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93岁的佩雷斯依旧年轻

更新时间:2016-9-30 10:11:58 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Peres: 93 Years Young
93岁的佩雷斯依旧年轻

When I heard the news that Shimon Peres, the last of Israel’s greatest generation of founding leaders, had died I found myself ruminating about what was so special about this man whom I had had the pleasure of knowing for almost 35 years. It took me a second to articulate it. Peres was almost unique among the Arab and Israeli leaders I’ve covered as a reporter in the Middle East in two crucial respects: He could stand in the other guy’s shoes, and he was determined to let the future bury the past and not let the past bury the future.

听说以色列开国元勋那一代伟人当中的最后一位——希蒙·佩雷斯(Shimon Peres)——离开人世,我陷入了沉思,我有幸与他相交近35年,此人究竟有何特别之处。很快,答案就摆在了面前。在我担任驻中东记者期间报道过的阿拉伯与以色列领导人里,佩雷斯在两个重要方面堪称独一无二:他能够设身处地理解他人;他下定决心让未来埋葬过去,而不是反过来。

You don’t meet many leaders in the Middle East anymore about whom you could say either thing. Most have become so hard-bitten that they have completely lost their ability to empathize with anyone other than their own tribe, and most have become so cynical that they use Peres’s aspiration about one day birthing “a new Middle East” as a laugh line.

我们很难再在中东遇到可以得到其中任何一条评价的领导人。多数人历经磨难,完全失去了同情自身族群之外任何人的能力,多数人还疑心重重,将佩雷斯想要有朝一日催生“一个新中东”的抱负引为笑谈。

Peres was not naïve. He is generally recognized as the architect of Israel’s nuclear weapons program — after he became director general of the Ministry of Defense at age 29! He held many different cabinet positions over the years, including prime minister, before becoming president. He knew that the Middle East was not Scandinavia — that Israel faced merciless enemies and that the Jews could carve out and sustain their own state in such a region only if they, too, were merciless when they had to be. But he doggedly refused to let the story end there.

佩雷斯并非天真。外界普遍认为,他是以色列核武计划的奠基人——在他29岁即担任国防部办公厅主任之后!他在不少内阁职位上待过,包括出任总理,最后成为以色列总统。他心知肚明,中东不是斯堪的纳维亚——以色列面临的敌人冷酷无情,犹太人要想在这一地区建国并维持下去,必须在必要的时刻也冷酷无情。然而,他坚决拒绝让故事停留在这里。

The physicist Amory Lovins likes to say when people ask him if he is an optimist or a pessimist: “I am neither — because they are just two different forms of fatalism.” The optimist says things have to get to better, and the pessimist says things have to get worse. “I believe in applied hope,” says Lovins. Things can get better, but you have to make them so. That perfectly describes Shimon Peres’s approach to politics and life.

当被问到自己信奉悲观主义还是乐观主义的时候,物理学家艾默里·洛文斯(Amory Lovins)总爱回答,“两者皆非——因为它们不过是两种不同形式的听天由命。”乐天派声称凡事必会好转,悲观派则声称必会变糟。“我相信创造出希望,”洛文斯说。事情的确可以好转,但事在人为。这恰好体现出希蒙·佩雷斯的政治观与人生观。

Peres believed in applied hope, and he never stopped applying it. He had no respect for the pessimists. It was partly because he was onto their shtick. That is, he knew their pessimism often was a cover for a right-wing political agenda that wanted to keep the conflict frozen where it was, that wanted to believe that nothing that Israel said or did could ever influence the other side, so Israel should never take any initiative for peace.

佩雷斯相信,能创造出希望,自己也从未停止创造。他对持悲观论调的人全无好感,一部分原因是他很了解他们的把戏。他明白这帮人的悲观往往是右翼政治议程的幌子,意在让冲突永远延续下去,想要认定以色列的言行绝不会影响对方,因此以色列绝不应当在和平议题上采取任何主动。

And it was partly because he had lived the miracle of the Jewish people over the last century — saw how they had built a modern, high-tech state out of the ashes of the Holocaust and knew that if that wasn’t a proof case for the power of applied hope then nothing was.

另一部分原因是他亲身经历了犹太人在过去一个世纪创造的奇迹,见证了他们在大屠杀的灰烬之上怎样建立起一个现代化的高科技国家,明白没有其他任何事情能够比这更好地证明创造希望的强大力量。

I have always had a soft spot for leaders who are able to change late in life. And Peres was one such person. The man who in earlier incarnations had been responsible for building so many of Israel’s walls came to believe that its true security could be achieved only by webs — it could come only if Israel could be woven into a web of relationships with the Palestinians and with its Arab neighbors.

能在晚年求变的那些领导人,总是能打动我,佩雷斯即为其中一员。他的前半生要为以色列建起的诸多壁垒负责,后来却认定真正的安全只有通过结网才能办到——只有当以色列可以融入与巴勒斯坦及阿拉伯邻国的关系网中,这种安全才会实现。

That is what inspired him to partner with Yitzhak Rabin and Yasir Arafat to forge the Oslo Peace Accords. But that treaty came unstuck because Arafat wasn’t really committed to giving up the armed struggle and later Israeli leaders weren’t really committed to giving up settlements in the West Bank and Gaza — settlements that Peres’s own Labor Party had had a hand in originating and then lost control over.

