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英国减排模范村,草根环保何须政客多嘴

更新时间:2016-8-26 10:14:54 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

English Village Becomes Climate Leader by Quietly Cleaning Up Its Own Patch
英国减排模范村,草根环保何须政客多嘴

ASHTON HAYES, England — This small village of about 1,000 people looks like any other nestled in the countryside.

英国阿什顿海斯——这个约有1000人的小村子与其他乡镇并无二致。

But Ashton Hayes is different in an important way when it comes to one of the world’s most pressing issues: climate change. Hundreds of residents have banded together to cut greenhouse gas emissions — they use clotheslines instead of dryers, take fewer flights, install solar panels and glaze windows to better insulate their homes.

不过一讲到“气候变化”这个世上最紧要的问题之一,阿什顿海斯就有了举足轻重的独特之处。该村数百位村民结成同一阵线来减少温室气体的排放。他们用晾晒取代烘干机、减少搭乘飞机、安装太阳能板,并且改造窗户以加强隔热效果。

The effort, reaching its 10th anniversary this year, has led to a 24 percent cut in emissions, according to surveys by a professor of environmental sustainability who lives here.

根据住在这里的一位研究环境持续性的教授所做的调查,十年下来,他们的努力已经使当地碳排放减少了24%。

But what makes Ashton Hayes unusual is its approach — the residents have done it themselves, without prodding from government. About 200 towns, cities and counties around the world — including Notteroy, Norway; Upper Saddle River, New Jersey; and Changhua County, Taiwan — have reached out to learn how the villagers here did it.

然而,真正使得阿什顿海斯与众不同的是他们的做法──这些行动都是村民在没有政府驱策的情况下自发而为的。全世界有200多个城镇与国家都来取过经,想学习这些村民是怎么办到的,其中包括了挪威的讷特岛(Notteroy)、美国新泽西州的上马鞍河(Upper Saddle River) ,还有台湾的彰化县。

As climate science has become more accepted, and the effects of a warming planet are becoming increasingly clear, Ashton Hayes is a case study for the next phase of battling climate change: getting people to change their habits.

当气候科学更多地被人接受,地球暖化的效应也渐趋明显,说到对抗气候变化的下一阶段──让民众改变生活习惯──阿什顿海斯是很好的研究个案。

“We just think everyone should try to clean up their patch,” said Rosemary Dossett, a resident of the village. “And rather than going out and shouting about it, we just do it.”

“我们只是觉得每个人都该把自己的地方打理好,”村民罗斯玛莉‧杜赛特(Rosemary Dossett)表示。“与其到外头去嚷嚷这个主张,我们不如就实践它了。”

One of their secrets, it seems, is that the people of Ashton Hayes feel in charge, rather than following government policies. When the member of Parliament who represents the village showed up at their first public meeting in January 2006, he was told he could not make any speeches.

而阿什顿海斯的秘诀之一,似乎是居民觉得自己在当家作主,而不是跟随政府的政策。当他们在2006年1月首次为减排举办公开会议时,代表该村的国会议员前往与会,却被告知他不能发表任何谈话。

“We said, ‘This is not about you tonight, this is about us, and you can listen to what we’ve got to say for a change,'” said Kate Harrison, a resident and early member of the group.

“我们说:‘今晚的主角不是你,是我们。你可以听听我们对变化有什么话要说。’”村民凯特‧哈里森(Kate Harrison)说。她也是这个团体的早期成员。

No politician has been allowed to address the group since. The village has kept the effort separate from party politics, which residents thought would only divide them along ideological lines.

从那时起,再没有政治人物得以对该团体发表意见。该村不想让自己的努力沾上政党政治,因为居民认为,政治只会让他们陷入意识形态的分化。

The project was started by Garry Charnock, a former journalist who trained as a hydrologist and has lived in the village for about 30 years. He got the idea a little more than a decade ago after attending a lecture about climate change at the Hay Festival, an annual literary gathering in Wales. He decided to try to get Ashton Hayes to become, as he put it, “Britain’s first carbon-neutral village.”

这个减排计划是由盖瑞‧查纳克(Garry Charnock)发起的,他是水文学家出身,曾当过记者,在阿什顿海斯住了大约30年。10年多一点之前,他在海伊艺术节(Hay Festival)听了一场关于气候变化的演讲,产生了这个想法。这个一年一度在威尔斯举办的艺术节是个文学性聚会。查纳克决意让阿什顿海斯成为——用他的话来讲,就是“英国的第一个碳中和村庄”。

“But even if we don’t,” he recalls thinking at the time, “let’s try to have a little fun.”

“不过就算我们办不到,”查纳克忆及自己当时的想法,“也可以当作是给生活找点乐子。”

Sometimes, efforts to reduce greenhouse gases involve guilt-tripping or doomsday scenarios that make people feel as if the problem is too overwhelming to tackle.

有时为了减少温室气体,我们会去引发罪恶感或是描绘末日情景,让大家觉得问题仿佛大到令人束手无策。

In Ashton Hayes — about 25 miles southeast of Liverpool, with a 19th-century Anglican church and a community-owned shop that doubles as a post office — the villagers have lightened the mood.

