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中国网络文学“第一人”:梦想创建迪士尼式王国

更新时间:2016-11-2 11:21:47 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Making Online Literature Pay Big in China
中国网络文学“第一人”:梦想创建迪士尼式王国

Zhang Wei, China’s top-earning online novelist, is not modest about his success. “I love writing, and I’m gifted,” Mr. Zhang, 35, said in a recent interview.

身为中国收入最高的网络小说作家,张威谈论自己的成功时并不谦虚。“我热爱写作,也有天分,”现年35岁的张威最近接受采访时说。

The numbers back him up. In 2015, Mr. Zhang, better known by his pen name, Tang Jia San Shao, earned 110 million renminbi, about $16.8 million at the time, according to China Daily. Much of his fortune was made from selling his so-called IPs, a buzzword in China referring to intellectual properties or original content that is often adapted into movies, television shows and games. It’s a strategy that in recent years has become a major source of revenue for China’s online literature websites and writers. Mr. Zhang’s earnings would put him on par with best-selling authors like Stephen King and George R. R. Martin.

一些数字让他有足够的底气。据《中国日报》报道,在2015年,以笔名唐家三少为外界所熟知的张威赚到了1.1亿元人民币(约合1680万美元)。他的很大一部分财富是通过出售他口中的IP累积起来的。IP是中国的一个流行词,指知识产权或者常常被改编成电影、电视剧以及游戏的原创内容。近年来,这种策略已经成为了中国网络文学网站和作家的主要收入来源。张威在收入方面堪与斯蒂芬·金(Stephen King)、乔治·R·R·马丁(George R. R. Martin)等畅销书作家比肩。

Mr. Zhang’s works typically fall within the fantasy genre. “Douluo Dalu,” one of his most popular works, is the story of a martial artist who tumbles into an eerie new world called Duoluo Dalu. The story is being turned into a movie, a television show and a video game. In the interview, Mr. Zhang talked about the difference between online literature and traditional publishing, the advantage of an established fan base for lucrative spinoffs and his dream of creating a Disney-style empire.

张威的作品大多为奇幻风格。《斗罗大陆》是他最受欢迎的作品之一,讲的是一位习武者误入名为斗罗大陆的怪异新世界的故事。这个故事目前正被改编成一部电影、一部电视连续剧以及一个视频游戏。在采访中,张威谈及了网络文学与传统出版业之间的差异,自带粉丝基础这一会让衍生作品获得丰厚利润的优势,以及他心中创建迪士尼式王国的梦想。

How did you first start writing online literature?

你最初是如何开始从事网络文学写作的?

I first started writing in February 2004, when I was 23. I was working as a website engineer at the time. Before that, I also worked for CCTV.com. I wanted to write a fantasy novel about magic and light because there weren’t many novels at the time that talked about this theme. That became my first novel, “Child of Light.”

我最开始写作是在2004年2月,当时我23岁,是一名网站工程师。那之前,我还在央视国际网站工作过。我想要写一部与魔法和光有关的奇幻小说,因为那时候以此为主题的小说还不太多。于是就有了我的第一部小说《光之子》。

What was online literature in China like at the time?

中国的网络文学当时是什么样子?

Online literature was still in its early stage of development. Most people who were writing online back then were writing for fun. But a lot of writers didn’t finish their novels, so it was difficult to follow the stories. As a reader, I didn’t like reading these incomplete novels. So when I started to write, I updated my stories every day. That way, I made sure that my readers could get something new every day.

网络文学当年还处于早期发展阶段。那个时候,大多数人都是在网上写着玩儿的。不过很多作者都没把小说写完,追看一段时间就没了下文。作为一名读者,我不喜欢看那些有头无尾的小说。因此当我开始写作时,每天都会更新我的故事。这样一来,就能确保我的读者每天都会看到新东西。

How much do you write each time?

你每次写多少字?

When I started, I could only write 2,000 to 3,000 [Chinese] characters a day. Now I typically write about 7,000 to 8,000 characters a day. On my most productive days, I can write 15,000 to 16,000 characters.

一开始我每天只能写两三千字。现在一天通常写七八千字。效率最高的时候,一天可以写一万五六千字。

What are the main differences between online literature and traditional publishing?

网络文学和传统出版业之间的主要区别是什么?

With online literature, you can publish your installments as soon as you finish them and discuss them with readers very quickly. This is the biggest difference between online literature and traditional publishing. It’s not like writing a book, where you have to write all the chapters before you publish. With online writing, you only need a few thousand characters to start off your book and to show your readers what you’re writing. That’s how online literature sustains itself.