正是这种信念,激励佩雷斯与伊扎克·拉宾(Yitzhak Rabin)和亚西尔·阿拉法特(Yasir Arafat)一齐打造了《奥斯陆协议》(Oslo Accords)。然而,阿拉法特并不愿放弃武装斗争,而以色列领导人随后也不愿放弃约旦河西岸与加沙地带的定居点——佩雷斯所在的工党参与催生了定居点计划,后来又对其失去控制。于是,协议逐渐解体。

In recent years, Peres discussed with me several times what he might do to revive the Saudi peace initiative — for full peace between Arab states and Israel in return for full withdrawal from the West Bank, Gaza and East Jerusalem — which King Abdullah first unveiled in this column in 2002. But none of the sparks we tried to light ever grew into a flame. Too many people had become invested in the idea that there must not be, and could never be, a new Middle East.

近年里,佩雷斯数次与我探讨,他也许可以做些什么来重启沙特和平计划。这是沙特已故国王阿卜杜拉(King Abdullah)在2002年的本专栏中首次提出的计划,内容涉及让以色列从约旦河西岸、加沙地带及东耶路撒冷全面撤出,来换取阿拉伯国家与以色列之间的全面和平。不过,我们试图激起的星星之火都未能呈燎原之势。太多人变得执迷于一个概念:新中东绝不应该实现,也永远不可能实现。

No matter, Peres was never deterred, never flagged in his desire to apply hope — if it couldn’t be full peace then let it be a joint water project, solar project or internet project.

尽管如此,佩雷斯从未退却,从未消减创造希望的热切追求——假如没法实现全面和平,那就先合作进行一个供水项目、太阳能项目或互联网项目。

He was the youngest 93-year-old you ever met.

他是世人见过的最年轻的93岁老人。

Indeed, my teacher and friend Dov Seidman, the C.E.O. of LRN, which helps business and other leaders navigate ethical issues, took his 8-year-old son, Lev, to Israel for his first time in August, and told me this story.

多夫·塞德曼(Dov Seidman)与我亦师亦友,在协助包括商界精英在内的领导人处理伦理问题的LRN公司担任首席执行官。塞德曼今年8月带着8岁的儿子莱夫(Lev)去体验他的首次以色列之旅,后来告诉我一个故事。

“I wanted Lev’s first experience of Israel to be an indelible one,” recalled Seidman, “so on his first day — just a few weeks ago, last August 31 — I brought him to meet someone who I believed truly personified the hope, strength, and spirit of Israel — with all of its dreams, ideals, and tensions — President Shimon Peres. Little did I know that it would be one of his last meetings.”

“我希望莱夫与以色列的第一次接触能留下难以磨灭的印象,”塞德曼回忆道,“所以他去的头一天——就在几周前,刚刚过去的8月31号——我便带着他去拜访了某个人。我相信这个人真正体现了以色列的希望、力量和精神,身上带有它所有的梦想、理念与冲突。这个人就是希蒙·佩雷斯总统。当时我基本不知道,这是他最后几次与人见面。”

Peres, Seidman added, “was gracious enough to meet with my son and wife and me at the Peres Center for Peace in Tel Aviv. We talked about the power and potential of humanity to surprise, evolve and inspire. At one point Peres turned to my son and said, “Elephants, they’re like computers. They have the biggest memories. They remember everything. But they have no imagination. That’s what’s special about being human.”

塞德曼还说,佩雷斯“十分慷慨地在特拉维夫的佩雷斯和平中心(Peres Center for Peace)接见了我的儿子和我们夫妻。我们谈了权力问题,还有人类让人惊叹、演进和鼓舞他人的潜能。有那么一会儿,佩雷斯转头对我儿子说,‘大象呢,就跟电脑一样。它们有最惊人的记忆,记得每一件事,但它们没有想象力。那才是让人类特殊的地方。’”

At one point, though, Seidman said, he asked Peres to share with his son, “how, after 93 years of life, he stayed so young.”

不过,塞德曼表示,他当时还请佩雷斯与他的儿子分享,“过了93年之后,怎么还能保持这么年轻。”

“Lev,” Peres said, “every day I wake up and I count my achievements.” Seidman then interjected, “And son, President Peres has had countless extraordinary achievements.” They both laughed.

“莱夫,”佩雷斯回答,“每天我起床的时候,都会数数自己的成就。”塞德曼此时插话,“儿子,佩雷斯总统有无数的卓越成就。”两人一齐笑起来。

But Peres wasn’t done. He continued telling Lev, “And then I count the dreams I have in my head. As long as I have more dreams in my head than achievements, I am young.”

然而,佩雷斯的话还没有说完。他接下来告诉莱夫,“然后我会数数脑袋里的梦想。只要我脑子里的梦想比成就要多,我就还年轻。”

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