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戏剧节和互联网大会,乌镇的“美丽舞台”

更新时间:2016-11-21 10:51:52 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Ancient Town in China Enjoys Profitable Rebirth as a ‘Beautiful Stage’
戏剧节和互联网大会,乌镇的“美丽舞台”

WUZHEN, China — On a drizzly afternoon, Liu Hongfei plopped into an empty baby stroller in Wuzhen, a picturesque town in eastern China.

中国乌镇——一个细雨蒙蒙的下午,在中国东部一个风景如画的小镇乌镇,刘鸿飞一屁股坐进一辆空的婴儿车。

He was wearing dark clothes and red sneakers, his face painted white, a kazoo perched in his mouth.

他穿着黑色衣服和红色运动鞋,脸涂成了白色,嘴里叼着一只卡祖笛。

“Hello?” he rasped, addressing the tourists streaming past. “Is anyone listening?”

“你好?”他对往来的游客粗声粗气地说。“有人要听吗?

People hurried along at the sight of the crazed, ghostlike figure. But as Mr. Liu, an actor, continued his monologue on death, war and women, a crowd of onlookers began to form.

看到他这样一个癫狂的、鬼一般的形象,人们匆忙走开。但是,作为一个演员,刘鸿飞继续表演关于死亡、战争和女性的独角戏,一些人开始驻足围观。

Moments of theatrical absurdity are rare on the streets of China. So Mr. Liu’s monologue was a refreshing moment of authenticity here in Wuzhen, an ancient town known for its charming canals and traditional architecture.

在中国,街头表演荒谬剧非常罕见。所以刘鸿飞在乌镇表演的独角戏确实令人耳目一新。乌镇是一个古镇,以其迷人的运河和传统建筑而闻名。

Mr. Liu is a member of the Black Cat Theater Group, which traveled from Beijing for the fourth annual Wuzhen Theater Festival, held here in October. The group of young performers specializes in avant-garde theater.

刘鸿飞是黑猫剧团的成员,他们从北京来这里参加10月举办的第四届一年一度的乌镇戏剧节。这群年轻的表演者专攻先锋派戏剧。

When Stan Lai, a Taiwanese-American playwright and one of the founders of the theater festival, first visited Wuzhen, he said, it seemed like “one beautiful stage.” But he added: “It lacked spirit. There was no soul.”

美国台裔剧作家赖声川是这个戏剧节的创始人之一。他第一次来乌镇的时候,说这里似乎是一个“美丽的舞台”,但他也说:“它缺乏精神。没有灵魂。”

Some critics say Wuzhen has a sterile feel. Nonetheless, the town has become a wildly successful example of tourism development in China. Nearly seven million tourists visit every year, in what has been a huge economic boon to the town of about 50,000.

一些评论家说乌镇有一种枯燥无味的感觉。然而,这个城镇已经成为中国旅游业发展的一个极为成功的例子。每年近700万游客,给这个大约有5万人口的城镇带来了巨大的经济效益。

“We are like the engine of an airplane, generating commercial opportunities that help lift up the entire town,” said Chen Xianghong, the chairman of Culture Wuzhen, which sponsors the theater festival.

“我们就像是飞机发动机,制造了商业机会,帮助提升了整座城市,”戏剧节主办方——文化乌镇公司的董事长陈向宏说。

But as China’s growing number of tourists become more savvy, tourism development is beginning to take a different course. And Wuzhen, whose claim to fame is being the birthplace of the 20th-century novelist Mao Dun, is seeking to be at the forefront of that change.

但随着越来越多的中国游客变得精明,旅游业开发也在开始发生变化。作为20世纪小说家茅盾的出生地,乌镇希望能够走在这一变化的最前沿。

“People no longer want to just take photos and leave,” said Mr. Chen, who is also the president of the Wuzhen Tourism Company, a public-private partnership that oversees the town’s development. “They want to stay in places longer and immerse themselves in the experience.”

