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环保组织宣布大熊猫不再濒危,中国称言之过早

更新时间:2016-9-7 10:18:22 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The Giant Panda Is No Longer Endangered. It’s ‘Vulnerable.’
环保组织宣布大熊猫不再濒危,中国称言之过早

The giant panda has long languished on the endangered species list, but an international monitoring group finally had some good news for it over the weekend.

大熊猫长期位列濒危物种名单之上,但上周末,一个国际观察组织终于带来了一些有关大熊猫的好消息。

The pandas were removed from the endangered list, along with the Tibetan antelope. But the monitors issued a grim warning about the fate of the eastern gorilla, which has moved one step closer to extinction. It also said that the plains zebra has become “near threatened” because of hunting.

大熊猫和藏羚羊一同被移出了濒危物种名单,但观察人员对东部大猩猩的命运发出了严厉的警告。后者离灭绝更近了一步。该观察组织还表示,因为狩猎的原因,草原斑马变为“近危”。

The new designations were announced on Sunday in a report by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, a leading environmental group that tracks the status of plant and animal species.

新名单是追踪动植物物种状况的著名环保组织国际自然保护联盟(International Union for Conservation of Nature,简称IUCN)周日在一份报告中宣布的。

Giant pandas are national symbol in China, their native habitat, and the I.U.C.N. said on Sunday that efforts by the Chinese government to reverse the slide of the population, using forest protection and reforestation, had been successful. The panda’s new designation is “vulnerable.”

大熊猫在它们的天然栖息地中国是国家的象征。IUCN周日表示,通过保护森林和植树造林,中国政府为扭转大熊猫数量下滑的趋势而采取的行动取得了成功。大熊猫的最新状态是“易危”。

The conservation union said researchers have cautiously increased estimates of the panda population in every study since 1985, but data from the most recent survey conducted between 2011 and 2014 removed any uncertainty about the rebound by the species. That study found an estimated 1,864 giant pandas in the wild, not counting cubs under the age of 18 months.

IUCN表示,自1985年以来,研究人员在每一项研究中都谨慎地提高了大熊猫的估算数量,但2011到2014年间进行的最近一次调查得到的数据,消除了对大熊猫数量回升的一切不确定性。那次研究在野外发现了大约1864只大熊猫,18个月以下的幼崽不计在内。

The one remaining source of concern, however, is a big one. The I.U.C.N. warned that climate change could destroy more than 35 percent of the animal’s bamboo habitat in the next 80 years, leaving its future in doubt.

然而,仍有一个大问题令人担忧。IUCN警告称,未来80年里,气候变化可能会破坏大熊猫逾35%的竹林栖息地,导致它们的未来存在不确定性。

“Whereas the decision to downlist the giant panda to vulnerable is a positive sign confirming that the Chinese government’s efforts to conserve this species are effective, it is critically important that these protective measures are continued, and that emerging threats are addressed,” the group wrote in its giant panda assessment.

“尽管将大熊猫降为易危级别的决定是一个积极的迹象,证明中国政府为保护这个物种而采取的行动是有效的,但至关重要的是要把这些保护措施坚持下去,并应对新的威胁,”该组织在对大熊猫的评估中写道。

China said it was less optimistic about the animal’s progress, however. The State Forestry Administration disputed the conservation group’s decision in a statement to The Associated Press, saying pandas struggle to reproduce in the wild and live in small groups spread widely apart.

然而,中国自称对保护大熊猫方面的进展没那么乐观。在发给美联社(The Associated Press)的一份声明中,中国国家林业局对IUCN的决定表示了质疑,称大熊猫很难在野外繁殖,并且以小群体的形式活动,群体之间相隔甚远。

“If we downgrade their conservation status, or neglect or relax our conservation work, the populations and habitats of giant pandas could still suffer irreversible loss, and our achievements would be quickly lost,” the forestry administration told the A.P. “Therefore, we’re not being alarmist by continuing to emphasize the panda species’ endangered status.”

“如果我们降低它们的保护地位,忽视或放松保护工作,大熊猫的数量和栖息地可能还会出现不可逆转的减少,我们取得的成绩也会很快不复存在,”林业局告诉美联社。“所以,我们持续强调大熊猫的濒危状况,并非危言耸听。”

The eastern gorilla has been a lot less lucky. The group changed the status of the species, one of the six great apes, from endangered to critically endangered after what it called “a devastating population decline” of more than 70 percent in the last 20 years.

相较而言,东部大猩猩就没那么幸运,它属于六种类人猿中的一种。该组织表示,这一物种的数量在过去20年间“出现毁灭性的下降”,减少了超过70%,于是决定该物种的地位从濒危改为极度濒危。

The species lives in the mountains and jungles of the Democratic Republic of Congo, northwest Rwanda and southwest Uganda, and the group said long-term conflict in that part of Africa was responsible for the sharp decline in the gorilla’s numbers. The spread of firearms and militants in the wider region has also lead to an uptick in poaching and made it dangerous for conservation groups to access the area.

东部大猩猩生活在刚果民主共和国、卢旺达西北部和乌干达西南部的山脉和雨林之间。IUCN表示,非洲这一地区长期存在冲突,是大猩猩数量剧减的原因之一。枪支和激进分子在更广泛的地区存在,也导致偷猎行动小幅增加,而且让保护组织进入该地区的行动变得非常危险。

The eastern gorilla is composed of two subspecies whose combined population is now estimated to be fewer than 5,000, the group said.

该组织表示,东部大猩猩由两个亚种组成,它们目前的数量加在一起,估计少于5000只。

One subspecies has fared better than the other. The estimated population of Grauer’s gorilla has declined by 77 percent since 1994, from 16,900 individuals to just 3,800 in 2015. The second subspecies, the mountain gorilla, has actually added to its numbers in recent years, the group said, but its population is still only estimated to be 880.

其中一个亚种的情况比另一个好些。据估计,自1994年以来,东部低地大猩猩的数量减少了77%,从1.69万只减少到2015年的3800只。该组织称,另一个亚种东部山地大猩猩的数量在最近几年实际上有所增加,但依然只有大约880只。

“To see the Eastern gorilla — one of our closest cousins — slide toward extinction is truly distressing,” Inger Andersen, the Director General of the I.U.C.N. said in a statement. “Conservation action does work and we have increasing evidence of it. It is our responsibility to enhance our efforts to turn the tide and protect the future of our planet.”

“眼看着东部大猩猩——人类的近亲物种之一——日渐走向灭绝,真是令人悲伤,”IUCN总干事英格·安德斯(Inger Andersen)在一份声明中表示。“保护行动的确有效,有越来越多的证据可以证明这一点。我们有责任加强自身的努力,扭转局势,保护地球的未来。”

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