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巴西不高兴:充斥愤怒、焦虑与冷漠的里约奥运

更新时间:2016-8-6 11:03:14 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Brazil’s Other Olympic Spirits: Anger, Anxiety and Indifference
巴西不高兴:充斥愤怒、焦虑与冷漠的里约奥运

RIO DE JANEIRO — How do Brazilians feel about their big Olympic moment?

里约热内卢——巴西人对自己举办奥运的大日子感觉如何?

First there is the anger: Rioters pelted the Olympic torch relay with rocks as it approached Rio de Janeiro, while bumper stickers have rearranged the Olympic rings into a four-letter word.

首先是愤怒:奥运火炬传递到里约热内卢的途中,暴民向其投掷石块,还出现了把奥运五环重新排列成一个四字母单词的汽车车贴。

Then there is the anxiety: With gallows humor amid a crime wave and fears of terrorism, a bingo game is circulating for people to wager on which day during the games an attack will occur.

再有是焦虑:一波犯罪潮出现,而且人们担忧发生恐怖袭击,黑色幽默却也应运而生,在一个宾果游戏中,你可以下注在奥运会期间哪一天会发生袭击。

And the indifference: The media giant Globo will not even bother to broadcast the Olympics during the coveted Sunday afternoon slot, opting instead for domestic soccer. A sizable number of hotel rooms here remain unreserved, forcing travel agents to slash rates in a desperate attempt to entice Brazilians to come.

还有就是冷漠:巴西媒体巨头环球电视台(Globo)甚至没兴趣在周日下午的黄金时间播出奥运会节目,而是选择了巴西足球节目。大量酒店客房仍然无人预定,旅行社不得不降低价格,拼命招揽巴西人光顾。

“Just thinking of the Olympics leaves me revolted,” said Ana Caroline Joia da Souza, 21, a street vendor who sells sweets in front of a Rio metro station. “Our politicians want to trick the world into thinking things are great here. Well, let the foreigners see for themselves the filth we live in, the money our leaders steal.”

“一想到奥运会我就感到恶心,”21岁的安娜·卡罗琳·乔伊·达索萨(Ana Caroline Joia da Souza)说,她在里约热内卢的一个地铁站前摆摊卖糖果。“政客想瞒骗整个世界,让大家觉得巴西很好很棒。好吧,让外国人自己来看看我们住的这个肮脏地方,看看巴西领导人偷走的钱吧。”

It is something of a ritual in countries that host the Olympics to engage in soul-searching on the eve of the games. And Brazil is no exception, unleashing a withering exploration of the country’s political, economic and ethical troubles before the opening ceremony on Friday.

东道主国家在奥运会前夕进行反思几乎已成惯例。巴西也不例外,在奥运会本周五开幕之前,该国就其政治、经济和道德方面的问题展开了一波疾风骤雨般的探究。

Nearly two-thirds of Brazilians — 63 percent — think hosting the Olympics will hurt the country, according to a recent survey by the polling company Datafolha. Only 16 percent said they were enthusiastic about the games, while 51 percent said they had no interest in them. (The poll, conducted on July 14-15 in interviews with 2,792 people, had a margin of sampling error of plus or minus 2 percentage points.)

民意调查公司Datafolha近期举行的一项调查显示,将近三分之二巴西人——具体是63%——认为举办奥运会有损于巴西。只有16%的受访者说自己热切期盼奥运会,51%的人则表示他们对奥运会毫无兴趣。(调查是在7月14日和15日进行的,共有2792名受访者,抽样误差为正负两个百分点)。

The grim mood stands in stark contrast to the ebullience shown in 2009 when Rio landed the Olympics. At the time, Brazil was basking in its triumphs — including a growing presence on the world stage, the lifting of millions of poor people into the middle class and the maturing of its young democracy after 21 years of military rule that had ended in 1985.

这种沉郁的气氛,与2009年里约热内卢夺得奥运会主办权时的兴奋之情形成了鲜明对比。当时的巴西沉醉在胜利的喜悦中——该国在全球舞台上的存在感日益增强,数以百万计的贫困人口进入了中产阶层,在21年的军人统治于1985年结束后,年轻的民主制度在演进中日益成熟。

But, today, the Olympics are competing with both a harrowing recession and Brazil’s other public spectacle: bare-knuckled political dysfunction.

但如今,与奥运会争抢人们的注意力的,除了令人饱受煎熬的经济衰退,还有另一出在公众视野里展开的大戏:巴西的肉搏式政治乱局。

The country has not one, but two presidents: Dilma Rousseff, who was suspended to face impeachment proceedings that will continue to unfold during the games, and Michel Temer, her interim replacement. Both Rousseff, a leftist, and Temer, who is shifting to the right, are deeply unpopular around the country. In fact, voters are fuming about the entire political establishment.

目前巴西的总统不是一个,而是两个:一个是已经停职的迪尔玛·罗塞夫(Dilma Rousseff),她面临的弹劾案将在奥运期间继续展开,另一个是临时顶替她的米歇尔·特梅尔(Michel Temer)。无论是左派的罗塞夫,还是日益右倾的特梅尔,在巴西各地都非常不受欢迎。事实上,选民们对所有政治权贵都极为不满。

The runup to the Olympics has been marked by such a long and varied list of fiascos — from protests over forced evictions to complaints about both thefts and plumbing debacles at the new Olympic Village — that the British sports historian David Goldblatt ranks the preparations here among the worst in Olympic history.

