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斯诺登的好莱坞漫长奇异之旅(三):秘密行动

更新时间:2016-9-4 10:47:39 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Edward Snowden’s Long, Strange Journey to Hollywood 3
斯诺登的好莱坞漫长奇异之旅(三):秘密行动

When I told Wizner that Stone said he bought Kucherena’s book to gain access to Snowden, his voice climbed a few octaves again. “Virtually every single other person who’s met with Snowden, and there have been dozens of them, have just gone through me, and we’ve hooked it up,” Wizner said. He listed some names, which included the film director Doug Liman, as well as the actors Jared Leto and John Cusack. (Cusack took Snowden Cool Ranch Doritos, as well as DVDs of “Network” and “Dr. Strangelove.”)

当我告诉维茨纳,斯通说他购买库切列纳的图书改编权是为了接触到斯诺登时,维茨纳的声音再次提高了几个八度。“几乎每一个见过斯诺登的人——有几十个这样的人——都是通过我联系的,我们都能安排好,”维茨纳说。他列举了一些名字,包括电影导演道格·利曼(Doug Liman),以及演员(Jared Leto)和约翰·库萨克(John Cusack,他给斯诺登带了多力多滋清爽牧场玉米片[Cool Ranch Doritos]以及《社交网络》[Network]和《奇爱博士》[Dr. Strangelove]的DVD)。

Wizner, who is 45, has been at the A.C.L.U. since 2001. Before Snowden, he tried to bring several suits to increase oversight over the intelligence community. Wizner likes to say that he spent a decade banging his head against a wall, and then Snowden came along and brought that wall down. Snowden had not only revealed the scope of the surveillance apparatus, but also that top government officials routinely misled the public about it. Since becoming Snowden’s advocate, Wizner has become a figure of not insignificant geopolitical importance. Those revelations have since formed a critical backdrop for legislative reforms, and there are few things that irritate Wizner more than claims that threaten to tarnish Snowden’s character and their common cause.

维茨纳现年45岁,他从2001年起就在美国公民自由联盟工作。在斯诺登事件之前,他曾努力提起几项诉讼,以加强对情报机构的监督。维茨纳经常说,他花了10年时间用头撞墙,斯诺登一出现,就把墙撞倒了。斯诺登不仅揭露了监控机构的工作范围,而且揭露出政府高级官员经常在这方面误导公众。自从成为斯诺登的代理之后,维茨纳变成了一个具有一定地缘政治重要性的人物。揭露出来的内幕从此成为立法改革的重要背景,几乎没有什么比有可能玷污斯诺登的人品和他们共同事业的说法更让维茨纳恼火的了。

It would not be a stretch to say that for Wizner, Kucherena has become a bit of a liability. Since 2013, the Russian lawyer has announced that Snowden landed a job at a major Russian website — news that turned out to not be true — and has supplied the news media with photos of his client enjoying his new life in Russia, attending an opera at the Bolshoi Theater and cheerfully hugging a dog named Rick. (Rick later turned out to be the dog of one of Kucherena’s friends.) Now Kucherena had sold a novel to Stone, making it seem as if the director had to pay a Russian fixer to have access to Snowden — or worse, that Snowden was somehow under the lock and key of the Russian authorities, lent to Stone for a Hollywood movie.

可以说,在维茨纳看来,库切列纳已经成了一种潜在风险。从2013年起,这位俄罗斯律师先是宣布,斯诺登在一个著名俄罗斯网站得到一份工作——后来证明这是假消息——后来又给新闻媒体提供他的客户在俄罗斯享受新生活的照片,比如在莫斯科大剧院(Bolshoi Theater)观看歌剧,高兴地拥抱一只名叫里克(Rick)的狗(后来证明,里克是库切列纳一个朋友的狗)。现在,库切列纳把自己的小说卖给斯通,搞得好像这位导演必须收买一名俄罗斯牵线人,才能见到斯诺登——或者更糟糕的是,搞得像是斯诺登由俄罗斯当局保管,现在被借给斯通拍一部好莱坞电影。

Wizner’s counterefforts in the United States have been successful. Former Attorney General Eric Holder, once a fierce critic, has acknowledged that Snowden performed “a public service.” President Obama has called for the reform of phone metadata collection, and last June, Congress passed the U.S.A. Freedom Act, a law that directly resulted from Snowden’s leaks. Snowden has come to be seen as a levelheaded activist. According to Wizner, he leads a free existence in Russia, making appearances via live video and publishing op-eds against Russia’s human rights violations. “I think people are inclined to believe that Russia would never let him stay there unless he was paying for it in some way,” Wizner said. “But it’s just not true. Not only is he not cooperating, but he’s actually being critical.”

