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做普京的保镖,仕途何其光明!

更新时间:2016-9-11 8:10:13 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

How Do You Get to Be a Governor in Vladimir Putin’s Russia?
做普京的保镖,仕途何其光明!

MOSCOW According to Aleksei Diumin, it happened late one night, far from Moscow. He was standing guard at a presidential palace where Vladimir V. Putin was sleeping. A bear approached. “He and I looked each other in the eyes,” Mr. Diumin told a Russian newspaper. Then the bear backed away slightly. “I opened the door and emptied my gun’s entire clip at his feet.” The bear retreated. Russia’s president was safe.

莫斯科——按照阿列克谢·迪乌明(Aleksei Diumin)的说法,事情发生在一天深夜,在远离莫斯科的地方。他在弗拉基米尔·V·普京(Vladimir V. Putin)下榻的一处总统官邸放哨。一头熊逐渐靠近。“我们相互直视,”迪乌明告诉俄罗斯的一家报纸。然后熊稍微后退了一点。“我打开门,冲着它的脚下打空了整个弹匣。”熊退却了。俄罗斯总统安然无恙。

Mr. Diumin told the story of his encounter with the bear in February. Former bodyguards always have a stock of true-life tales for deployment at the dinner table. But Mr. Diumin’s account came only when he became a major Russian politician. That month, he was named acting governor of Tula province, an area just over a hundred miles from Moscow.

迪乌明在今年2月说出了他与熊的这番遭遇。曾经当过保镖的人总有一大堆号称真人真事的传说可以在饭桌上传播。然而,迪乌明的话却是在他成为俄罗斯政坛重要人物之后才出现的。那个月,他被任命为距离莫斯科100英里出头的图拉州的代州长。

Tula is one of the capitals of the Russian military industry and has produced a significant proportion of Russian small-arms weaponry since czarist times. Tolstoy is buried on his estate in the region. But despite Tula’s rich cultural and political tradition, it seems Mr. Putin was unable to find a man in the province capable of serving as governor.

图拉州是俄罗斯军工产业的一个中心,自沙皇时代起便生产了俄罗斯很大一部分的轻型武器。托尔斯泰就安葬在自己位于该州的地产之上。可是,尽管图拉拥有深厚的文化与政治传统,普京却似乎无法在州里找到一个能人来担当州长。

Tula’s leader seemingly appeared from out of nowhere, and his biography revealed that his main credential was 15 years of service as Mr. Putin’s personal bodyguard. Governors in Russia are formally elected by the residents of each region, but the complex nominating process and the election commissions, which are controlled by the Kremlin, allow the president to make anyone he wants a governor, including someone who had never set foot in the region, even as a tourist.

图拉的这位领导人看起来是从天而降的,而他的简历显示,他主要的资历是给普京当了15年的贴身保镖。俄罗斯的州长需由本州居民正式选举产生,不过,提名程序复杂,克里姆林宫又把持着选举委员会,使得总统可以让任何心仪的人被选成州长,包括从未踏足该州的人,哪怕是以游客的身份。

Deep local roots are not a prerequisite for a governorship in Russia today. Stavropol, a strategically critical territory in the Caucasus, is governed by Vladimir Vladimirov, a bureaucrat from the distant Yamal Peninsula who organized Mr. Putin’s famous flight with the cranes. (Four years ago, when visiting Yamal, the president flew a hang glider at the head of a flock of Siberian cranes, guiding them to their winter migration.)

在今天的俄罗斯,深厚的地方根基并非当选州长的前提。在高加索地区的战略要地斯塔夫罗波尔,州长是弗拉基米尔·弗拉基米罗夫(Vladimir Vladimirov)。他是来自遥远的亚马尔半岛的官僚,组织了声名远扬的普京与鹤群的飞行活动。(四年前视察亚马尔地区时,普京驾驶着一架悬挂式滑翔机带领一群西伯利亚鹤飞往它们的冬季栖息地。)

The governor of Pskov province is Andrei Turchak, the son of Mr. Putin’s judo partner in the 1980s. Andrei Vorobyov, the governor of Moscow province, is the son of Yuri Vorobyov, a close associate of Minister of Defense Sergei Shoigu back when Mr. Shoigu worked at a local Soviet Communist Party committee in Siberia. These sorts of appointments no longer surprise anyone, but a bodyguard is something new.

