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中国政府承认网约车合法地位

更新时间:2016-7-30 10:36:15 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Didi Chuxing and Uber, Popular in China, Are Now Legal, Too
中国政府承认网约车合法地位

HONG KONG — Ride-hailing services in China have attracted billions of dollars in investments. They have pulled in money from some of the world’s largest tech companies, like Apple and Alibaba. They have become a crucial road test for one of America’s best-known start-ups, Uber.

香港——中国的叫车服务吸引了数以亿计的资金。投资方中不乏全球最大的科技公司,如苹果(Apple)和阿里巴巴。对美国最有名的创业公司之一优步(Uber)来说,它们已经成了一场至关重要的路考。

On Thursday, they finally became legal.

周四,它们的地位终于合法了。

In a new law announced by several regulators, China’s government gave the thumbs-up for ride-hailing companies like Uber and its Chinese rival, Didi Chuxing, to operate in the country. The law clears up regulatory uncertainty and lays out a new framework under which ride-hailing companies can operate in the country.

在几家监管机构联合宣布的一项新规定中,中国政府准许像优步和它在中国的竞争对手滴滴出行这样的叫车公司在中国运营。新规定去除了监管方面的不确定性,并设计了一个新框架。叫车公司可按照这一框架在中国开展业务。

Uber and Didi have upended China’s taxi industry by allowing drivers to take passengers in private vehicles with the help of hugely popular apps. Despite investments in technology, marketing and subsidies, both companies had operated in a legal gray zone, with drivers occasionally being detained by the police.

优步和滴滴使司机能够在广受欢迎的应用的帮助下用私家车搭载乘客,颠覆了中国的出租车行业。尽管在技术、营销和补贴方面进行了投资,但两家公司之前均是在法律的灰色地带运营,司机被警方拘押的事情时有发生。

Strict government rules have repeatedly tripped up local and foreign internet companies in China. Yet in the fast-moving Chinese tech industry, an “invest first, get approval later” model has prevailed. For Uber and Didi, it appears that ethos has paid off.

在中国,严格的政府规定多次让本土和海外的互联网公司栽跟头。但在迅猛发展的中国科技业,“先投资、再获批”的模式成了主流。对优步和滴滴来说,这种观念看来成功了。

Analysts said the new law, which will take effect on Nov. 1, signaled a step back from earlier, stricter proposals. According to the rules, drivers must have three years’ experience, be licensed by a local taxi regulator and have no criminal record. Cars with more than 600,000 kilometers, or about 370,000 miles, on the odometer may not be used.

分析人士称,将于11月1日生效的新规标志着官方在早前更严厉的提案的基础上做出了让步。根据相关规定,司机须拥有三年驾龄、获得当地出租车监管机构颁发的许可证、无犯罪记录,且不得使用行驶里程超过60万公里的车辆。

Drivers were divided on what to make of the new rules. On one hand, they said in a chat group, it was a relief to see their job permitted by the government. On the other hand, the finer points of the law were unclear, leaving open questions like whether cars licensed outside Beijing would be allowed to take fares in the city.

在对新规定的解读上,司机意见不一。他们在一个聊天群里说,一方面,看到自己的工作得到政府的允许让人松了一口气。但另一方面,新规定的细节尚不清楚,导致一些问题还不确定,如是否允许非京牌外埠车辆在京载客。

In an interview, a 31-year-old driver with the surname Liu, who did not give his full name because he was not authorized to speak on behalf of the ride-hailing services, pointed out that the law did not address other concerns; many drivers have seen incomes cut nearly in half recently as Didi and Uber have reduced subsidies.

接受采访时,一名31岁的刘姓司机指出,新规定未提到其他一些问题。因为无权代表叫车服务公司发言,他不愿透露全名。最近,随着滴滴和优步减少补贴,很多司机的收入减少了近一半。

That has been more painful to drivers who bought cars to take advantage of the big bonuses that had been offered. One man, Wen Zhenjiang, 37, quit a job driving Coca-Cola trucks from Beijing to the western city of Xi’an and bought a Volkswagen to start driving for Uber and Didi.