“人们不再只是想拍拍照片,然后就离开,他们想在一个地方停留更长时间,沉浸在体验中。”陈向宏说。他也是乌镇旅游公司的总裁。那是一家公私合营的公司,对这里的开发进行监督。

He added: “With Wuzhen, we have built a beautiful shell. So now we are trying to fill in the shell with culture.”

他还表示:“我们给乌镇打造了一个美丽的外壳,现在我们希望将文化元素填充到这个外壳之中。”

Mr. Chen’s approach reflects a widespread understanding of culture in China these days. Here, officials and businesspeople speak of culture more often as a commodity — culture with a capital C — rather than something that grows organically.

陈向宏的策略反映出当下中国对文化的普遍理解。这里的官员和商人更多地是把文化当作一种商品——带有资本意味的文化——而不是某种自然生长的东西。

To that end, Wuzhen — more than any of the other so-called water towns that dot the area — has muscled its way onto the international cultural map with its annual theater festival. This year, the 10-day festival drew more than 35,000 people.

为此,乌镇凭借其年度戏剧节挤上了国际文化舞台,超越了散布在该地区的其他所谓的“水镇”。今年,为期10天的戏剧节吸引了逾3.5万名观众。

In the spring, the town also inaugurated the Wuzhen International Contemporary Art Exhibition, which featured a high-profile international advisory committee and presented works by 40 major artists including Damien Hirst.

今年春天,这里还创办了乌镇国际当代艺术邀请展,其艺术委员会包括一些国际顾问,颇为引为注目,展出的作品来自达米安 · 赫斯特(Damien Hirst)等40位著名艺术家。

There is also the Mu Xin Art Museum, which opened last year. It is dedicated to the work of the artist and Wuzhen native Mu Xin, who was imprisoned during the Cultural Revolution and later exonerated.

还有去年创办的木心美术馆,专门展出这位乌镇艺术家的作品。他曾在“文革”期间入狱,后来得到了平反。

Outside of the cultural and tourism realms, the town is perhaps best known for the Wuzhen World Internet Conference, a gathering of senior government officials and top executives from leading Chinese and Western technology companies. (This year’s conference will be held Nov. 16-18.)

除了文化和旅游,这里最出名的可能是世界互联网大会乌镇峰会,它是一项聚集政府高官以及国内外顶尖科技公司高管的盛会(今年的峰会于11月16日至18日举行)。

In July, the Wuzhen Tourism Company reached a deal with the internet company Baidu to develop driverless car services, making Wuzhen one of the first places in China to test the technology.

今年7月,乌镇旅游公司与互联网公司百度达成了一项开发无人驾驶汽车服务的协议,使乌镇成为中国首批测试该技术的地方之一。

“Wuzhen has a kind of nourishing energy,” said Meng Jinghui, the artistic director of this year’s theater festival. “In terms of content and budget, they have given us complete freedom.”

“乌镇有一种滋养人的活力,”今年戏剧节的艺术总监孟京辉说,“在内容和预算方面,他们给了我们完全的自由。”

It helps, Mr. Meng said, that visitors to Wuzhen are limited to one of two designated tourist zones, creating a kind of captive audience. Both tourist zones are run by the Wuzhen Tourism Company, which charges around $15 for entry.

孟京辉表示,来乌镇的游客只能进入两个指定的旅游区之一,这为他们提供了很多“被动”观众。两个旅游区均由乌镇旅游公司经营,门票在15美元(约合100元人民币)左右。

Inside, an urban utopia thrives. Housed within perfectly rustic traditional buildings are shops carefully curated by the tourism company to ensure a diverse offering of local delicacies and specially crafted wares, like scallion rolls and indigo-dyed textiles.

