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在纽约博物馆体验未完成的艺术

更新时间:2016-8-27 8:02:59 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

What Do You See in Art? Nearly 50 People Told Us
在纽约博物馆体验未完成的艺术

MARTIN R. ANDERSON, 65, squints to appreciate the geometry of paintings at the museum. Kate Davis, 24, says the sunlight that bounces off museum walls and onto the art can’t be reproduced. Stan Kaplan, 65, flies across the country just to see a Leonardo da Vinci drawing “more beautiful” than the Mona Lisa. And an elderly woman posts to Facebook a selfie of herself beside a masterwork, presumably commencing an avalanche of social-media approval.

65岁的马丁·R·安德森(Martin R. Anderson)眯着眼睛观赏博物馆中油画的几何构图。24岁的凯特·戴维斯(Kate Davis)说,从博物馆墙壁反射到艺术品上的阳光是不可复制的。65岁的斯坦·卡普兰(Stan Kaplan)坐飞机穿越整个国家,就为了看一眼列奥纳多·达·芬奇(Leonardo da Vinci)比《蒙娜·丽莎》“还要美”的一幅画。一位年长的女人在Facebook主页上贴出了一张她在一幅大师杰作旁边的自拍,估计会得到社交媒体上的大量点赞。

These were observations collected during a summer at New York City’s “newest” museum, the Met Breuer, an outpost of the Metropolitan Museum of Art that opened in March in the former home of the Whitney Museum of American Art. There’s not much theatrical about the scenes — unlike, say, the one that featured two teenagers in San Francisco who placed eyeglasses on the floor of an art museum so they could watch tourists gather around their “installation” with fascination. But taken together, they are a gauge — imperfect and impressionistic — of what draws people to museums and what they see when they get there. They are reflections of the times, too, reminders that art is digested in ways it wasn’t. Art rewards internalization, but distractions surround us. Cultural critique is instant, impulsive, and travels virally.

这些都是夏天在纽约城中“最新”的博物馆——大都会博物馆布劳耶分馆(the Met Breuer)中看到的景象,它是今年3月大都会博物馆在前惠特尼美国艺术馆开办的分馆。这些场面没什么戏剧性——不像旧金山发生的事,有两个青少年把眼镜放在一家美术馆的地板上,好笑地看着游客们聚拢过来看他们的“装置艺术”。但是总的来说,这些情景是一种标准——虽然并不完美,而且也只是一种印象而已——它们反映出是什么东西吸引着人们到博物馆来,他们到这里来看什么。它们也是时代的反映,提醒人们艺术正在以不同以往的方式被理解着。艺术关乎内化,但我们周围充斥着令人分心的事物。艺术评论转瞬即逝、感情用事,并且传播得极为迅速。

We tried to find out what goes on in the mind of the modern museumgoer, unscientifically, by staking out the Met Breuer and interviewing nearly 50 art gazers over the course of two months, their pensive moments pierced by our questions as they peered at works. The setting was the Breuer’s big inaugural exhibition “Unfinished: Thoughts Left Visible,” as provocative a springboard for opinions as any. It focuses on the notion of “unfinished” art and does so broadly, displaying works that were never finished, works that are intentionally incomplete (non finito), and art that prompts conceptual discussion about what is complete, like a Jackson Pollock drip painting. The two-floor exhibition — which ends its six-month run next weekend — spans the 1400s to today and features artists as varied as Titian, Andy Warhol and a teenage Pablo Picasso.

两个月来,我们以并不合乎科学的方法,通过在大都会博物馆布劳耶分馆进行观察,以及对50个来博物馆的人进行采访,试着发现去现代博物馆的人心里都在想什么,他们在观赏作品时候的沉思一刻,被我们的问题打断。我们选择的展览是布劳耶的大型首展《未完成:能看到的想法》(Unfinished: Thoughts Left Visible),它和许多展览一样富于争议,引发了许多观点。它聚焦“未完成”的艺术这个广义的观念,展示那些从未完成的作品、刻意未完成的作品(non finito),以及引发了关于“完成的作品”概念争议的作品,比如一幅杰克逊·波洛克(Jackson Pollock)的滴画。展览占据两层楼,为时6个月,将于下周末结束,展品从15世纪跨越至今,有提香(Titian)、安迪·沃霍尔(Andy Warhol)和青少年时期的巴勃罗·毕加索(Pablo Picasso)等多种艺术家的作品。

As for those interviewed, they included students who said museums were like “eating your vegetables” and romantics who cherish their lunch breaks, when they can hop in a cab to go steal a few quiet minutes in front of a beloved painting they have already gazed at dozens of times before.

