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名人最新掐架方式:网络霸凌

更新时间:2016-10-14 10:18:50 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The Latest Celebrity Diet? Cyberbullying
名人最新掐架方式:网络霸凌

The reality TV star Rob Kardashian had a family matter to discuss, so naturally, he turned to Twitter. “Didn’t invite the Mother of my child to a baby shower you all were trying to throw for me!!?” he tweeted late last month, reigniting the feud between the Kardashian-Jenner clan and his model fiancée, Blac Chyna. “You all must have lost your damn minds.” In retaliation for the slight, he tweeted out his little sister Kylie Jenner’s phone number.

电视真人秀明星罗布·卡戴珊(Rob Kardashian)有家务事要说,理所当然地,他转而求助Twitter。“庆祝孩子降生却不邀请我孩子的妈妈参加,你们这是办给我的吗?!!”他在上个月末发推,重新点燃了卡戴珊—詹纳家族和他的模特未婚妻布莱克·希娜(Blac Chyna)之间的老矛盾。“你们一定是脑子都进水了。”作为小小的报复,他在推上公开了妹妹凯莉·詹纳(Kylie Jenner)的电话号码。

Kardashian, in internet parlance, had doxxed Jenner — he published personal, private information about her online, seemingly without her consent. It’s a maneuver harassers use to humiliate, intimidate or silence their targets. It also helped Kardashian score his most popular tweet ever.

用网络语言说就是,卡戴珊揭了詹纳的底,意思是他似乎未经同意,就在网上公开了她的个人信息。这是骚扰者用来羞辱、恐吓或者让攻击目标闭嘴的一种策略。它也帮罗布·卡戴珊创造了其个人历史上浏览量最大的推文。

Some celebrities are using the tactics of online harassers in their public relations offensives. Above, Justin Bieber and his ex-girlfriend Selena Gomez. When she waded into his Instagram comments to scold him for posting pictures with a new girlfriend and to accuse him of cheating on her, he struck back by accusing her of using the relationship for attention.
一些名人会在公关大战中利用网络骚扰战略。上图为贾斯汀·比伯和前女友赛琳娜·戈麦斯。戈麦斯跑去他的Instagram账户留言,责骂他贴出与新女友的照片,还指责他欺骗自己,而比伯则回击,指她利用两人的关系博眼球。

Lately, celebrity feuds have taken on the contours of cyberbullying, with famous rivals integrating the tactics of online harassers into their PR offensives. What looks like a public display of immaturity can actually be part of a sophisticated image management strategy. Retweet counts and Instagram followers are the new Billboard 100, and celebrities can gin up their numbers by instigating feuds with one another in increasingly nasty or technologically intriguing ways. But the game can have a dark side, especially for the losers.

最近,名人发生矛盾的时候都玩起了网络霸凌,他们把网络骚扰者的策略整合进了自己的舆论战里。表面上看,这是在向公众展示自己不成熟的一面,其实,这有可能是一套复杂的形象管理策略的一部分。推文的转发量和Instagram粉丝数,成为了新的《公告牌100排行榜》,名流之间通过越来越恶劣的方法或者不可思议的技术手段来挑起冲突,从而达到吸粉、增加转发量的目的。但这个游戏也有阴暗的一面,尤其是对于失败的一方来说。

The modern celebrity arsenal incorporates these other digital bullying tools:

在现代名人们的竞技场上,还有其他一些数字化的霸凌工具:

— Secret Recordings: The celebrity squabble of the summer exploded when Kim Kardashian West released a surreptitiously recorded Taylor Swift talking on the phone with Kardashian West’s husband, Kanye West — a bid to prove that Swift had preapproved his controversial lyrics about her in his song “Famous.” Kardashian West posted the video evidence to Snapchat in July. (Such recordings are illegal in some states, including California, and run afoul of YouTube’s harassment rules.)

