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令人心碎的图像:兹卡对婴儿大脑造成严重损害

更新时间:2016-8-24 18:25:25 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Zika, a Formidable Enemy, Attacks and Destroys Parts of Babies’ Brains
令人心碎的图像:兹卡对婴儿大脑造成严重损害

The images tell a heartbreaking story: Zika’s calamitous attack on the brains of babies — as seen from the inside.

这些图片讲述了一个令人心碎的故事:从大脑内部观察兹卡病毒对婴儿大脑的灾难性损害。

With a macabre catalog of brain scans and ultrasound pictures, a new study details the devastation done to 45 Brazilian babies whose mothers were infected with Zika during pregnancy. The study, published Tuesday in the journal Radiology, is the most comprehensive collection of such images so far, and it reveals a virus that can launch assaults beyond microcephaly, the condition of unusually small heads that has become the sinister signature of Zika.

通过一系列令人毛骨悚然的脑部扫描和超声波影像,一项新的研究详细展示了45名巴西婴儿的大脑遭遇的损伤。她们的母亲在怀孕期间曾感染兹卡病毒。周二发表于《放射学》(Radiology)杂志的这项研究,是此类影像收集中最全面的,揭示了一种可以在引发小头畸形之外造成其他损伤的病毒。小头畸形是头异常小的一种症状,已经成为受兹卡病毒侵害的典型特征。

Images show the damage inflicted on the brains of twin girls born with the Zika virus.
一对双胞胎女孩在出生时就感染了兹卡病毒,图像显示出她们脑部受损情况。

Most of the babies in the study were born with microcephaly, but many of them also suffered other impairments, including damage to important parts of the brain: the corpus callosum, which connects the two hemispheres of the brain; the cerebellum, which plays a significant role in movement, balance and speech; the basal ganglia, which are involved in thinking and emotion.

这项研究中的婴儿出生时大多都有小头畸形症,不过他们中有不少也遭受了其他损伤,包括大脑重要部分的损伤:连接两个大脑半球的脑胼胝体;对运动、平衡和速度至关重要的小脑;以及与思维和情绪有关的基底神经节。

“It’s not just the small brain, it’s that there’s a lot more damage,” said Dr. Deborah Levine, an author of the study and a professor of radiology at Harvard Medical School in Boston. “The abnormalities that we see in the brain suggest a very early disruption of the brain development process.”

“不只是脑袋小,还有许多其他损伤,”这项研究的作者之一、位于波士顿的哈佛医学院(Harvard Medical School)放射学教授黛博拉·莱文(Deborah Levine)博士说。“我们在大脑中看到的异常表明对大脑发育的阻碍出现得非常早。”

The findings also raised worrisome concerns about whether babies born without such obvious impairments could develop brain damage as they grow. For example, almost all the babies in the study had problems in the cortex, including clumps of calcium and neurons that did not reach the right location in the brain. Because the cortex keeps developing after birth, Levine said, “we’re concerned that there might be mild cases that we haven’t seen yet, and we should keep monitoring the babies after birth to see if they have cortical abnormalities.”

这项发现引发了这样的担忧,即出生时没有此类明显损伤的婴儿,是否会随着生长出现脑损伤。比如,参与研究的婴儿的脑皮层几乎都存在问题,包括无法到达大脑正确方位的钙和神经元出现聚集。莱文表示,因为脑皮层在出生后会持续生长,“我们担心可能存在我们还没有发现的轻度损伤,我们应该在这些婴儿出生后对他们进行持续的监测,以判断他们是否存在脑皮层异常。”

The images studied came from 17 babies whose mothers had a confirmed Zika infection during pregnancy and from 28 without laboratory proof but with all indications of Zika.

被拍摄脑部影像的婴儿,有17名的母亲在怀孕期间被确认感染兹卡病毒,另有28名缺乏化验证明,但具备感染兹卡病毒的所有症状。

The images include scans of twin girls, who both developed microcephaly. The pictures show folds of overlapping skin and a sloping forehead, indications not only that the brain is smaller, but also that the forebrain has not developed normally, Levine said.

这些图像中有一些来自两名双胞胎女孩,她们都有小头畸形症。莱文表示,在两人的脑部图像中可以看到重叠的脑皮层褶皱和倾斜的前额,这表示她们不仅脑部比较小,而且前脑发育不正常。

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