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法国摄影大师马克·里布,苦难中捕捉现实的美

更新时间:2016-9-2 10:27:41 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Marc Riboud, Photojournalist Who Found Grace in the Turbulent, Dies at 93
法国摄影大师马克·里布,苦难中捕捉现实的美

Marc Riboud, a celebrated French photojournalist who captured moments of grace even in the most fraught situations around the world, died in Paris on Tuesday. He was 93.

法国著名摄影记者马克·里布(Marc Riboud)于周二在巴黎去世,享年93岁。在其职业生涯中,即便置身世间最苦难的境地,他也总能捕捉到优美的瞬间。

The cause was Alzheimer’s disease, his wife, Catherine Chaine, said.

他的妻子凯瑟琳·申恩(Catherine Chaine)说,他死于阿兹海默病。

Riboud’s career of more than 60 years carried him routinely to turbulent places throughout Asia and Africa in the 1950s and ‘60s, but he may be best remembered for two photographs taken in the developed world.

里布的职业生涯长达六十余载,他在上世纪50、60年代曾经常前往亚洲和非洲的诸多纷乱之地,然而他最让人铭记的作品,却可能是在发达国家拍摄的两张照片。

The first, from 1953, is of a workman poised like an angel in overalls between a lattice of girders while painting the Eiffel Tower — one hand raising a paintbrush, one leg bent in a seemingly Chaplinesque attitude.

第一张摄于1953年,是一个正在粉刷埃菲尔铁塔的工人,穿着工装裤,在钢梁框架之间摆出天使的姿态——一手举起油漆刷,一条腿弯曲着,显出卓别林式的神韵。

The second, from 1967, is of a young woman presenting a flower to a phalanx of bayonet-wielding members of the National Guard during an anti-Vietnam War demonstration at the Pentagon.

另一张摄于1967年五角大楼前的一场反越战示威活动,一位少女向一排举着刺刀的国民卫队士兵献上了一朵花。

Both images were published in Life magazine during what is often called the golden age of photojournalism, an era Riboud (pronounced REE-boo) exemplified.

两张照片都发表在《生活》(Life)杂志上,那段时间常被称为摄影报道的黄金年代,里布是其代表人物。

A protégé of Henri Cartier-Bresson, he was on the front lines of world events, from wars to anti-war demonstrations. Even so, Riboud did not consider himself a record keeper.

从战争到反战示威,这位亨利·卡蒂埃-布列松(Henri Cartier-Bresson)的门生一直站在全球时事第一线。然而里布并不认为自己的职责是纪录事件。

“I have shot very rarely news,” he once said.

“我很少拍新闻,”他曾说。

Rather than portray the military parades or political leaders of the Soviet Union, for example, he was drawn to anonymous citizens sitting in the snow, holding miniature chess boards and absorbed in their books.

例如,他没有去刻画阅兵式或苏联政治领导人,而是被坐在雪中、拿着小棋盘、全神贯注于书本的无名百姓所吸引。

Of the many hundreds of shots he published from Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Pakistan and Turkey, only a handful are of figures written about by historians.

他发表了成百上千张拍摄于孟加拉国、柬埔寨、中国、印度、日本、巴基斯坦和土耳其的照片,其中只有一小部分涉及见诸历史学家笔端的人物。

Born on June 24, 1923, in St.-Genis-Laval, near Lyon, he was the fifth and, by his account, the most shy of seven children from a bourgeois family that expected him to take up a respectable vocation. It was his father, an enthusiastic traveler and amateur photographer, who led him astray by giving him a vest-pocket Kodak when Marc was a teenager.

里布于1923年6月24日出生于里昂附近的圣热尼拉瓦勒,一个中产阶级家庭的第五个孩子,据他自己说,他是七个孩子中最害羞的那个,家里希望他能有个体面的职业。把他引向摄影歧途的则是他的父亲,一个热爱旅行的业余摄影师,是他给了少年马克一台袖珍柯达(Kodak)相机。

His first photographs were of the Paris Exposition in 1937. After World War II, in which he fought around Vercors as a member of the Resistance, Riboud studied mechanical engineering at the École Centrale in Lyon. He took a factory job in the nearby town of Villeurbanne after graduating in 1948.

他的第一组作品拍摄的是1937年的巴黎博览会。二战期间,他作为抵抗组织的一员在韦科尔一带战斗,战后进入里昂中央理工学院(École Centrale)读机械工程。1948年毕业后,他在附近的维勒班找了一份工厂的工作。

Not until he found himself taking pictures of a cultural festival in Lyon during a one-week vacation in 1951 did he at last decide to commit to the unstable life of a freelance photojournalist. He moved to Paris in 1952.

