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更新时间:2016-8-24 18:37:48 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

How to Get the Most out of Visiting World-Famous Sites

If you’re visiting Florence, Italy, you’ve got to see the world-famous Uffizi Gallery. But why? Because that’s what one does in Florence? Because you feel compelled to post a selfie in front of Botticelli’s “Birth of Venus”?

探访意大利的佛罗伦萨,一定要去世界闻名的乌菲齐美术馆(Uffizi Gallery)。但这是为什么呢?因为这是去佛罗伦萨必须要做的事?因为你觉得必须得在波提切利(Botticelli)的《维纳斯的诞生》(Birth of Venus)前来张自拍吗?

Those are obviously terrible reasons. We shouldn’t go to places because they’re world-famous; we should go to fully appreciate the thing that made them world-famous — an unparalleled collection of Renaissance art, for example. But that requires a thoughtful, well-planned visit, not just following the masses, snapping pictures and checking it off your bucket list.


I spoke with those in charge of some of the world’s great attractions to glean strategies for making the most of a visit, both substantive improvements and simple beat-the-crowds techniques. Because, no matter how great the view is from the crown of Lady Liberty, you don’t want to wait in a long line to get there.


Actually, you can’t visit the crown at all without serious planning. “On busy days you’re talking 25,000 people on a small island, and 500 a day get to the crown,” said Michael Amato, the lead park ranger for the Statue of Liberty National Monument. “Right now we’re sold out until late October, early November.” So it’s not so simple as “plan in advance.” You need to check on what’s available only in advance — say, tickets for a performance.

事实上,如果不做认真的计划,根本就上不了自由女神皇冠。“在繁忙的日子里,每天有2.5万人登岛,每天有500人登上皇冠,”自由女神像国家纪念公园( Statue of Liberty National Monument)的负责人迈克尔·阿玛托(Michael Amato)说。“现在,我们的票已经卖到了10月底11月初。”所以,不是“提前做计划”那么简单。你得查看有什么项目是只能提前预约的,比如某场表演的票子。

The ultimate way to avoid crowds is to visit during the off-season; in other words, not now. Many dismiss off-season travel as unviable because of school schedules, but remember American Thanksgiving and spring breaks (if they don’t fall over Easter week) don’t mirror other countries’ vacations.


Some American habits can play to your advantage. “Americans love to eat early,” said Eike Schmidt, the director of the Uffizi Galleries. “Have an early lunch, and get to the Uffizi something like 1 p.m., when the vast majority of people head off to eat.”

有些美国人的习惯可以成为你的优势。“美国人喜欢早早吃饭,”乌菲齐美术馆(Uffizi Galleries)馆长艾克·施密特(Eike Schmidt)说。“他们可以早早吃午饭,然后下午一点左右到乌菲齐来,那时候大多数游客正要去吃饭。”

Timed tickets can often be bought days in advance and are increasingly available at crowded attractions around the world. At the Uffizi, they cost 4 euros extra (boosting admission to 16.50 euros, about $18) and take care of waiting in line, if not the crowds.

限时票(timed ticket)往往可以提前数天买到,而且在世界各地人多的景点买这种票愈来愈容易。在乌菲齐,这种票只要多花四欧元(加上原来的票价一共16.5欧元,约合18美元),如果人不多,可以不用排队。

You can buy them at the official Uffizi website, uffizi.it, if you can find it. Unofficial sites that look official are rampant. They often look good and sometimes contain good information, but look out. “You can pay $30 or $40 on a fake website,” Mr. Schmidt said. “And sometimes the tickets do not exist” — that is, they’re fakes. Even when they’re just reselling real tickets, look out for markups. For example, uffizi.com, one of the unofficial sites, charges 24.99 euros (about $27.35), and it even marks up the audio guides.


The official site is bare-bones and difficult to find (and is getting an upgrade). If you’re ever having trouble finding the official site of any attraction, search for it on a trusted travel site — say, LonelyPlanet.com — and follow the links.


Between planning and traveling, a lot can change. Keep up to date, Jade McKellar, the director of visitor experiences at the Sydney Opera House, said in an email. “If you’re looking for inspiration,” she said, “follow us on social media and sign up for our newsletter.”

从做计划到出发之前,很多事情都会发生变化。所以要不断了解最新信息,悉尼歌剧院游客体验负责人杰德·迈克凯拉(Jade McKellar)在电子邮件中说。“如果你想寻找新灵感,”她写道,“就关注我们的社交媒体,订阅我们的新闻邮件吧。”

The Opera House’s Facebook page, for example, recently posted information on the free two-day Homeground festival in October, featuring indigenous musicians from around the world. In another development somewhat lower on the cultural scale, the Statue of Liberty’s Instagram account recently noted a new wave of visitors to Ellis Island: Pokémon.


Ms. McKellar noted that too many visitors “stop at the selfie.” Even without planning, visitors can often buy tickets for events that run 363 days a year. But like many sites, a true visit means dedicating a full day, something a rushed traveler might be loath to do but should do. You may want to append to a tour of the Sydney Opera House a pretheater dinner at the locavore Australian restaurant Bennelong, and an evening performance. (Just be aware that reservations at Bennelong need to be made well ahead.)


Another reason to set aside more time: Visitors skip the less-famous but equally worthwhile, often beautifully complementary sites nearby.


Susan Greaney, the senior properties historian at English Heritage, which oversees Stonehenge, recommended a trip to the nearby Wiltshire Museum and the Salisbury Museum, local history museums with Stonehenge-relevant exhibitions, each less than a 30-minute drive away but apt to be missed by anyone on a day tour from London.