—秘密录音录像:金·卡戴珊(Kim Kardashian)公开了一段偷录的歌手泰勒·斯威夫特(Taylor Swift)与她丈夫坎耶·维斯特(Kanye West)的电话录音,试图证明对方早就同意了维斯特在《Famous》引发争议的歌词中提到她,结果引爆今夏的名人口水大战。卡戴珊于7月在Snapchat上贴出了视频证据(在包括加州在内的一些州,这种秘密的录音录像是非法的,也违背了YouTube的骚扰规定)。

— Sexual Humiliation: When the rappers Wiz Khalifa and West tussled on Twitter in January, Amber Rose, their mutual ex, stepped in to tease West about their sex life. And when Justin Bieber’s ex-girlfriend Selena Gomez waded into his Instagram comments to scold him for posting pictures with a new girlfriend and to accuse him of cheating on her, he struck back by accusing her of using the relationship for attention.

—性羞辱:今年1月,当饶舌歌手维兹·卡利法(Wiz Khalifa)和韦斯特在Twitter上发生口舌的时候,之前与两位都交往过的安波·罗斯(Amber Rose)介入,拿自己当年和韦斯特的性生活打趣。当贾斯汀·比伯(Justin Bieber)的前女友赛琳娜·戈麦斯(Selena Gomez)跑去他的Instagram账户留言,责骂他贴出与新女友的照片,还指责他欺骗自己,比伯则回击称,她在利用两人的关系博眼球。

— Revenge Porn: After the teenage actress Chloe Grace Moretz tweeted dismissively about the Kardashian-Swift feud, yet another Kardashian — Kim’s sister Khloé — responded by posting a photo of a woman resembling Moretz. She had jumped onto a young man’s back on the beach, and her bikini bottoms were yanked to the side, revealing everything underneath. Moretz tweeted back to debunk the depantsing, writing that Kardashian had instead exposed “some girl who was wrongfully photographed.”

—报复性色情内容:芳龄不足20岁的女演员科洛·莫瑞兹(Chloe Grace Moretz)发推,对卡戴珊—斯威夫特之间的冲突表达了轻蔑之意,另一位卡戴珊——金·卡戴珊的妹妹科勒·卡戴珊(Khloé)做出回应,贴了一张跟莫瑞兹长得很像的女人照片。照片中的女子在沙滩上正跳到一名年轻男子的背上,她的比基尼泳裤被拉到了一边,结果大走光。莫瑞兹发推指出这张走光照中的人并非自己,说卡戴珊贴的是“某个被不当拍到不雅照的女孩”。

— Mob Deployment: For celebrities with the most rabid fandoms, even an oblique nod from the star can set off a fan stampede. After Kardashian West posted the Snapchat video of Swift’s phone call, Kanye fans and allies — many aligned with her spurned ex-boyfriend Calvin Harris — gathered under the #KimExposedTaylorParty hashtag to shovel out cruelly exultant GIFs and memes. (A commemorative T-shirt reading “In Memory of Taylor Swift, RIP, 1989 to 2016” was soon offered for sale online.) And when Kardashian West cryptically tweeted a line of snake emoji, revelers bombarded Swift’s Instagram with snake after snake after snake.

—调动水军:对于那些拥有狂热粉丝的名人来说,哪怕明星只是稍稍点个头,都能引发粉丝的癫狂。在卡戴珊·韦斯特在Snapchat上贴出斯威夫特的电话视频后,坎耶的粉丝和支持者——其中许多也是被斯威夫特甩掉的前男友卡尔文·哈里斯(Calvin Harris)的粉丝——齐聚#KimExposedTaylorParty这个标签下,抛出各种不嫌事大的恶毒动图和迷因。(网上很快就有人在卖一款纪念T恤衫,上面写着“谨以此怀念泰勒·斯威夫特,安息吧,1989—2016”)卡戴珊·韦斯特神秘兮兮地贴了一连串的蛇的表情符之后,斯威夫特的Instagram账号受到那些不嫌事多者的蛇形表情符轰炸。

It’s no coincidence that a Kardashian fingerprint can be lifted from many of the most high-profile incidents. While most celebrities use the internet to promote their mainstream careers — movies, albums — Kardashian West’s core product is herself. Stirring up dramatic personal narratives on her reality television show and social media accounts is her main event. Swift, who studiously avoids confrontation while writing veiled riddles about her ex-boyfriends and frenemies into her songs, didn’t stand a chance.

