operate is open-source.

如果你想保护自己的短信,Signal是人气最高的此类应用之一。它是免费的,非常容易使用。苹果的iMessage虽然也是能加密,但Signal使用的代码是开源的,这和iMessage不同。

“You can be sure by looking at the code that they’re not doing anything weird with your data,” Mr. Larson said.

“看一看代码,你就能确定他们没有对你的数据做过奇怪的事情,”拉尔森说。

“In general, the idea behind the app is to make privacy and communication as simple as possible,” said Moxie Marlinspike, the founder of Open Whisper Systems, the organization that developed Signal.

“总的来说,这个应用的想法是让隐私保护和交流尽可能地简单,”开发出Signal的公司开放耳语系统(Open Whisper Systems)的创始人莫克西·马林斯派克(Moxie Marlinspike)说。

That means that the app allows you to use emojis, send pictures and enter group texts.

这意味着该应用允许你使用颜文字、发送图片和群发文字。

One bit of friction: You do have to persuade your friends to join the service too, if you want to text them. The app makes that easy to do.

有一个不利因素:如果想给朋友们发讯息,就必须说服他们也加入该服务使用者的行列。但它让这个过程变得很容易。

WhatsApp, the popular chat tool, uses Signal’s software to encrypt its messaging. And in Facebook Messenger and Google’s texting app Allo, you can turn on an option that encrypts your messages.

很受欢迎的聊天工具WhatsApp使用Signal的软件为自己的通讯信息加密。在Facebook Messenger和谷歌(Google)的通讯应用程序Allo中,你可以启用为讯息加密的选项。

Mr. Marlinspike said that the presidential election had sparked a lot of interested in Signal, leading to a “substantial increase in users.”

马林斯派克说,总统选举激发了很多人对Signal的兴趣,导致“用户数量大幅增加”。

When asked to speculate why that was, Mr. Marlinspike simply said, “Donald Trump is about to be in control of the most powerful, invasive and least accountable surveillance apparatus in the world.”

被问及个中原因时,马林斯派克简单地说道,“唐纳德·特朗普(Donald Trump)即将控制世界上最具影响力和侵略性、且最不可能被问责的监控机构。”

2. Protect your computer’s hard drive with FileVault orBitLocker.

2. 用FileVault或者BitLocker保护你的电脑硬件。

Your phone may be the device that lives in your pocket, but Mr. Larson described the computer as the real gold mine for personal information.

你或许总是把手机带在身边,但马林斯派克认为电脑才是真正的个人信息金矿。

Even if your data were password protected, someone who gained access to your computer “would have access to all your files if they were unencrypted.”

即便你的数据受到密码保护,某个进入你电脑的人还是“可以看到你的所有文件,如果它们没有被加密的话”。

Luckily, both Apple and Windows offer means of automatic encryption that simply need to be turned on.

幸运的是,苹果和Windows都提供了自动加密工具,只需启用即可。

3. The way you handle your passwords is probably wrong and bad.

3. 你处理密码的方式可能是错误而糟糕的。

You know this by now. Changing your passwords frequently is one of the simplest things you can do to protect yourself from digital invasion.

现在你已经知道了这一点。为了保护自己免遭数码入侵,你能做的最简单的事情之一就是常常更换密码。

But making up new combinations all the time is a hassle.

不过,不停地创建新的密码是一件麻烦事。

Mr. Larson recommends password managers, which help store many passwords, with one master password. He said that he uses LastPass, but knows plenty of people who use 1Password and KeePass, and that he doesn’t have a strong reason to recommend one over another.

拉尔森推荐使用可以帮助保存很多密码,且只需记住一个主密码的密码管理器。他说自己用的是LastPass,但知道很多人都在用1Password和KeePass,而他没有什么强有力的理由来建议大家选择某一种而非另外两种。

Not every security expert trusts password managers. Some noted that LastPass itself got hacked last year.

并非每个安全专家都信任密码管理器。一些专家指出,LastPass本身去年就遭到了入侵。

So that means you may want to write them down in one secure location, perhaps a Post-it note at home. It seems more far-fetched that a hacker would bother to break into your home for a Post-it note than find a way into your computer.

因此你或许想要把密码写在一个秘密的地方,也许是家里的一张即时贴上。黑客更加没有可能为了设法进入你的电脑而费事闯进你家寻找一张即时贴。

If you take that route, we suggest setting a weekly or biweekly calendar reminder to change your passwords.

如果你采用这种方法,我们建议你在日历中设定每周一次或者每两周一次的更换密码任务提醒。

As far as making passwords up goes: Don’t be precious about it. Use a random word (an object near you while you’re hunched over your Post-it) and a combination of numbers. If you’re writing passwords down, you don’t have to worry about making them memorable.

至于密码的创建,建议你不要过分讲究。使用一个随机的词(例如当你凑近即时贴的时候,身旁的一个物件)再加上一组数字。如果你会把密码写下来,就不必担心如何才能让它们便于记忆了。

4. Protect your email and other accounts with two-factor authentication.

4. 用两步验证保护你的电子邮箱以及其他账号。

When you turn this step on, anyone trying to sign in to your email from new devices will have to go through a secondary layer of security: a code to access the inbox that is sent to your phone via text message. (Though sadly, not through Signal.)