英格兰遗产委员会(English Heritage)负责巨石阵的资深历史学家苏珊·格里尼(Susan Greaney)推荐巨石阵附近的威尔特郡博物馆(Wiltshire Museum)和索尔兹伯里博物馆(Salisbury Museum),这两家当地的历史博物馆都有和巨石阵相关的展品,而且离巨石阵不到30分钟车程,不过它们往往被从伦敦赶来一日游的游客所忽略。

Mark Thomas, the western district director of the New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation — a fancy title that involves oversight of Niagara Falls State Park — recommended the New York Power Authority’s Niagara Power Vista, a free attraction that was recently overhauled and reopened, 10 minutes away from the park.

纽约州公园、娱乐和古迹办公室(New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation)这个名字很有趣,它负责监管免费参观的尼亚加拉瀑布州立公园(Niagara Falls State Park),它的西区负责人马克·托马斯(Mark Thomas)推荐游览纽约电力局的尼亚加拉发电站(New York Power Authority’s Niagara Power Vista),这里也是免费的,最近经过彻底检修重新开放,距离公园10分钟车程。

Mr. Schmidt noted that the copy of Michelangelo’s David on the Piazza della Signoria near the Uffizi was indistinguishable to nonexperts. Lines to see the real one at the Accademia Gallery can run hours if you don’t buy tickets in advance. “If someone has just three days in Florence, do you want to waste three hours in line when you can see a very faithful copy?” he said.

施密特注意到,游客如果不是专家,很难分辨出乌菲齐宫附近的领主广场(Piazza della Signoria)上米开朗琪罗的大卫仿制品和真品有什么不同。如果没有预先买票,要想在学院美术馆(Accademia Gallery)看真迹,恐怕要排上好几个小时的队。“如果有人在佛罗伦萨只逗留三天,既然能看到一模一样的仿品,还愿意浪费三小时排队吗?”他说。

Sometimes, the skipped-over attraction is even part of the same complex. Mr. Amato noted that this year Liberty Island would attract 4.4 million visitors, while the Ellis Island Museum of Immigration will attract just 2.4 million. That’s preposterous, considering that the boat to Liberty Island also stops at Ellis Island, which costs nothing extra and (in my opinion, not his) is far more interesting. But again, it means killing a day.

有时候,那些被游客忽略的景点甚至是整体景点的一部分。阿玛托指出,今年自由岛可能吸引到440万游客,而埃利斯岛移民博物馆(Ellis Island Museum of Immigration)只能吸引到240万游客。这很荒谬,因为开到自由岛的船也会在埃利斯岛停留,并不需要额外费用,而且这个博物馆要有趣得多(这是我的观点,不是他的看法)。不过,这同样意味着要花一整天的时间。

Reading up on the attraction can make a vast difference in how much you appreciate it. I slogged through “The Conquest of the Incas” by John Hemming before visiting Machu Picchu for the first time, and it made for a rich experience. But there are easier ways. Mr. Thomas recommended visitors watch Marilyn Monroe in the 1953 film noir picture “Niagara,” set at and near the falls. And in the next six months, Mr. Schmidt’s book about the Uffizi should come out. (Exercise some discretion — for example, Ms. Greaney of English Heritage did not mention the Stonehenge scene from the 1984 mockumentary “This Is Spinal Tap,” and for good reason.)

仔细研究这些景点会令你的观赏体验大不相同。第一次参观马丘比丘(Machu Picchu)之前,我吃力地读了约翰·亨明(John Hemming)的《印加帝国的征服》(The Conquest of the Incas),令我在旅游时得到了丰富的体验。但也有比较轻松的办法。托马斯推荐游客观赏玛丽莲·梦露(Marilyn Monroe)1953年的黑色电影《尼亚加拉》(Niagara),它是在尼亚加拉瀑布及附近取景拍摄的。另外,六个月之内,施密特关于乌菲齐美术馆的书就要出版了(不过谨慎也是需要的,比如说,英格兰遗产委员会的格里尼就没有提到1984年的伪纪录片《摇滚万万岁》[This Is Spinal Tap]里也出现了巨石阵,理由嘛倒是很充足)。

Some final recommendations: Be an active visitor, engaging guides, rangers or docents and exploring lesser-known corners. For hard-to-reach monuments, consider a more adventurous alternative route to avoid crowds — walking the steep hill to the Peak viewpoint in Hong Kong or hiking up the rain forest path to Christ the Redeemer in Rio de Janeiro instead of taking the crowded trams that lead to each. Even if you’re not traveling with children, I recommend inventing a game before you go — even adults run out of steam on a long day of sightseeing. My favorite, applicable to any museum with abstract art, is “Name the Picasso,” in which you guess the name of a painting (“Death in the Jungle”) and then compare it to its real name (“Nude in a Black Armchair.”)

最后还有一些建议,做个积极的游客,聘请导游、公园管理员或讲解员,探索罕为人知的角落。对于那些难以抵达的景点,可以考虑更有冒险精神的替换路线,从而避免过多游客——走陡峭的山路到香港的太平山顶看风景,徒步走热带雨林路线观看里约热内卢基督像,而不是乘坐人满为患的缆车。就算你没有带孩子旅游,我也推荐你去之前先想好一个什么游戏——就算大人看了一整天风景之后也会精疲力尽的。我最喜欢的游戏可以用在任何有抽象艺术的博物馆里,叫做“找出毕加索”,就是你自己猜一个抽象艺术作品的名字(《死于丛林》?)再和真正的名字做对比(其实是《黑色扶手椅上的裸女》[Nude in a Black Armchair])。

Of course, you can also simply skip the world-famous attraction. If you’re sick of museums by the time you get to Florence, forgo the Uffizi and take advantage of other things Florence has to offer. Perhaps a gelato (or tripe sandwich) crawl is in order? Don’t worry about what your friends will think. You can use Photoshop to show them you “saw” “The Birth of Venus.”