旅游区内部是欣欣向荣的城市乌托邦。旅游公司将各种店铺精心安排在一幢幢质朴的传统建筑之中,向游客奉上各种当地美食和特产,比如葱花卷和蓝印花布。

More than 200 workers keep the stone-paved streets clean. There is no trash on the sidewalks, no laundry out to dry. Just selfie-ready backdrops — flowing green canals, sloping tiled roofs, stone bridges — at every turn.

两百多名清洁工时刻保持石板路面干净整洁。人行道上没有垃圾,街上也没有晾晒衣物。随便哪个角度都适合自拍——流淌着的绿色运河,倾斜的瓦片屋顶,美丽的石桥。

Two decades ago, Wuzhen was one of many small towns across the country that were being hollowed out by urbanization. After a major fire devastated a large part of the town, Mr. Chen, a Wuzhen native, saw an opportunity to rebuild it as a tourist destination.

二十年前,乌镇是中国正在被城市化掏空的众多小镇之一。一场大火毁掉镇上很大一部分建筑之后,乌镇人陈向宏看到了将这里重建为旅游景点的机会。

There was not much to work with. There were no postcard-worthy mountains or big rivers. But there were canals, built as part of the ancient Grand Canal system, and the town’s decaying traditional architecture. Starting with the eastern section of the town and later moving to the western side, workers restored the old buildings and, in some cases, entirely rebuilt them.

可供开发的旅游元素并不多。这里没有值得制作明信片的山川河流。不过这里有运河——它是古代大运河的一部分——还有正在衰败的传统建筑。工人们对那些古建筑进行修复或彻底重建。这项工程始于乌镇东部,后来扩展到了西部。

Residents were moved. Factories were shut down. Power lines were buried underground. The canals were cleaned up. Parking lots, visitor centers and hotels were built.

居民被搬迁,工厂被关闭,输电线被埋到地下,运河得到治理。此外还建起了停车场、游客中心和旅馆。

It was a contentious process that came with human costs. Liu Huigen, for one, was moved twice to make way for the development.

这个充满争议的整顿过程是付出了代价的。比如刘慧根(音)就被搬了两次家,为小镇的开发让路。

“Of course, some people were against it,” said Mr. Liu, 67, a second-generation barber. “But they eventually came around. In the end, we are all just trying to be good citizens.”

“当然,有些人反对这种做法,”67岁的刘慧根说。他是一位子承父业的理发师。“不过他们最终转变了态度。说到底我们都只是想做一个遵纪守法的好公民。”

Mr. Liu spoke from within the small white-walled shop where he keeps two rusty barber chairs on the main pedestrian street of Wuzhen’s western scenic area. Mr. Liu has worked on this street for 20 years, long before there were any tourists. It looks about the same, he said, though it is cleaner now and more commercialized.

刘慧根在乌镇西部景区的步行街主干道上经营一家小店,店里有两把生锈的理发椅,墙壁被刷成了白色。他在这个小店里接受了采访。20年前刘慧根就开始在这条街上工作,那时还没有游客。他说,除了比以前更整洁,更有商业气息,这里并没有发生太大变化。

Because of the tourist zone’s entrance fee, Mr. Liu said, he no longer saw some of his former customers. But, as is the case for many of the shop workers here, the increase in tourists has more than made up for that loss.

刘慧根表示,由于旅游区收取门票,他失去了之前的一些顾客。不过,和这里的其他很多店家一样,游客的增加足以弥补这种损失。

“Life is better now with the tourists,” said Shen Wenying, 66. Sitting on a wooden stool on a recent afternoon, Ms. Shen plunged her hands into a bucket to extract dead silkworms from their small white cocoons to make silk thread. As she worked, a group of tourists began to gather around to snap photos of what appeared to be a seasoned local craftswoman at work.

“有了游客,现在的生活更好了,”66岁的沈文英(音)说。不久前的一个下午,沈文英坐在一张木板凳上,把手伸进桶里,将死去的蚕从白色小蚕茧中取出来,以便制作丝线。她干活时,一群游客围了过来开始,拍摄这个老练的当地手工艺人工作的场景。

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