受访者中有学生,他们说来博物馆就像“吃蔬菜”,还有趁着午休时赶来的浪漫主义者,他们愿意坐出租车赶来,在心爱的油画面前享受安静的几分钟时间,而这些画他们之前其实已经看过几十次了。

A handful of works in particular generated the most comment (a deathbed portrait of an artist’s mistress, a painting of someone being skinned alive) and common themes emerged over time (the ubiquity of technology, people’s short attention spans).

有几幅作品获得了特别多的评价(比如一位艺术家的情妇临终时刻的油画,一幅表现活剥人皮的油画),随着采访进行,有一些共同的主题渐渐开始出现(技巧的普遍性,人们的注意力持续时间之短)。

Here’s what museumgoers said.

下面是一些来博物馆的人说的话。

The artwork: “James Hunter Black Draftee” (1965) by Alice Neel

艺术品:《詹姆斯·亨特黑人新兵》(James Hunter Black Draftee,1965),爱丽丝·尼尔(Alice Neel)

Mr. Anderson’s take: “He probably did get killed because his family would have heard about this painting and said something by now.”

安德森的观点:“他可能已经被杀死了,否则他的家人肯定会听说过这幅画,时至今天,他们会出来说点什么。”

Another perspective: “When I saw this image in the advertisements, I saw it as contemporary, like an album cover.” — Steve Wolkwitz, 25, a student

另一种角度:“当我看到这幅画被用在广告里时,我觉得它是当代艺术,就像唱片封套一样。”——史蒂夫·沃尔克维茨(Steve Wolkwitz),25岁,学生

The artwork: “Self-Portrait With Wig” (1898-1900) by Pablo Picasso

艺术品:《戴假发的自画像》(Self-Portrait With Wig,1898-1900),巴勃罗·毕加索

Ms. Kops’ take: “He was probably drunk.”

科普斯(Ms. Kops)的观点:“他可能喝醉了。”

Another perspective: “I didn’t know it was a Picasso. And then like, whoa. It’s a Picasso.” — Normandie Syken, 20, an illustrator

另一种角度:“我一开始不知道这是毕加索的画,知道了以后才觉得,哇。这是毕加索。”——诺曼迪·西肯(Normandie Syken),20岁,插画家

The artwork: “Untitled I-VI (Green Paintings)” (circa 1986) by Cy Twombly

艺术品:《无标题 I-VI(绿色油画)》(Untitled I-VI [Green Paintings],约1986),赛·通布利(Cy Twombly)

Mr. Meyerhofer’s take: “I want to hate it, but it’s so good.”

梅尔霍夫(Mr. Meyerhofer)的观点:“我本想讨厌它,但它实在太棒了。”

“It’s awful algae green. But you can’t deny it. It grabs you. But part of me thinks it is so crude.”

“它是一种可怕的水藻绿。但是你无法抗拒。它能吸引你的注意力。但是我也觉得它有点粗糙。”

The artwork: “The Flaying of Marsyas” (probably 1570s) by Titian

艺术品:《马斯亚斯的剥皮》(The Flaying of Marsyas,可能是16世纪70年代),提香。

Mr. Meyerhofer’s take: “It’s so violent and awful. My husband would say, ‘I wouldn’t want this on the wall of my living room.’ This must have been the equivalent of a horror movie back in the day.”

梅尔霍夫先生的观点:“它非常暴力,非常吓人。我的丈夫会说,‘我可不想在起居室里挂这么一幅画。’这在当年可能就相当于恐怖片吧。”

Another perspective: “You’re imagining what is he going to do with that knife. The bucket: Is it enough to hold? And his eyes — he can see the pain coming.” — Stan Kaplan, 65, Los Angeles

另一种角度:“你会想像他拿着这把刀要干什么。那个桶,足够用来盛血吗?还有他的眼睛——他可以看到痛苦正在到来。”——斯坦·卡普兰,65岁,洛杉矶

The artwork: “The Vision of Saint John” (1609-14) by El Greco

艺术品:《圣约翰的形象》(The Vision of Saint John,1609-14),埃尔·格列柯(El Greco)

Ms. Campbell’s take: “It could have been a blue sky, but maybe it was going to be dark and stormy.”