维茨纳在美国的反制措施取得了成功。曾经激烈批评斯诺登的前美国司法部长埃里克·霍尔德(Eric Holder)承认,斯诺登实施了一项“公共服务”。奥巴马总统(Obama)呼吁改革电话元数据收集。去年6月,国会通过了《美国自由法案》(U.S.A. Freedom Act),这一法案的直接成因就是斯诺登泄露的内幕。斯诺登慢慢被视为一个头脑冷静的活动人士。据维茨纳说,他在俄罗斯过着自由的生活,在直播视频中露面,发表抨击俄罗斯侵犯人权的评论文章。“我觉得,人们倾向于认为,除非他以某种方式给予回报,否则俄罗斯不可能让他待在那里,”维茨纳说,“但那不是事实。他不仅没有合作,而且还在提出批评。”

When I asked Wizner about Kucherena’s book, we were meeting at a cafe near his office in Lower Manhattan. “Maybe you should just characterize my facial expression — ‘He smirked,’ ” Wizner said. (Except that his smirk was mixed with a frown.)

我和维茨纳在曼哈顿下城他办公室附近的一个咖啡馆会面,我问起他对库切列纳的书的看法。“也许你只需要形容一下我的面部表情——‘他哂笑了一下,’”维茨纳说(只不过他哂笑的同时还在皱眉)。

According to him, Snowden has not read Kucherena’s book. “The thing is, Ed has much bigger fish to fry,” he said. “If you had people calling for your assassination, you’d be annoyed. If you were facing life in solitary confinement, you’d be concerned. If someone wrote some book in Russia that no one is going to read, it doesn’t register.”

据维茨纳说,斯诺登没有读过库切列纳的书。“事实上,埃德有更重要的事,”他说,“如果有人说要暗杀你,你肯定也很烦恼。如果你面临终身单独监禁,你肯定也会忧虑。如果有人用俄语写了一本没人会读的书,那不算什么。”

Wizner was reluctant to discuss Kucherena’s role in Snowden’s life, but he conceded that it was somewhat unorthodox. “It seems like the ethical rules governing the attorney-­client relationship may be somewhat different in Russia,” he said. “It would be very unusual for a lawyer in a high-­profile case to provide exclusive photos of his client to newspapers or write an unauthorized book and sell it to Hollywood.”

维茨纳不愿谈论库切列纳在斯诺登生活中的角色,不过他承认,库切列纳的角色有点不合常规。“可能在俄罗斯,主导代理律师与客户关系的道德准则和美国的不太一样,”他说,“一个著名案件的律师把客户的独家照片提供给报纸,或者写了一本未获授权的书卖给好莱坞,这如果在美国会很不寻常。”

Kucherena and Wizner have never met. Whatever uneasiness there may be, Kucherena spoke warmly about his American counterpart. “We are on the same team!” he told me. “Ben works in America, I work in Russia. If he wanted to write a book, I would have no problem.” Wizner told me he has no plans to write a book about Snowden, fictional or otherwise.

库切列纳和维茨纳从未见过面。不管可能存在多少别扭,库切列纳谈起这位美国的同行时,还是很热情。“我们属于同一个团队!”他对我说,“本在美国工作,我在俄罗斯工作。如果他想写一本书,我不会有任何意见。”维茨纳对我说,他没有计划要写一本关于斯诺登的书,不管是虚构的还是纪实的。

 “Mission accomplished,” Stone announced.

“任务完成了,”斯通宣布。

We had met in the lobby bar again, the day after he filmed Snowden, and the director was in better spirits. The shoot took place at Kucherena’s dacha. The day went long. Stone’s idea was to interview Snowden and capture an affecting moment that would give the film its dramatic ending. But the first takes were stiff. “Ed is used to answering questions on a level of intelligence,” Stone said. “But I was interested in the emotional, which is difficult for him.” Stone ended up doing nine takes. At one point, they took a break and went for a walk around Kucherena’s property. By the end of the day, Stone decided that he had gotten Snowden to go as far as he was going to. “He was cooperative,” Stone said. “He wanted to make it work. But as an actor — he’s not used to that. I mean, he’s not an actor. And I don’t think he became one that day.”