当你启用这一功能时,任何试图在陌生设备上登陆你的邮箱的人,都必须通过两步验证:用以进入邮箱的验证码会通过短信发送到你的手机上。(遗憾的是,不是通过Signal。)

You can also set two-factor authentication for social media accounts and other sites. But email is the most important account, since many sites use email for password recovery, a fact that has been exploited by hackers. Once they have access to your email, they can get access to banking, social media, data backups and work accounts.

你还可以为社交媒体账号以及其他网站设置两步验证。但电子邮箱才是最重要的账号,因为很多网站都用电子邮箱进行密码恢复,黑客们已经在利用这一点了。他们一旦进入你的邮箱,就可以攻克你的银行、社交媒体、数据备份和工作账号。

5. Use a browser plug-in called HTTPS Everywhere.

5. 使用一个名叫HTTPS Everywhere的浏览器插件。

Mr. Marlinspike recommended this plug-in, developed by the Electronic Frontier Foundation, a digital security organization. It ensures that you are accessing the secure form of websites, meaning that your connection to the site will be encrypted, and that you will be protected from various forms of surveillance and hacking.

马林斯派克推荐的这个插件是由数字安全机构电子前哨基金会(Electronic Frontier Foundation)开发的。它能确保你以安全的方式访问网站。这意味着你对网站的访问会被加密,从而保护你免遭各种形式的监控和入侵。

And this is a good time to note that you should always be aware whether the Wi-Fi network you’re using is secure. Public networks — and even private networks without security keys — often are not.

借此机会还要指出,你应该时时警惕自己使用的Wi-Fi网络是否安全。公共网络——乃至没有安全密匙的私人网络——通常并不安全。

6. Remember that incognito mode isn’t always private.

6. 切记,隐身模式并非总能保护隐私。

You may be in such a hurry to use this feature, available on Chrome, Safari and Firefox, among other browsers, that you do not heed its clear warning.

你或许急匆匆地使用了这个在Chrome、Safari、火狐以及其他一些浏览器上都能见到的功能,却没有注意到它发出的明确警告。

On Chrome, the second paragraph of the “incognito” home screen is clear.

在Chrome上打开介绍“隐身”模式的页面,第二段写得清清楚楚。

“You aren’t invisible,” it says. “Going incognito doesn’t hide your browsing from your employer, your internet service provider, or the websites you visit.”

“您的活动并非无法被察觉,”那上面说。“使用隐身模式后,您的雇主、您的互联网服务提供商或者您访问的网站本身,还是可以查看您的网站访问活动记录。”

Mr. Larson recommended Tor in his article, a browser that allows for private web activity. But we’re not going to recommend that here, mostly because Tor is relatively slow and clunky at the moment.

拉尔森在他的文章中推荐了Tor,一款让人得以进行私密网络活动的浏览器。但我们在这里不会做这样的推荐,主要原因是Tor目前较为缓慢和笨重。

“I’ll be honest, I don’t use it very often,” Mr. Larson said.

“说老实话,我并没有非常频繁地使用它,”拉尔森说。

He said that he suspected other browsers would start adding ways to browse more securely.

他说他预计其他浏览器也会着手添加能让人更安全地浏览网页的功能。

“Apple is very security conscious,” he said. “I wouldn’t be surprised if they started to incorporate Tor-like features into Safari.”

“苹果的安全意识非常强,”他说。“如果他们开始把类似于Tor的功能融入Safari,我一点儿也不会感到惊讶。”

7. Do searches in DuckDuckGo.

7. 用DuckDuckGo进行搜索。

Mr. Larson said that if people were paranoid about Google, he would strongly encourage them to use DuckDuckGo, an alternative search engine.

拉尔森说,如果有人对谷歌极度不放心,他会强烈推荐他们使用另一款搜索引擎DuckDuckGo。

He said however, that he personally, was not paranoid.

不过他说,他本人对谷歌并无成见。

“Google is built on the hacker ethic and they have put principle above profits in some aspects,” he said.

“谷歌的创建以黑客伦理为基础,他们在某些方面是把原则置于利润之上的,”他说。

But he also acknowledged that he meets “people all the time who are extremely skeptical of any large software organization and I think that’s reasonable.” There are trade-offs. Google’s search results are more useful and accurate than competitors’ precisely because of the ways it collects and analyzes information about its customers’ searches.

但他也承认,他“常常”遇到“对所有大型软件组织都心怀疑虑的人,而且我觉得他们持这种态度也是合情合理的”。有利就有弊。与竞争对手相比,谷歌的搜索结果更有用,也更准确,但这恰恰是因为它会搜集并分析与用户的搜索活动有关的信息。

A Bonus: Cover your webcam with tape.

附赠锦囊一枚:用胶带盖住摄像头。

That way, if someone has found a way to compromise your computer, they cannot spy on you through its camera.

这样一来,即便有人得以入侵你的电脑,也无法通过电脑上的摄像头窥视你。

And yes, this happens.

没错,这种事情不是没发生过。

Happy encryption.

祝加密愉快。

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