而在阿什顿海斯,这个位于利物浦东南方25英里(约40公里)处、有个19世纪的英国圣公会教堂和一个全村公营的店铺兼邮局的小地方,村民决定还是不要搞得这么悲情。

They hold public wine-and-cheese meetings in the biggest houses in town, “so everyone can have a look around,” and see how the wealthier people live, said Charnock, executive director of RSK, an environmental consulting company. “We don’t ever finger-wag in Ashton Hayes.”

他们在村中心最大的房子里举办公开聚会,现场供应酒与奶酪,“所以大家都能来瞧瞧”,并且见识一下手头比较宽裕的人过着怎样的生活;环境顾问公司RSK的执行主任查纳克表示。“我们阿什顿海斯的人从来不去谴责别人。”

About 650 people — more than half of the village’s residents — showed up to the first meeting, Charnock said. Some in the village were less keen, but little by little, they began to participate.

查诺克说,有大约650人出席了第一次会议,超过了全村半数居民。有些人原本不那么热衷,后来也逐渐开始参与了。

Some have gone further. When they were looking to build their energy-efficient home and heard about Ashton Hayes’ carbon-neutral project, Dossett and her husband, Ian, thought it might be the perfect village for them.

有些人的做法又更进一步。杜赛特和先生伊恩从前想为自己盖一栋节能的屋子,又听说了阿什顿海斯的碳中和计划,便觉得该村可能是完美的选择。

They moved from nearby South Warrington and found two old farm cottages, which they converted into a two-story brick house, and installed huge triple-glazed windows, photovoltaic cells on the roof, a geothermal heat pump that heats the home and its water, and an underground cistern to hold rainwater for toilets and the garden.

他们从邻近的南沃灵顿(South Warrington)搬来此地,找到两间老农舍并改建成一栋两层楼的砖房。这栋房子加装了大片的三层玻璃窗、屋顶有光电池、有地热泵给房子供暖与加​​热水源,还有一个收集雨水的地下储水槽提供厕所与花园用水。

“I wouldn’t want anyone to think we live in a mud hut,” Dossett said, sitting on a couch in her warm, well-lit living room.

“我不想任何人以为我们住在泥巴棚子里,”杜赛特女士坐在自家温暖明亮的客厅里说道。

The Dossetts also have a vegetable garden, grow grapes for wine, brew beer and keep two cows, which mow the lawn and may also eventually become food in a few years. They pay about 500 pounds (about $650) a year for electricity and heating.

杜赛特家还有个蔬菜温室,除了种植酿酒用的葡萄,他们还自酿啤酒,又养了两头牛来给草坪除草;几年后这些牛也有可能成为盘中餐。他们每年的电费与暖气费大约是500英镑(约650美元,或约4400人民币)。

Though deep cuts across the globe are still required to make broader progress, actions to reduce emissions, even by small towns, are a step in the right direction, say experts who study community action on climate change.

研究社区气候变化行动的专家表示,虽然减排要有更显著的进展,需要世界各地的大幅减量,不过即便只是出自小城镇的减排行动,也是在朝着正确方向迈进。

“The community-building element of all this has been as important as the environmental impact so far,” said Sarah Darby, a researcher at Oxford University’s Environmental Change Institute.

“对所有的减排行动来说,建立社区意识都和行动所造成的环境效应同样重要,”牛津大学环境变化中心(Environmental Change Institute)的研究员莎拉‧达比(Sarah Darby)表示。

She added that Ashton Hayes was in a good position to take on these kinds of projects — it is a small village of well-off and well-educated people, so simply taking fewer flights each year can have a big effect.

达比又说,阿什顿海斯有很好的条件来执行这类计划── 该村规模小,居民富裕且教育程度高,所以他们就算每年只是少搭几趟飞机也能产生很大影响。

Residents were able to cut emissions by about 20 percent in the first year alone, according to surveys used to calculate carbon footprints that were developed by Roy Alexander, a local professor, and his students.

根据当地教授罗伊‧亚历山大(Roy Alexander)与他的学生建立的碳足迹测量法,该村居民光是在采取行动的第一年就可以减少20%的碳排放。

Some have had even more significant reductions: Households that participated in surveys in both the first and 10th years shrank their energy use by about 40 percent.

有些村民的减排量更为显著:那些第一年与第十年都参与测量的家庭,能源消耗量减少了大约40%。

Charnock said he thought the village could get the cuts in its 2006 carbon footprint to 80 percent in the next few years with the help of grant money to buy and install solar panels on the local school and other buildings.

查纳克表示,他认为该村在有补助金协助购买太阳能板,并装设于当地学校与其他建筑之后,能在接下来几年内把2006年时的碳足迹减少80%。

The next thing they have to do, he said, is to get the county government to be as committed to cutting emissions as Ashton Hayes is.

他还说,他们接下来要做的是让郡政府也像阿什顿海斯一样致力减排。

“There’s so much apathy,” Charnock said. “We need to squeeze that layer of apathy jelly and get it out.”

“无动于衷的人实在太多了,”查纳克说。“我们要着手让这种冷漠的心态消失。”

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