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菲尔普斯肩膀上的秘密:拔罐

更新时间:2016-8-10 11:34:49 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

What Are the Purple Dots on Michael Phelps? Cupping Has an Olympic Moment
菲尔普斯肩膀上的秘密:拔罐

RIO DE JANEIRO — Olympics trivia: What has 19 gold medals and a bunch of purple circles?

里约热内卢——奥运会琐事:谁拥有19枚金牌和一堆紫色圆形痕迹?

If you watched a certain swimmer’s Rio Games debut on Sunday night, when he propelled the United States 4×100-meter relay team to a gold medal, you know the answer: Michael Phelps.

如果你看了周日晚上某位游泳运动员在里约奥运会上的首秀,看到他力助美国队赢得4×100米接力赛冠军,你就知道我在说谁:迈克尔·菲尔普斯(Michael Phelps)。

While it may look like the athletes have been in a bar fight, the telltale purple dots actually are signs of “cupping,” an ancient Chinese healing practice that is experiencing an Olympic moment.

虽然这些醒目的紫色圆圈看起来像是运动员在酒吧打过架,但它们实际上是拔罐的印记;这是中国古代的一种治疗方法,它正在经历自己的奥运时刻。

In cupping, practitioners of the healing technique — or sometimes the athletes themselves — place specialized cups on the skin. Then they use either heat or an air pump to create suction between the cup and the skin, pulling the skin slightly up and away from the underlying muscles.

拔罐时,治疗师——有时是运动员自己——把特制的杯子放在皮肤上。然后通过加热或抽气,让杯子和皮肤之间产生吸力,然后把皮肤从下层肌肉轻轻拉起。

The suction typically lasts for only a few minutes, but it’s enough time to cause the capillaries just beneath the surface to rupture, creating the circular, eye-catching bruises that have been so visible on Phelps as well as members of the United States men’s gymnastics team. If the bruising effect looks oddly familiar, it’s because it’s the same thing that happens when someone sucks on your neck and leaves a hickey.

这种吸力通常只能维持几分钟,但是足以让表皮下的毛细血管破裂,造成引人注目的圆形淤痕——我们在菲尔普斯以及美国男子体操队队员身上都看到了它们。如果这种淤痕效果让你觉得意外地熟悉,那是因为它跟有人在你脖子上吸吮留下的吻痕是一回事。

Physiologically, cupping is thought to draw blood to the affected area, reducing soreness and speeding healing of overworked muscles. Athletes who use it swear by it, saying it keeps them injury free and speeds recovery. Phelps, whose shoulders were dotted with the purple marks as he powered his 4×100 freestyle relay team to a gold medal Sunday, featured a cupping treatment in a recent Under Armour video. He also posted an Instagram photo showing himself stretched on a table as his Olympic swimming teammate Allison Schmitt placed several pressurized cups along the back of his thighs. “Thanks for my cupping today!” he wrote.

从生理学上讲,拔罐是为了把血吸到患部,减轻酸痛,加速过度疲劳的肌肉恢复。用过这种方法的运动员称,它能让他们免于受伤,加速康复。周日菲尔普斯力助美国队赢得4×100自由泳接力赛金牌时,他的肩上布满这种紫色印记。在前不久发布的Under Armour运动服装品牌的视频中,他在接受拔罐治疗。他还在Instagram上发了一张照片,展示自己平躺在桌子上,他的奥运会游泳队队友艾莉森·施米特(Allison Schmitt)在他的大腿后侧放置了几个加压的罐子。“谢谢今天给我拔罐!”他写道。

While there’s no question that many athletes, coaches and trainers believe in the treatment, there’s not much science to determine whether cupping offers a real physiological benefit or whether the athletes simply are enjoying a placebo effect.

毫无疑问,很多运动员、教练和训练师相信这种治疗,但是从科学上不太能确定拔罐带来的,是生理上的切实益处还是心理上的安慰。

One 2012 study of 61 people with chronic neck pain compared cupping to a technique called progressive muscle relaxation, or PMR, during which a patient deliberately tenses his muscles and then focuses on relaxing them. Half the patients used cupping while the other half used PMR. Both patient groups reported similar reductions in pain after 12 weeks of treatment. Notably, the patients who had used cupping scored higher on measurements of well-being and felt less pain when pressure was applied to the area. Even so, the researchers noted that more study is needed to determine the potential benefits of cupping.

