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斯诺登的好莱坞漫长奇异之旅(四):最佳选择

更新时间:2016-9-6 9:26:55 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Edward Snowden’s Long, Strange Journey to Hollywood
斯诺登的好莱坞漫长奇异之旅(四):最佳选择

Before Stone set out to make his film, he had met Snowden’s chief biographers, Greenwald and Poitras. Stone and Greenwald became friendly, and when Greenwald’s book drew interest in Hollywood before it was published, the journalist turned to Stone for advice. “In the back of my mind, I thought if he had any interest in making a film, that would be a good segue for him to say so,” Greenwald told me.

在着手拍摄这部片子之前,奥利弗·斯通已经见过撰写爱德华·斯诺登主要传记的作者格伦·格林沃尔德与劳拉·普瓦特拉斯。斯通与格林沃尔德关系熟起来。格林沃尔德的书在发行前即在好莱坞引发了兴趣,那时他还寻求了斯通的建议。“我脑子里有个模糊的想法,我以为要是他自己有什么兴趣拍这个题材的话,这应该是个说出来的好机会,”格林沃尔德告诉我。

At the time, Stone wasn’t interested, and Greenwald negotiated the deal with Sony. Stone later came back and offered to match Sony’s bid, but Greenwald declined. “I think he was a little perturbed,” Greenwald said. Of the principal cast, Zachary Quinto, who plays Greenwald in Stone’s movie, was the only actor who didn’t meet his real-life counterpart as research. “I always thought that was a little weird,” Greenwald said. “I think Oliver thought I had some competitive hostility toward his project, or he had some hostility — I’m not really sure.” (According to Stone, Quinto didn’t need to meet Greenwald because there were so many videos of the journalist online.)

那时候,斯通并不感兴趣,于是格林沃尔德与索尼谈了电影合约。斯通后来又找上门来,说可以给出与索尼一样的报价,但遭到了格林沃尔德的拒绝。“我想他当时有点不舒服。”在斯通这部电影的主要演员当中,扮演格林沃尔德的扎克瑞·昆图是唯一一个没有通过与原型见面来做功课的人。“我总觉得这有点奇怪,”格林沃尔德说。“我想是奥利弗以为我对他的片子存在某种竞争敌意,或者是他本人存在某种敌意——我不是很确定。”(按照斯通的说法,昆图并不需要去见格林沃尔德本人,因为他的视频在网上多如牛毛。)

In the spring of 2014, Stone flew to Berlin and met with Poitras. The meeting did not go well. According to Poitras, Stone proposed that she delay the release of “Citizenfour,” which she was then in the middle of editing, to time up with his film. “Because his film would be the real movie — because it’s a Hollywood movie,” Poitras told me. “Obviously I wasn’t interested in doing that. To have another filmmaker ask me to delay the release of my film was — well, it was somewhat insulting.”

2014年春,斯通飞到柏林,与普瓦特拉斯会面。会面进行得不太好。据普瓦特拉斯说,斯通建议她推迟发行《第四公民》——当时她正在剪辑——以便与他自己的电影同步发行。“因为他的电影将是真正的电影——因为它是好莱坞电影,”普瓦特拉斯对我说,“很显然我没兴趣那样做。另一位导演要我推迟发行自己的影片——呃,这有点无礼。”

Stone was annoyed, but he stuck around for a few drinks. They discussed new movies, including “12 Years a Slave.” As Poitras recalls, Stone found the film too violent, while Poitras thought the brutality was appropriate given the subject matter. Stone was growing increasingly frustrated. “At some point, he reached over and had his hands around my neck,” Poitras said. “It was sort of in a joking way. I think he was a little bit drunk. But it was not a particularly pleasant evening.”

斯通也很恼火,不过他留下来喝了几杯。他们谈论当时的一些新影片,包括《为奴十二载》(12 Years a Slave)。据普瓦特拉斯回忆说,斯通觉得那部电影太暴力,而普瓦特拉斯认为,鉴于影片的主题,那样的残酷是适当的。斯通变得更加沮丧。“他一度探过身来,假装用手掐我的脖子,”普瓦特拉斯说,“带点开玩笑的意思。我觉得他当时有点醉了。不过,那天晚上不是特别愉快。”

According to Stone, he only offered to help Poitras get distribution. “We thought we’d help her either bring out her film with our film, or in the wake of it or before it, if we could,” Stone said. He didn’t recall pretending to strangle Poitras. “I think from talking to her, you sense she’s superparanoid,” he said. “But I liked her,” he continued. “I admired her. I saw her films. I was trying to help her. If Laura is accusing me of trying to aggress her or kill her, she’s crazy.”

据斯通说,他只是提出帮助普瓦特拉斯发行影片。“我们想帮助她要么和我们的影片一起发行,要么前后脚发行——如果可以的话,”斯通说。他不记得假装要掐死普瓦特拉斯。“我觉得,在和她的谈话中,你能感觉到她特别多疑,”他说。“不过我喜欢她,”他接着说道。“我钦佩她。我看过她的电影。我试图帮助她。如果劳拉指责我试图侵犯或者杀死她,那她是疯了。”

Despite his occasional bullishness, Stone craves approval. His films tend to resemble his character: at once original, impetuous, dogmatic and stubbornly ambitious. They typically run up to three hours, and he is often hurt when they’re underappreciated. Once, I was with Stone when he was handed a copy of “A Child’s Night Dream,” the novel he wrote at 19. Stone began to recite the blurbs aloud. “The language moves in torrents, always energized ... shamanistic,” Stone read, quoting The Boston Globe. “I don’t get many good reviews, but this is good.” I said that he has gotten plenty of good reviews since then. “You should see Rotten Tomatoes,” he said, referring to the movie-­review aggregator.