在许多最引人瞩目的事件中都能看到卡戴珊的影子,这并非巧合。绝大多数的名人都在利用互联网为自己的主业造势——电影也好,唱片也好,而卡戴珊·韦斯特的核心产品,就是她自己。在她的真人秀节目中挑事的戏剧性个人叙事,以及各大社交媒体的账号,就是她的正经事。刻意避开正面冲突,以打哑谜的形式把前男友和腹黑友写进歌里面的斯威夫特,怎么可能斗得过她。

You’d think that the utter savageness on display here would horrify fans. Online celebrity feuds capitalize on some of the most vile and destructive social ideas: that sexual shaming is an acceptable response to a stated opinion; that women are manipulative liars; and that a person who missteps in a private dispute deserves to be punished by the crowd. And these days, nearly everybody has a story about being subjected to similar abuse online.

你可能会认为,本文所讲的种种险形恶相会吓坏粉丝们。网络上的名人纠纷其实利用的正是一些最卑鄙无耻、最为有害的社会思想观念:对于陈述的观点,性羞辱是可以接受的反应;女人是善于摆布人的骗子;一个在私人纠纷中犯错的人,就应该被拿出来示众惩罚。当今,几乎所有人都有在网上受到类似伤害的经历。

Occasionally, celeb-on-celeb attacks backfire: In May, the rapper Azealia Banks posted a racist tirade against the pop star Zayn Malik and soon found herself booted from Twitter for violating its harassment policy. But most of the time, salty celebrities have little to lose and millions of followers to gain.

偶尔,名人之间的口水战也会产生适得其反的结果:在今年5月,饶舌歌手阿泽莉亚·班克斯(Azealia Banks)发推,对流行歌手赞恩·马利克(Zayn Malik)发表种族主义的攻击言论,结果没多久,因为违反了推特的骚扰政策,她被临时禁言。但在绝大多数的时候,名人嘴贱并不会有什么损失,还能增加数百万的粉丝。

“Bullying” and “harassment” are amorphous categories, and the seriousness we attach to these tactics varies considerably depending on the power dynamics at play. Unlike the muscled jock who picks on the scrawny nerd, the straight teenager who harasses the gay kid or the jilted boyfriend who uses the cover of the internet to mar his ex’s reputation, these celebrity cases can make us feel like mere mortals peering up at a couple of Greek gods shooting lightening bolts at each other.

霸凌和骚扰是两个没有明确界线的类别,我们对这些策略的重视度,在相当程度上取决于当时的权力动态。与运动肌肉男欺负骨瘦如柴的书呆子,异性恋青少年骚扰同性恋小孩,或者被踹掉的男友利用互联网作掩护败坏前任的名誉不同,这些名人的口水仗有时会让我们觉得,不过是凡人在抬头看两个希腊的神祗用闪电互劈而已。

For some fans, their own experiences with harassment may fuel their desire to see the rich and famous get dragged down to their level. Instead of pity and concern for the targeted party, celebrity harassment produces in fans feelings of both fascination and schadenfreude.

对于一些粉丝来说,他们因为自身的骚扰经验,或许令他们更渴望看到有钱人或者名人被拉到与自己同样的水平。他们不会同情、关心受到打击的一方,名人之间的骚扰只会让粉丝感受到过瘾和幸灾乐祸。

For the famous person caught in the cross hairs, though, it’s not always so fun. Just ask Swift, who called Kardashian West’s stunt “character assassination.” Or the pop star Demi Lovato, who announced a career hiatus last week after getting dragged across Twitter over dismissive comments about Swift she made in a magazine interview. (“Taking a break from the spotlight,” Lovato tweeted last week. “I am not meant for this business and the media.”) Or Moretz, who did not deserve to be sexually humiliated for subtweeting Kardashian West.

但对于那些成为标靶的名人来说,事情并不总是都那么有趣。问问斯威夫特吧,她称卡戴珊·韦斯特的哗众取宠“是对其名誉的毁坏”。或者流行歌手黛米·洛瓦托(Demi Lovato),上周她宣布暂停演艺活动,之前她在接受一本杂志的采访时,说了看不起斯威夫特的话,而在Twitter上被热炒。“暂时离开聚光灯,”洛瓦托在推文中写道。“我不适合这个行业和媒体。”或者问问莫瑞兹吧,不能因为发推批评了卡戴珊·韦斯特,就应该遭到性羞辱。

It’s a PR game, until it’s a real thing.

这本是公关游戏,但延伸到现实世界,就不再简单了。

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