1951年的一次为期一周的假期里,他在里昂的一个艺术节上拍起了照片,这时他才终于下定决心,要当一名从事摄影报道的自由职业者,从此过上四处奔波的生活。他在1952年搬到了巴黎。

There he met Cartier-Bresson, who became his mentor. Already a celebrity in his field, this “salutary tyrant,” as Riboud called him, dictated “which books to read, what political ideas I should have, which museums and galleries to visit.”

他在那里结识了卡蒂埃-布列松,并成为他的学生。这位被里布称为“有益的暴君”的摄影师当时已经是这一领域的名人,他规定了“我该看什么书,持有什么政治理念,去什么博物馆和画廊”。

“He taught me about life and about the art of photography,” Riboud said.

“他是我的人生和摄影艺术导师,”里布说。

Among the lessons imparted was that “good photography” is dependent on “good geometry.” The Eiffel Tower photograph from 1953, the first that Riboud published, proves how well the pupil absorbed the lesson. In a radio interview more than 50 years later, he still recalled the English-language caption given to the image by the Life copy writers: “Blithe-ful on the Eiffel.”

他学到的其中一条是,“好的摄影”取决于“好的几何”。那张摄于1953年的埃菲尔铁塔是里布发表的第一张照片,证明了他作为一个学生已经很好地领会了这一课。在五十多年后的一次电台访谈中,他说当时《生活》的文案给照片起的英文图说是:“信步埃菲尔”。

In 1953, Cartier-Bresson nominated his protégé to join Magnum, the photo collective he had helped found. Until 1979, when he left to go out on his own, Riboud traveled and photographed for the agency constantly.

1953年,卡蒂埃-布列松向他参与创办的马格南图片社(Magnum)推荐了他的学生。此后里布不断在外旅行,为马格南拍摄照片,直到1979年才离开那里,开始独立工作。

In 1955, he drove a specially equipped Land Rover to Calcutta from Paris, staying for a year in India. He was also one of the first Westerners to photograph in China and spent three months in the Soviet Union in 1960.

1955年,他开着一辆改装过的路虎从巴黎出发前往加尔各答,在印度待了一年。他还是最早在中国拍摄照片的西方人之一,1960年又在苏联待了三个月。

Throughout the 1950s and ‘60s he documented the anti-colonial independence movements in Algeria and West Africa, and during the Vietnam War he was among the few able to move easily between the North and South.

在整个50、60年代,他纪录了阿尔及利亚和西非的反殖民独立运动,在越南战争期间,他是少数能任意往来于南北的人之一。

In the United States, he documented not only protests against the Vietnam War but also a pensive Maureen Dean listening to her husband, Nixon aide John W. Dean, testify at the Watergate hearings in 1973.

在美国,他不但纪录了反越战抗议活动,还捕捉到毛琳·迪恩(Maureen Dean)在忧心忡忡地听着她的丈夫、尼克松的助手约翰·W·迪恩(John W. Dean)的讲话,当时他在1973年的水门事件听证会上接受问讯。

Among the events he documented in recent decades were the return of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini to Iran; the Solidarity movement in Poland; the trial of Klaus Barbie, the Gestapo chief in Lyon during World War II; the end of apartheid in South Africa; and the mood in the United States before the election of President Barack Obama.

最近几十年他纪录过的事件包括阿亚图拉鲁霍拉·霍梅尼(Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini)回到伊朗;波兰团结工会;二战期间的里昂盖世太保头子克劳斯·巴比(Klaus Barbie)受审;贝拉克·奥巴马总统当选前美国的气氛。

In 1961, he married Barbara Chase, an American sculptor, poet and novelist. The marriage ended in divorce in the 1980s. Besides his second wife, Chaine, a journalist and author, Riboud is survived by two sons from his first marriage, David and Alexei; and, from his second marriage, a daughter, Clémence, and a son, Théo.

1961年,他和美国雕塑家、诗人、小说家芭芭拉·蔡斯(Barbara Chase)结婚。两人在上世纪80年代离婚。除了身为记者和作家的第二任妻子申恩以外,里布身后还留有第一段婚姻养育的两个儿子——戴维(David)和亚力克赛(Alexei),以及第二段婚姻养育的女儿克莱门丝(Clémence)和儿子蒂奥(Théo)。

“My vision of the world is simple,” Riboud said when he was in his 80s. “Tomorrow, each new day, I want to see the city, take new photographs, meet people and wander alone.”

“我的世界观很简单,”里布曾在八十多岁的时候说。“明天,未来的每一天,我都想看看这座城市,拍些照片,认识一些人,一个人闲逛。”

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