尽管斯通有时特别乐观,但他也渴望得到肯定。他的电影大多很像他的性格:新颖、冲动、固执、特别雄心勃勃。他的电影通常长达三个小时,如果没有得到充分赏识,他往往会觉得很受伤。有一次,我和斯通在一起时,有人递给他一本《孩子的夜梦》(A Child’s Night Dream)——他19岁时写的一本小说。斯通开始大声朗读宣传语。“本书的语言如激流般奔腾,总是充满活力……像萨满教,”斯通朗读了《波士顿环球报》(The Boston Globe)的评语。“我没有得到很多好评,不过这个很不错。”我说,从那以后,他得到了很多好评。“你应该去看看烂番茄网站(Rotten Tomatoes)的评价,”他说。他指的是那个影评汇总网站。

Stone’s torment is at least in part self-­inflicted. Biopics can be a nasty business, and Stone routinely throws himself into historical narratives and the messy negotiation between fact and fiction. The haggling with historians and family estates is the reason Stone was never able to make films about Martin Luther King Jr. and Hank Williams, and it was why he had to wait for Richard M. Nixon to die to make “Nixon.” For Stone, the real-life characters of the stories he is after have become both the obstacles and the necessary arbiters of his work. It’s why he refused to make “Snowden” without Snowden, and why his appeals to Greenwald and Poitras were his way of getting them on board.

斯通的痛苦至少有一部分是他自己造成的。传记电影可能是一个可怕的行业,斯通经常把自己投入历史故事以及现实和虚构的混乱协调之中。与史学家和家族遗产的争论是斯通一直未能拍摄关于小马丁·路德·金和汉克·威廉姆斯(Hank Williams)的电影的原因,也是他不得不等到理查德·N·尼克松(Richard M. Nixon)去世后才得以拍摄《尼克松》(Nixon)的原因。对斯通来说,他追逐的故事中的真实人物既是他作品的障碍,也是必需的仲裁者。所以他拒绝在斯诺登不参与的情况下拍摄《斯诺登》,所以他对格林沃尔德和普瓦拉特斯的吁请是以他的方式让他们参与进来。

If Poitras had a strong reaction to Stone’s proposal, it was because she had already been hounded by Sony. After the studio optioned Greenwald’s book, Poitras says Sony asked to buy her life rights — an offer she declined. Sony suggested that she come on as a consultant, but when the contract arrived, it stipulated that the studio would have access to Poitras’s tapes and notebooks. “So I’d already gone through that when Oliver came in trying to position himself,” she said.

如果说普瓦拉特斯对斯通的提议反应强烈的话,那是因为她之前已经得到索尼的追求。普瓦拉特斯说,该公司买下格林沃尔德的图书改编权后提出购买她的故事——她拒绝了。索尼提出请她做顾问,不过发来的合同却规定该公司将有权使用普瓦拉特斯的录音和笔记。“所以奥利弗前来争取自己的位置时,我已经经历过这种事了。”

Poitras is a soft-­spoken, cautious woman who has spent much of the past decade on government watch lists. Her resistance to participating in various Snowden projects has less to do with her feeling territorial than with her trying to maintain some control as she has become a character in a story that is no longer hers. Poitras’s radical position is that the “Snowden story” can really belong only to Snowden. “I could have asked him for a life-rights contract in Hong Kong, but I don’t believe in that as a concept,” she said. “It’s his story, and I hope he tells it when he’s ready.”

普瓦拉特斯是一个谈吐柔和、小心谨慎的女人,她在过去十年的大部分时间里处于政府的监视清单上。她拒绝参与各种斯诺登项目并不主要是因为她在保护自己的地盘,而更多的是因为她努力保持一定的控制力,因为她参与的那个故事已经不再属于她。普瓦拉特斯的基本立场是“斯诺登的故事”真的只属于斯诺登。“在香港时,我本可以让他把他的故事卖给我,但我不相信这个概念,”她说,“那是他的故事,我希望在他愿意的时候由他讲述。”

Neither Greenwald nor Poitras ultimately object to Stone making his film. While his own movie still lingered in development, Greenwald thought Snowden’s story might in fact be safer in Stone’s hands than it would be elsewhere. The Sony leaks would eventually reveal that Stone’s paranoia may have been justified: In emails about the purchase of Greenwald’s book, an executive in Sony’s government-­affairs office suggests toning down the news release, changing “illegal spying” to “intelligence gathering” and “misuse of power” to “actions.”

格林沃尔德和普瓦拉特斯最终都没有反对斯通拍摄他的电影。虽然格林沃尔德自己的电影仍处于筹划阶段,但他认为斯诺登的故事由斯通来讲述可能比由其他人讲述更安全。索尼的泄露文件最终证明,斯通的怀疑是有道理的:在关于购买格林沃尔德的图书改编权的电子邮件中,索尼政府事务部的一位高管建议淡化新闻发布,把“非法侦察”改为“情报收集”,把“滥用权力”改为“行为”。

“My big worry with Hollywood and the Snowden story is that they’re either going to be cowards and completely drain it of its political vitality,” Greenwald told me, “or that they’re going to do a superbiased smear job. For all the talk about how liberal Hollywood is, the reality is that they’re really close to the government. And whatever other things you might say about Oliver, I was actually relieved that someone was going to do this film where there was no danger of those things happening.”

“我对好莱坞和斯诺登故事的最大担忧是它们要么变得非常懦弱,完全失去政治活力,”格林沃尔德对我说,“要么进行极具偏见的污蔑。尽管人们都说好莱坞是自由派,但实际上他们与政府关系密切。不管你对奥利弗可能有什么别的看法,我真的为有人将拍摄这部电影且不会出现上述两种情况而感到欣慰。”

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