斯通拍完斯诺登的第二天,我们再次在大堂酒吧会面,这位导演的精神好多了。拍摄在库切列纳的别墅进行。那天拍了很久。斯通的想法是采访斯诺登,捕捉到一个感人的时刻,给影片一个戏剧性的结尾。不过,最初几条拍得都比较僵硬。“埃德习惯于从智力层面回答问题,”斯通说,“不过我感兴趣的是情感方面的,这对他来说挺难的。”斯通最终一共拍了九条。中间某个时候,他们停下来休息,在库切列纳别墅的户外散步。那天结束时,斯通认为自己已经让斯诺登展示出他愿意展示的全部。“他很合作,”斯通说,“他想把事情做成。不过作为演员,他不习惯。我的意思是,他不是演员。我觉得他那天也没变成演员。”

To make Snowden more comfortable, Stone worked with a minimal crew. Some were meeting the whistle-­blower for the first time and still seemed a bit star-struck. “Suddenly this little creature comes teetering in — so fragile, so lovely, such a charming, well-­behaved, beautiful little man,” the cinematographer, Anthony Dod Mantle, told me. “He’s like an old soul in a very young body. He’s got fingers like violins.” Filming Snowden reminded Mantle of shooting other men with outsize reputations and slight builds. “It’s like Bono or Al Pacino,” he added. “Those guys are teeny-­weenies. But if you isolate him into a frame, he can be as big as anybody else.”

为了让斯诺登觉得更舒服,斯通把工作人员精简到最少。有些人是初次见到这位泄密者,依然有点见到大明星的感觉。“突然,这个小伙子晃着身子进来了——那么柔弱、那么可爱,那么一个充满魅力、彬彬有礼的漂亮小伙儿,”电影摄影师安东尼·多德·曼特尔(Anthony Dod Mantle)对我说,“他就像一个年迈的灵魂活在一个非常年轻的身体里。他的手指像小提琴。”拍摄斯诺登让曼特尔联想到其他一些名气超大、身材较小的男星。“就像博诺(Bono)或阿尔·帕西诺(Al Pacino),”他补充说,“那些人都是小个子。但是如果你把他单独放在镜头里,他可以和任何其他人一样高大。”

Mantle shot Danny Boyle’s “Slumdog Millionaire” and “127 Hours,” but “Snowden” proved to be a special challenge. Convinced that making the film on American soil would be too risky, Stone decided to film in Germany, where Borman was able to score some tax subsidies. With roughly 140 script pages to shoot in 54 days, the crew sprinted from Munich to Washington, to Hawaii, to Hong Kong, and then back to Munich. Often, Mantle wouldn’t get to see locations before he had to film in them. To cut costs, the suburbs of Munich had to stand in for rural Maryland and Virginia, with German extras cast as Americans. “Thank God the Germans act like Americans,” Stone said.

曼特尔拍摄过丹尼·博伊尔(Danny Boyle)的《贫民窟的百万富翁》(Slumdog Millionaire)和《127小时》(127 Hours),不过拍摄《斯诺登》被证明是个特殊挑战。斯通认定在美国领土上拍摄这部电影太有风险,所以决定在德国拍,博尔曼能在那里搞到一些税收补贴。为了在54天时间里拍完约140页的剧本,剧组马不停蹄地从慕尼黑赶到华盛顿、夏威夷、香港,然后返回慕尼黑。曼特尔通常在拍摄之前没去看拍摄地点。为了节省经费,只好用慕尼黑郊外充当马里兰州和弗尼吉亚州的乡间,由德国临时演员饰演美国人。“谢天谢地,这些德国人演得很像美国人,”斯通说。

The production itself resembled a covert operation, with a code name (“Sasha” had stuck) and elaborate security protocols. Worried that “Sasha” would be of interest to the N.S.A., Borman and Stone avoided discussing production details by phone or email — “It was all handwritten notes and long walks in the park,” Borman said — and kept the script on air-­gapped computers, ones that have never been connected to the internet. If it had to be mailed, Borman would mix up the pages into four packages, which he would send with four different couriers to four different addresses. “Maybe nobody gave a [expletive],” Borman told me. “Or maybe the N.S.A. is laughing at us like, ‘Look at those idiots — of course we copied everything that came through DHL and FedEx!”

