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安妮·弗兰克的悲剧正在重演

更新时间:2016-8-29 18:48:52 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Anne Frank Today Is a Syrian Girl
安妮·弗兰克的悲剧正在重演

AMSTERDAM — On April 30, 1941, a Jewish man here in Amsterdam wrote a desperate letter to an American friend, pleading for help emigrating to the United States.

阿姆斯特丹——1941年4月30日,一个阿姆斯特丹的犹太男子在情急之下给一位美国朋友写了一封信,恳求这位朋友协助他移民美国。

“U.S.A. is the only country we could go to,” he wrote. “It is for the sake of the children mainly.”

“美国是我们唯一能去的国家了,”他写道。“这主要是为了孩子的缘故。”

A volunteer found that plea for help in 2005 when she was sorting old World War II refugee files in New York City. It looked like countless other files, until she saw the children’s names.

2005年,一名义工在整理纽约市二战期间的难民档案时,发现了这封求救信。它看起来与其他无数的档案并无不同,直到这位义工看到了孩子的名字。

“Oh my God,” she said, “this is the Anne Frank file.” Along with the letter were many others by Otto Frank, frantically seeking help to flee Nazi persecution and obtain a visa to America, Britain or Cuba — but getting nowhere because of global indifference to Jewish refugees.

“天哪,”她说。“这是安妮‧弗兰克(Anne Frank)的档案。”和这封信归在一起的还有奥托‧弗兰克(Otto Frank)写的许多信件,他疯狂地求助,希望取得前往美国、英国,或古巴的签证,逃离纳粹迫害。然而,由于世界各国对犹太难民漠不关心,他四处碰壁。

We all know that the Frank children were murdered by the Nazis, but what is less known is the way Anne’s fate was sealed by a callous fear of refugees, among the world’s most desperate people.

我们都知道弗兰克家的孩子被纳粹杀害了。不过比较不为人知的是,人们对难民的冷漠的恐惧决定了安妮的命运,而难民是世界上最绝望的一群人。

Sound familiar?

听起来很耳熟么?

President Obama vowed to admit 10,000 Syrian refugees — a tiny number, just one-fifth of 1 percent of the total — and Hillary Clinton suggested taking more. Donald Trump has repeatedly excoriated them for a willingness to welcome Syrians and has called for barring Muslims. Fears of terrorism have left Muslim refugees toxic in the West, and almost no one wants them any more than anyone wanted a German-Dutch teenager named Anne.

奥巴马总统曾承诺要让1万名叙利亚难民入境,这个微不足道的数字只占全体难民的0.2%。希拉里·克林顿提议收容更多人。唐纳德‧特朗普已数度严词批判这两人接纳叙利亚人的意愿,还呼吁将穆斯林排除在外。西方世界出于对恐怖主义的恐惧,将穆斯林难民视为毒蛇猛兽,几乎没有人想要接受他们,就像没有人想要接受那个名叫安妮的德裔荷兰女孩一样。

“No one takes their family into hiding in the heart of an occupied city unless they are out of options,” notes Mattie J. Bekink, a consultant at the Anne Frank House in Amsterdam. “No one takes their child on a flimsy boat to cross the Mediterranean unless they are desperate.”

“除非已经别无选择,没有人会想带着自己的家人躲在纳粹占领的城市中心。” 阿姆斯特丹安妮‧弗兰克之家博物馆(Anne Frank House)的顾问玛蒂‧J‧裴金(Mattie J. Bekink)指出。“也没有人会把自己的孩子带上一艘破船去横渡地中海,除非他们已经走投无路。”

The son of a World War II refugee myself, I’ve been researching the anti-refugee hysteria of the 1930s and ’40s. As Bekink suggests, the parallels to today are striking.

身为二战难民之子,一直以来,我都在研究20世纪30与40年代歇斯底里的反难民心态。正如裴金所见,今天的情形与历史有着惊人的相似。

For the Frank family, a new life in America seemed feasible. Anne had studied English shorthand, and her father spoke English, had lived on West 71st Street in Manhattan, and had been a longtime friend of Nathan Straus Jr., an official in the Franklin Roosevelt administration.

对弗兰克一家人来说,在美国展开新生活似乎是可行之道。安妮学过英文速记,她的父亲会说英语,曾住在曼哈顿71西街,也是小内森‧施特劳斯(Nathan Straus Jr.)的老友。施特劳斯是富兰克林‧罗斯福(Franklin Roosevelt)政府的官员。

The obstacle was an American wariness toward refugees that outweighed sympathy. After the 1938 Kristallnacht pogrom against Jews, a poll found that 94 percent of Americans disapproved of Nazi treatment of Jews, but 72 percent still objected to admitting large numbers of Jews.