在里约奥运会开幕之前,出现了一大串各式各样的恶劣问题——从抗议强制驱逐行动,到抱怨新的奥运村发生了盗窃和管道无法使用的事情——英国体育历史学家戴维·戈德布拉特(David Goldblatt)说,这是历史上准备工作最糟糕的奥运会之一。

In an effort to bolster security in Rio during the games, the federal government is deploying thousands of troops to patrol the crime-weary city. But critics say that bringing in soldiers from violence-ravaged cities in northeast Brazil could embolden gang activity there and in other parts of the country.

里约的犯罪率居高不下,为了提高该市在奥运期间的安全性,联邦政府把数以千计的军人部署到这里进行巡逻。但批评者说,巴西东北部一些城市暴力肆虐,从那里调兵到里约会导致当地和其他区域的帮派变得胆大妄为。

Supporters say the traditional Olympic narrative often involves an escalation of tension before the games, only to be replaced by excitement once they are underway. There are also those who say the country needs to stop complaining and start enjoying the spectacle.

支持者说,在历届奥运会开幕之前,往往都有紧张局势升级的说法,但是开幕之后,大家的情绪就会振奋起来了。还有一些人说,该国民众应该停止抱怨,享受这一盛事。

“Everyone wanted the games here when we got them, so all the criticism now is hypocritical,” said Cleide Correa, 72, a real estate broker in Rio de Janeiro. “Of course they spent a lot of money to organize this, but that’s the case in every host country. We need to make the best of the situation now.”

“当初我们赢得主办权的时候,每个人都希望在这里举办奥运会,所以现在的批评全都很虚伪,”72岁的里约热内卢房地产经纪人克雷德·科雷亚(Cleide Correa)说。“当然,他们花了很多钱来办奥运,但是每个东道国都不例外。我们需要在现有状况的基础上做到最好。”

Eduardo Paes, the mayor of Rio de Janeiro, who has hitched his political fortunes to the games, contends the negative sentiment around the Olympics is largely because of Brazil’s “stray-dog complex,” a term used by the playwright Nelson Rodrigues to describe the inferiority with which Brazilians sometimes view themselves in relation to other countries.

里约热内卢市长爱德华多·帕埃斯(Eduardo Paes)已经把自己的政治前途和奥运会连在了一起,他说,围绕奥运会产生的负面情绪主要源自于巴西的“流浪狗情结”。这个词是剧作家纳尔逊·罗德里格斯(Nelson Rodrigues)提出的,指巴西人在将自己和其他国家做对比的时候存在着一种自卑感。

The International Olympic Committee, Paes said, “is noting how we sell ourselves short.” He then argued that blame for the problems at the Olympic Village rested with an Argentina-born Olympic official, and contended that Brazilians were rapidly resolving the issues.

帕埃斯说,国际奥委会(International Olympic Committee)“已经注意到我们在妄自菲薄”。他随后表示,奥运村的问题要怪一个在阿根廷出生的奥林匹克官员。他还说,巴西人正迅速解决这些问题。

Others say the country’s merciless self-questioning at the moment holds a cathartic value, reflecting a democracy where freedom of expression remains resilient.

另外一些人表示,巴西此刻进行无情的自我检讨,可以起到宣泄情绪的作用,还说明在这个民主国家里,人们享有极大的言论自由。

In an essay, writer Eliane Brum listed some of the problems that make Brazil seem like a holy mess, including man-made environmental disasters like the bursting of a dam last year in the state of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro’s sewage-infested Guanabara Bay, where sailing teams fear colliding with dead bodies.

作家埃莉亚尼·布鲁姆(Eliane Brum)在一篇文章中列出了把巴西看变成一团乱麻的若干问题,其中包括人为造成的环境灾难,比如米纳斯吉拉斯州的一道水坝去年发生了决堤事故,再比如瓜纳巴拉湾被里约的下水道污水严重污染,帆船队担心在那里撞上死尸。

Still, Brum said, it would be a joke to submit Brazil “to the judgment of the so-called First World,” given the number of recent problems in those countries and elsewhere.

但布鲁姆表示,把巴西交由“所谓的第一世界去评判”会很可笑,因为在那些国家以及世界其他地方,最近也出现了大量问题。

Brazil’s malaise has some arguing for realistic expectations.

面对巴西的弊病,一些人开始呼吁抛开不切实际的期待。

“We’re clearly not about to project an image of a powerful and efficient country,” said Fernando Gabeira, a politician and writer.

“我们显然不可能展现强大、高效的国家形象,”政治人物、作家费尔南多·加贝拉(Fernando Gabeira)说。

“Maybe we can show how we’re starting to get past our economic, political and moral disaster,” Gabeira said. “We could be like those athletes who manage to finish the marathon with their tongues hanging out, almost fainting. But they make it to the finish line.”

“我们或许可以展现的是,我们正着手应对经济、政治和道德灾难,”卡贝拉说。“我们可以像那些设法跑完马拉松的运动员一样,他们伸着舌头,几近晕厥,但他们抵达了终点。”

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