普斯科夫州的州长为安德烈·图尔恰克(Andrei Turchak),他的父亲是普京在80年代的柔道搭档。安德烈·沃罗比约夫(Andrei Vorobyov)是莫斯科州的州长,他的父亲尤里·沃罗比约夫(Yuri Vorobyov)是现任国防部长谢尔盖·K·绍伊古(Sergei Shoigu)的心腹,两人的关系可以追溯到后者在西伯利亚的苏联共产党地方党委工作的时候。这类任命对人们来说已经不再稀奇,不过保镖当政还是有点新鲜。

In the photographs that journalists were able to find after Mr. Diumin’s appointment, he is standing next to Mr. Putin, wearing the crucial bodyguard accessory: an earpiece. Most photographs also show another bodyguard, and commentators joked that he, too, was destined to be a governor. The joke became a reality in July: Yevgeny Zinichev, also a former Putin bodyguard, assumed the governorship of Kaliningrad province, an exclave separated from Russia by Poland and Lithuania.

在迪乌明上任后,记者找到的图片显示,他站在普京身边,戴着保镖的关键配件:耳机。大多数图片上还出现了另一名保镖,评论人士打趣,他也必将成为州长。今年7月,笑话成为了现实:曾担任普京保镖的叶夫根尼·齐尼切夫(Yevgeny Zinichev)成了加里宁格勒州的州长。那里是俄罗斯的飞地,与本土之间隔着波兰和立陶宛。

Neighboring European countries have long had a strong influence in Kaliningrad. (Poland and Lithuania are members of both the European Union and NATO.) The region has had — by Russian standards — a rich democratic tradition since the 1880s. No modern governor of Kaliningrad province has stayed in power for more than five years. In 2010 the governor, Georgi Boos, was forced into retirement after protests.

一直以来,加里宁格勒深受临近欧洲国家的影响。(波兰与立陶宛均为欧盟与北约成员国。)该州自19世纪80年代就有——依照俄罗斯的标准——强烈的民主传统。现代历史上,加里宁格勒从未有哪位州长的执政时间超过五年。在2010年,当时的州长格奥尔基·博斯(Georgi Boos)面对抗议被迫下台。

But apparently this new governor is not afraid of protests; the opinions of his constituents interest him far less than good relations with the man he used to guard and who bestowed this region on him. This summer Dmitri Mironov, another member in Mr. Putin’s personal security detail, became governor of Yaroslav province. And this year Viktor Zolotov, a Putin bodyguard from 20 years ago who subsequently headed the president’s personal security service, took over the command of the National Guard — a newly formed security service intended ostensibly to “fight terrorism” but in reality to suppress internal unrest.

不过,这位新州长显然并不害怕抗议;相比选民的意见,他对和总统保持良好的关系抱有更大的兴趣,他曾经保卫总统,而总统将加里宁格勒授予了他。今年夏天,在普京私人护卫队效力过的迪米特里·米罗诺夫(Dmitri Mironov)成为雅罗斯拉夫尔的州长。同样在今年,普京20年前的保镖、继而成为总统私人安保部门负责人的维克多·佐洛托夫(Viktor Zolotov)接手了国民卫队。这是一个新成立的安全部门,其宗旨表面上是“打击恐怖主义”,但实际上是压制内部动荡。

A sequence of bodyguards turning, one after another, into government officials seems like a setup for a joke, but this is the logic of authoritarianism at work. When all power in the country coalesces in one man, he becomes more isolated with time until ultimately he finds himself completely alone, convinced of his own uniqueness and suspicious of comrades in arms who still recall his first steps in politics.

保镖一个又一个地变成政府官员的事情看似笑话,但这就是威权主义逻辑的运作方式。当举国上下的权力全部集中在一个人手中时,他就逐渐变得越来越孤立,直到最后发现自己孑然一身,深信他本人独一无二,怀疑起仍然记得他政治起步阶段那些往事的战友。

In 2013, Mr. Putin divorced. No one knows whether he now has a wife, and if he does, who she is. Newspapers write that his daughters live in secrecy under different names. So now Mr. Putin is left not only without political allies, but seemingly without a family as well. At this point, he simply has no one to turn to except for the people he sees every day and has no choice but to trust. These people are his bodyguards.

在2013年,普京离了婚。无人知晓他目前是否有妻子,如果有的话,她又是谁。报章表示,他的女儿以化名过着秘密生活。因此,今天的普京不仅没有政治上的盟友,似乎也没有家人。在这个节点上,他根本没有任何人可以依靠,除了他每天见到、除了信任别无选择的那些人,也就是他的保镖。

The post-Soviet political system has been unable to establish institutions independent of the president, and now the system is falling victim to its own weakness; instead of politicians, its ranks are being filled with a small number of loyal people. When Mr. Putin runs out of bodyguards, maybe he will start appointing his cooks and maids.

后苏联时代的俄罗斯政治系统一直无法建立起独立于总统的体制,而这套系统如今深受自身孱弱无力的戕害;在填补各种官职的,并非职业政客,而是一小撮忠实分子。当普京用完了保镖之后,恐怕他得开始任命厨子和女佣了。

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