但他们面对的障碍是美国人对难民的戒心胜过了同情心。1938年德国反犹太的“水晶之夜”屠杀行动之后,一项调查显示,有94%的美国人不赞同纳粹对待犹太人的方式,但仍有72%的人反对让大批犹太人入境。

The reasons for the opposition then were the same as they are for rejecting Syrians or Hondurans today: We can’t afford it, we should look after Americans first, we can’t accept everybody, they’ll take American jobs, they’re dangerous and different.

民众在当时反对犹太人的理由,和他们如今拒绝叙利亚人、洪都拉斯人所用的理由一模一样:我们负担不起;我们应当先照顾自己人;我们不能接纳任何人,他们会抢走美国人的工作;这些人很危险,和我们很不一样。

“The United States, if it continues to be the world’s asylum and poorhouse, would soon wreck its present economic life,” the New York Chamber of Commerce warned in 1934.

“美国要是继续充当全世界的收容所、济贫院,很快就会毁了当今的经济生活,”纽约商会(New York Chamber of Commerce)在1934年时如此警告。

Some readers are objecting: But Jews weren’t a threat the way Syrian refugees are! In the 1930s and ’40s, though, a world war was underway and Jews were widely seen as potential Communists or even Nazis. There were widespread fears that Germany would infiltrate the U.S. with spies and saboteurs under the cover that they were Jewish refugees.

有些读者要表示反对了:可是犹太人不同于今天的叙利亚人,他们不构成威胁啊!然而在20世纪的30与40年代,世界大战烽烟四起,犹太人普遍被视为潜在的共产党甚至纳粹党分子。有一种广泛的担忧,认为德国的间谍、破坏分子可能会伪装成犹太难民,潜入美国。

“When the safety of the country is imperiled, it seems fully justifiable to resolve any possible doubts in favor of the country, rather than in favor of the aliens,” the State Department instructed in 1941. The New York Times in 1938 quoted the granddaughter of President Ulysses S. Grant warning about “so-called Jewish refugees” and hinting that they were Communists “coming to this country to join the ranks of those who hate our institutions and want to overthrow them.”

“当国家安全岌岌可危,依照对国家有利而非对外国人有利的方式化解任何可能的疑难,这似乎是完全正当的,”美国国务院在1941年如此指示。《纽约时报》在1938年引述了格兰特(Ulysses S. Grant)总统的孙女的一段言论,让人提防“所谓的犹太难民”,并暗示这些人是共产党员,“来到我国是为加入那些憎恨我国体制并意图实施颠覆人的行列”。

News organizations didn’t do enough to humanize refugees and instead, tragically, helped spread xenophobia. The Times published a front-page article about the risks of Jews becoming Nazi spies, and The Washington Post published an editorial thanking the State Department for keeping out Nazis posing as refugees.

新闻机构对于呈现难民人性的一面非但做得不够,反而还为传播仇外心理推波助澜。《纽约时报》曾在头版文章里探讨犹太人成为纳粹间谍的风险;《华盛顿邮报》(Washington Post)则发表了社论,感谢国务院将乔装成难民的纳粹拒于门外。

In this political environment, officials and politicians lost all humanity.

在这种政治环境里,官员与政治人物丧失了人道关怀。

“Let Europe take care of its own,” argued Senator Robert Reynolds, a North Carolina Democrat who also denounced Jews. Representative Stephen Pace, a Georgia Democrat, went a step further, introducing legislation calling for the deportation of “every alien in the United States.”

“让欧洲自力更生吧,”北卡罗来纳州的民主党参议员罗伯特‧雷诺兹(Robert Reynolds)这么主张;他也对犹太人加以谴责。佐治亚州的民主党众议员斯蒂芬‧佩斯(Stephen Pace)更进一步,提出立法,要将“美国境内的每一个外国人”都驱逐出境。

A State Department official, Breckinridge Long, systematically tightened rules on Jewish refugees. In this climate, Otto Frank was unable to get visas for his family members, who were victims in part of American paranoia, demagogy and indifference.

国务院官员布雷肯里奇·隆(Breckinridge Long)系统性地紧缩关于犹太难民的法规。在此种氛围下,奥托‧弗兰克无法取得签证,一家人遂成为美国人的善惊多疑、煽动民意与冷漠无情的受害者。

History rhymes. As I’ve periodically argued, President Obama’s reluctance to do more to try to end the slaughter in Syria casts a shadow on his legacy, and there’s simply no excuse for the world’s collective failure to ensure that Syrian refugee children in neighboring countries at least get schooling.

历史事件总是遥相呼应。如同我再三说过的,奥巴马总统迟迟不愿采取更多行动以终止叙利亚的大屠杀,这给他的政治遗产蒙上阴影。而世界各国不能合力保障相邻国家境内的叙利亚难民儿童至少能够获得学校教育,这是完全无法原谅的。

Today, to our shame, Anne Frank is a Syrian girl.

今天的安妮·弗兰克,是一个叙利亚小女孩。这是我们的耻辱。

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