拍摄过程本身也像是一场秘密行动,片子有代号(“萨沙”这个名字已被大家接受),还有详尽的安保规范。博尔曼和斯通担心“萨沙”引起国家安全局的关注,因此避免在电话或电子邮件里谈论制作的细节——“我们都用手写笔记,在公园里长时间地边散步边交流,”博尔曼说——保存剧本的电脑也都是气隙隔离的,从来没有接入过互联网。如果必须邮寄剧本,博尔曼就把手稿打散封装进四个包裹,使用四个不同的快递公司发往四个不同的地址。“或许根本没有人会(脏字)在乎这个,”博尔曼对我说。“又或者国家安全局会笑话我们,‘瞧瞧这帮蠢货——所有通过DHL和FedEx邮寄的东西我们当然都有副本。’”

For the actors, the frenetic schedule and paranoia on set added to the mood of the production. “Snowden himself was in the midst of a stressful situation, so the fact that our shoot was a little bit that way, I think, helped,” Gordon-­Levitt said, before catching himself. “Making the movie was obviously a walk in the park compared to what he did. But just to have those little emotional touch points can help when you’re acting.”

对于演员们来说,这种疯狂的安排和片场疑神疑鬼的气氛增加了影片拍摄中的情绪。“斯诺登本人当时就处在这样的巨大压力之下,所以,我们的拍摄也有点这样的氛围,我觉得是有帮助的,”高登-莱维特说。但他又马上改口。“当然,和他所做的事情相比,拍电影就像在公园散步一样。但是如果有了这些小小的感情触点,会对表演有帮助。”

Committed to inhabiting Snowden’s robotic speech pattern, Gordon-­Levitt lifted the audio from “Citizenfour” and played it on repeat while he slept. He also worried that some of the dialogue felt heavy-­handed. “Oliver is very into making his point,” the actor said, “as he should be. I really admire him for that. But I felt like it was my job to be like, ‘O.K., I want to make the point, too, but this is a human being and not just a mouthpiece.” Stone found Gordon-­Levitt’s approach too “documentary-­ish” at times. “I was trying for the dramatic side as much as possible,” Stone said. Fitzgerald was ultimately flown in to the set to execute last-­minute rewrites.

为了全心体会斯诺登那种有点机械的讲话方式,高登-莱维特提取了《第四公民》(Citizenfour)的音频文件,在睡觉时也重复播放。他还担心片中有些对话感觉太刻意了。“奥利佛非常喜欢表明自己的观点,”高登-莱维特说,“他应该这样做。我也非常欣赏他这一点。但是我觉得自己有责任说,‘好吧,我也想表达这个观点,但他是一个人,不仅仅是你的喉舌。’”斯通觉得高登-莱维特的方式有时候“太像纪录片”。“我尽可能地尝试戏剧性的一面,”斯通说。最后,菲茨杰拉德坐飞机来到片场,做拍摄前最后一分钟的剧本修改。

By late spring of 2015, Stone was close to wrapping when his mother, Jacqueline Goddet Stone, died at 93. She had called him in Munich, but Stone felt he couldn’t risk leaving. “To go to L.A. would have cost us three down days,” Stone told me. “I knew she was going to pass, but I thought I could make it.” Stone remained on set during the funeral and kept shooting.

2015年春天快要结束的时候,斯通的母亲杰奎琳·戈代·斯通(Jacqueline Goddet Stone)去世了,享年93岁;当时斯通的拍摄已接近尾声。他在慕尼黑曾接到母亲的电话,但斯通觉得不能冒险离开。“如果我去洛杉矶,我们就要停工三天,”斯通告诉我。“我知道她就要去世了,但我觉得来得及。”葬礼那天,斯通还在片场继续拍摄。

Stone’s trip to Moscow to film the real Snowden was the last bit he needed to complete the film. But he was still worried — that the footage would be leaked, that critics would eviscerate it, that Snowden wouldn’t like it. “I want him to vet it,” he said. He was heading to New York to begin editing and planned to return to Moscow at the end of the summer to show Snowden a rough cut. “O.K., my dear,” Stone said, getting up to leave. “See you in New York.”

斯通去莫斯科拍摄斯诺登本人,这是完成影片所需的最后一部分。但他还在担心——担心影像会泄露、担心片子会被评论家批得体无完肤,也担心斯诺登不喜欢。“我想让他审片子,”他说,当时他正要去纽约做剪辑,打算在夏末重返莫斯科,给斯诺登看一个初剪版。“好吧亲爱的,”斯通说着,起身离开。“纽约见。”

Then he disappeared for six months.

然后他就消失了六个月。

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