坎贝尔女士(Ms. Campbell)的观点:“天本来应该是蓝的,可能会阴沉下去,下起狂风骤雨。”

Another perspective: “It’s so modern. And what’s with these crazy babies floating around?” — William Meyerhofer

另一种观点:“它很现代。这些疯狂的婴儿们飘来飘去是干什么的?”——威廉·梅耶霍夫(William Meyerhofer)

The artwork: “Head of a Woman (La Scapigliata)” (1500-5) by Leonardo da Vinci

艺术品:《女子头像(La Scapigliata)》(Head of a Woman [La Scapigliata],1500-5),列奥纳多·达芬奇

Mr. Miozzo’s take: “This is unfinished, but you can see the psychology of a character. It forces you to think what is in the mind of this young woman. It makes me think, Who was she? What was she thinking?”

米奥佐先生(Mr. Miozzo)的观点:“这幅画没有完成,但是你可以看出人物的心理。它迫使你去思考,这个年轻女人的心里在想什么。它让我去思考,她是谁?她在想什么?”

Another perspective: “I think about how much more beautiful she is than the Mona Lisa.” — Stan Kaplan

另一种角度:“我觉得她比蒙娜·丽莎美多了。”——斯坦·卡普兰

Another perspective: “You need to see this one with your own eyes. No reproduction I’ve seen comes close to this.” — Martin R. Anderson

另一种角度:“你应该亲眼看看这幅画。我见过的复制品都不能与它相比。”——马丁·R·安德森

The artwork: “You or Me” (2005) by Maria Lassnig

艺术品:《你或我》(You or Me, 2005),玛丽亚·拉斯尼戈(Maria Lassnig)

Ms. Choi’s take: “It made me think about women in Korea, where I read that the suicide rate is [very high]. For some reason, I thought about that.”

崔女士(Ms. Choi)的观点:“它让我想起韩国的女人,我读到那里的自杀率(非常高)。出于某些原因,我就是想起这个。”

Another perspective: “This is brave. She’s old. She’s overweight. Think about how courageous this is.” — Michele Miozzo

另一种角度:“这很勇敢。她很老,她很胖。想想这有多么勇敢吧。”——米歇尔·米奥佐(Michele Miozzo)

The artwork: “Cart Full of Action” (1986) by Cady Noland

艺术品:《装满物品的推车》(Cart Full of Action, 1986),卡迪·诺兰(Cady Noland)

Ms. Davis’ take: “I don’t like this. I think the question is not even if it is finished but is this even art? I could see this in a parking lot.”

戴维斯女士的观点:“我不喜欢它。我觉得问题不是它有没有完成,而是它究竟算不算艺术?我在停车场里也能看见这样的东西。”

Another perspective: “This is what the artist is putting into the world. Nothing is a waste of space.” — Tony White, 29, Louisville

另一种角度:“这就是艺术家带给世界的东西。没有什么是对空间的浪费。”——托尼·怀特(Tony White),29岁,路易斯维尔

The artwork: “Gardanne” (1885-86) by Paul Cézanne

艺术品:《贾达尼》(Gardanne, 1885-86),保罗·塞尚(Paul Cézanne)

Michelle Oliveira’s take: “The curious thing to me is why are these unfinished. What better thing did Picasso or Cézanne feel they needed to go and do? Grab a coffee? Go kiss a girl?”

米歇尔·奥利维拉(Michelle Oliveira)的观点:“让我好奇的是,那些作品为什么没能完成。毕加索和塞尚觉得他们最好还是做点别的什么事吗?去喝杯咖啡?去吻一个女孩?”

Nilza Oliveira’s take: “An artist is never finished so their art is never finished. When you finish it, you kill it. Leaving it unfinished, you keep it alive.”

尼尔扎·奥利维拉(Nilza Oliveira)的观点:“艺术家永远不会止步,所以他们的艺术也永远不会完成。一旦完成就是杀死了它,让它保持未完成的状态,就是让它活着。”

The artwork: “Bouquet of Peonies in a Green Jar” (1898) by Paul Cézanne

艺术品:《绿色花瓶中的牡丹花束》(Bouquet of Peonies in a Green Jar,1898),保罗·塞尚

Mr. Scotch’s take: “Those empty spaces could be light. If you put more there, it’s almost too much information. Like this it is allowed to breathe.”

斯科奇先生(Mr. Scotch)的观点:“这些留白应该是光。如果你再添加什么东西,信息就几乎太多了。像这样,就有了呼吸的空间。”

Another perspective: “There are only a few strokes here. But I can tell the petals feel velvet.” — Michele Miozzo

另一种角度:“画上只有寥寥几笔,但我可以感觉到花瓣丝绒般的质感。”——米切尔·米奥佐

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