从事网络文学写作,写完一节立即就能发表,而且很快就能和读者进行讨论。这是网络文学和传统出版业最大的不同。它跟写书不一样,书是必须写完所有章节才能出版的。在网上写作时,你只要先写出几千字,给你的作品开个头,让读者看到你写的是什么。网络文学就是这样维系自己的。

Do you take into account feedback from your readers when you’re writing?

写作的时候,你会把从读者的反馈考虑进去吗?

Obviously readers have their own opinions. Their feedback doesn’t change my content because I plan my novels before I write them. Usually, by the time they read the latest installment, I’m already working on future ones.

读者显然有他们自己的观点。但他们的反馈不会改变我的创作,因为在动笔之前,我已经规划好了要写的内容。通常,在他们看到新发布的章节时,我已经在创作后面的内容了。

Why do you think some readers favor online novels over print books?

你怎么看,相比于纸质书,有些读者更喜欢看网络小说?

There’s a feeling of excitement when you read daily updates. Also online literature is really a form of popular literature. It’s more accessible to readers. It’s also one of the cheapest forms of entertainment. Usually it costs just a few cents to read a thousand words.

阅读每天更新的内容,会让人有种兴奋感。而且,网络文学实际上是一种通俗文学。对读者来说,它更容易接触,也是费用最低的一种娱乐形式。阅读千字,通常只需要花几毛钱。

Is there greater freedom writing online compared with traditional media?

相比于传统媒介,在网络上写作自由度更大吗?

I don’t think so. Whatever we write, we have to adhere to the relevant laws and regulations.

我不这么觉得。不管我们写什么,都必须遵守相关的法规。

We’re seeing more companies buying the rights from online authors and adapting their stories into movies, television shows and games. Why is that?

我看到有越来越多的公司从网络作家那里购买版权,将他们的小说改编成电影电视作品或游戏。这是为什么?

The big IPs come with millions of readers, so they offer a built-in fan base, which often translates into high box-office returns. IPs can also be made into series, which makes the content more cohesive. That way, you can maximize your profit from the IP, and it also amplifies the IP’s overall influence.

大的IP通常会有数以百万计的读者,所以它们自带粉丝基础,这往往可以转化成高票房回报。IP也可以被拍成系列,使内容更有内聚力。这样,你就能最大程度地利用IP的价值,还能放大IP总体的影响力。

How much do you make from online novels?

你从网络小说创作中获得了多少收入?

The income from subscribers to online literature makes up only about 2 to 3 percent of my total income. Most of my income comes from the print publication of my books and IP products.

来自在线文学作品订阅的收入,只占我所有收入的2%到3%。我大多数收入来自作品的纸质出版物和IP衍生品。

How does online literature differ in China and the United States?

中国的网络文学和美国的有什么不同?

As far as I know, China’s model — in which fans read daily updates of online novels — has not been replicated in any other country. In other countries, online literature usually means digitizing physical books so that people can buy them and read them on their cellphone.

据我所知,中国的模式——粉丝按日阅读网络小说的更新内容——没有被其他任何国家复制。在其他国家,网络文学通常意味着纸质书的数字化,所以人们可以购买它们,在自己的手机上进行阅读。

What is the future of online literature in China?

你如何看待中国网络文学的未来?

IP and content production will play a more dominant role in the industry. For example, I am currently looking for a powerful partner to develop all of my IPs so that when one format, like a movie or a TV series, becomes popular, the other formats will also become popular. This is the best model for writers. My goal is to make a big franchise like Disney. Disney has a lot of characters whose popularity is reinforced through movies and cartoons.

IP和内容生产会在这个行业扮演更具主导性的角色。比如,我目前正在寻找实力雄厚的合作伙伴,开发我所有的IP,这样如果一种作品形式——比如电影或电视剧——受到欢迎,其他形式也会如此。对作家来说,这是最好的模式。我的目标就是打造一个类似迪士尼的特许经营大品牌。迪士尼有很多角色的受欢迎程度都是因为电影和动画片的播放而得到加强。

What do you see as the key to success in the industry?

你觉得在这个行业,获得成功的关键是什么?

A lot of people ask me how I’ve become so successful in the industry. I only do one thing, which is to give my readers new work every day. I’ve done this every day for the last 12 years. This is actually very difficult to achieve. I love writing, and I’m gifted. As far as I know, nobody is as good as I am. Talent and enthusiasm are the keys to my success. I haven’t been writing all this time because of the money. From the beginning, it was never about the money.

很多人问我为什么能在这个行业获得这么大的成功。我只做了一件事,就是每天给我的读者提供新的内容。我已经坚持了12年,每天如此。这一点其实很难做到。我喜欢写作,也有一定天分。据我所知,没人能做到我这样。天赋和热忱是我成功的关键。一直以来,我都不是为了钱而写作。从始至终,都不是为了钱。

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