2012年,一项涉及61名慢性颈痛患者的研究比较了拔罐和一种名为渐进肌肉放松(PMR)的治疗方法——后者是让患者故意绷紧肌肉,然后集中精神放松肌肉。其中一半患者采用拔罐疗法,另一半采用PMR疗法。经过12周的治疗,两组患者都表示疼痛减轻。值得注意的是,采用拔罐疗法的患者对自己健康状况的评分更高,脖颈受压时感到的疼痛更轻。尽管如此,研究者们指出,需要更多研究来确定拔罐的潜在益处。

Another experiment involving 40 patients who suffered from knee arthritis found that people who underwent cupping reported less pain after four months compared to arthritis sufferers in a control group who were not treated. But the cupped group knew they were being treated — it’s not easy to blind people about whether a suction cup is being attached to their leg or not — and so the benefits might have been due primarily to a placebo effect.

另一项涉及40名膝关节炎患者的实验发现,与没有接受治疗的对照组相比,经过四个月拔罐治疗的患者表示疼痛减轻。不过,拔罐组的患者知道自己在接受治疗——很难不让一个人知道自己腿上吸着一个罐子——所以这些效果也可能主要来自安慰作用。

Still, a placebo effect can be beneficial, and for athletes at the Olympic level, any legal edge, however tenuous, may be worth a few eye-catching bruises.

不过,安慰作用也是有益的,对于奥运会水平的运动员来说,任何合法的优势——不管多么微弱——都值得拥有,几处引人注目的淤痕不算什么。

“A placebo effect is present in all treatments, and I am sure that it is substantial in the case of cupping as well,” said Leonid Kalichman, a senior lecturer at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Israel, who recently co-authored a commentary reviewing cupping research in the Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. "A patient can feel the treatment and has marks after it, and this can contribute to a placebo effect.”

“所有治疗都有安慰作用,我确信它在拔罐中也占很大成分,”以色列内盖夫本-古里安大学(Ben-Gurion University)的高级讲师列昂尼德·卡利切曼(Leonid Kalichman)说。前不久,他在《身体锻炼和运动治疗报》(Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies)上与他人联合发表了一篇拔罐研究的述评文章。“患者能感觉到治疗,而且会留下印记,这会起到安慰作用。”

Even so, Kalichman said he believes the treatment has a real physiological effect as well. It may be that cupping, by causing local inflammation, triggers the immune system to produce cytokines, small proteins that enhance communication between cells and help to modulate the immune response.

尽管如此,卡利切曼说,他认为这种疗法也具有切实的生理作用。可能是因为拔罐会导致局部发炎,促使免疫系统产生细胞活素——这种微小的蛋白质能促进细胞之间的交流,有助于调节免疫反应。

A few years ago the Denver Broncos player DeMarcus Ware posted a photo on Instagram showing his back covered with 19 clear cups as a therapist held a flame used to heat the cup before placing it on the skin. Celebrities including Jennifer Aniston and Gwyneth Paltrow have also been photographed with cupping marks on their skin.

几年前,丹佛野马橄榄球队(Denver Broncos)的球员德马库斯·韦尔(DeMarcus Ware)在Instagram上发了一张照片,展示自己的背部放着19个透明杯子,治疗师用火把杯子加热,放到皮肤上。詹妮弗·安妮斯顿(Jennifer Aniston)和格温妮丝·帕特罗(Gwyneth Paltrow)等名人也被拍到皮肤上有拔罐的印记。

Last year, Swimming World magazine noted that some college programs had begun using cupping therapy as well as the former Olympian Natalie Coughlin, who has posted a number of photos of herself undergoing the treatment.

去年,《游泳世界》杂志(Swimming World)指出,有些大学项目开始使用拔罐疗法,前奥运会游泳选手纳塔莉·考夫林(Natalie Coughlin)也发了几张自己接受拔罐治疗的照片。

The American gymnast Alexander Naddour was sporting the purple dots during the men’s qualifying rounds on Saturday in Rio de Janeiro. He told USA Today that he bought a do-it-yourself cupping kit from Amazon. “That’s been the secret that I have had through this year that keeps me healthy,” Naddour told USA Today. “It’s been better than any money I’ve spent on anything else.”

周六,美国体操运动员亚历山大·纳道尔(Alexander Naddour)在参加里约奥运会的男子体操预选赛时,也露出紫色圆圈。他在接受《今日美国》(USA Today)采访时说,他在Amazon上买了一套自助拔罐器具。“那是我今年保持健康的秘诀,”纳道尔对《今日美国》说。“它比我在其他任何东西上花的钱都值。”

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