对那些为了利用叫车公司提供的高额奖励而买车的司机来说,情况更令人烦恼。37岁的温振江辞去了用卡车给可口可乐公司(Coca-Cola)从北京送货到西部城市西安的工作,买了一辆大众汽车(Volkswagen),开始成为优步和滴滴的司机。

“I will see how much I can earn,” Mr. Wen said. “If I can’t earn much, even if it’s legal now, there’s no point in doing it.”

“看收入情况吧,”温振江说。“划得来就开,划不来就是再合法也没啥意思。”

He added that he thought many drivers would fail the licensing process and that he was wary of the GPS tracking devices the new law says must be installed on their vehicles as a safety measure. Similar devices have led to limits on how much time drivers can spend on the road in trucking, he said.

他接着表示会有很多司机通不过审批程序,并称自己对新规定以安全为由要求车辆必须安装GPS追踪设备怀有戒心。他说,发生过类似的设备导致司机在路上载客的时间受限的事情。

“I know the tracking devices,” he said. “Once you install that and drive more than eight hours a day, you will be fined, and your company won’t pay the fine.”

“我知道那种行车记录仪,”他说。“装了行车记录仪,一天超过八小时要罚钱,公司也不会给报。”

Experts said there was nothing in the law to validate Mr. Wen’s concerns.

专家称,新规定中并没有内容能证实温振江的担心。

Uber and Didi issued statements welcoming the regulation. In a note from the senior vice president of corporate development for Uber’s Chinese arm, Zhen Liu, the company said it was “regulation-ready” and would be working with local authorities to put the regulations into practice.

优步和滴滴均发表声明,对新规定表示欢迎。在优步中国负责企业发展的高级副总裁柳甄发出的信中,该公司表示已做好“监管准备”,将同地方政府合作,实施新规定。

Didi said its drivers would begin applying for local licenses. Didi’s statement praised elements of the rules, like the fact that ride-hailing companies will be allowed to set their own prices.

滴滴称其平台的司机将开始在各地申请许可。滴滴的声明对新规定中的内容表示称赞,如允许叫车公司自行定价。

Calling the new law a “milestone” for China’s sharing economy, Wu Shenkuo, a Beijing Normal University law professor, said he did not see any evidence that the law would specifically take aim at foreign companies. Still, he said, the companies must take care to comply with the rules, which will be put in place locally.

北京师范大学法学院教授吴沈括称这项新规定是中国共享经济的一座“里程碑”,并表示没发现有任何证据表明,它只把目标对准了外企。但他也说,相关公司必须注意遵守各地即将实施的规定。

“Companies need to adjust to the new law, especially in terms of applying for licenses, screening drivers and equipping cars,” he said, adding that the law creates a model as China seeks to regulate new internet-based industries that conflict with existing businesses. Taxi drivers in China have held mass protests over ride-hailing apps, which they say are unfair competition.

“各类网约车平台首先需要注意合规工作的调整,尤其包括许可申请、驾驶员遴选、车辆配置,”他说。他还表示,在中国寻求对与现有业务冲突的以互联网为基础的新兴行业进行监管之际,这项新规定树立了一个榜样。中国的出租车司机多次针对叫车应用举行大规模抗议,称它们是不公平竞争。

“From what I can see now, it is very likely that companies will give out less subsidies, raise the rate up for car-hailing, and as a consequence, there might be fewer part-time drivers,” he added.

“目前来看,近期补贴奖励减少、专车价格提升、兼职司机数量减少的可能性较大,”他接着说。

While Uber remains in the middle of a brutal pricing competition with Didi, which has more of the market, the rules to some degree validate the American company’s willingness to flout regulations in new markets.

尽管优步仍在和市场份额更大的滴滴大打价格战,相关规定在一定程度上证实了,这家美国企业情愿藐视新市场的监管规定。

Uber introduced the ride-hailing model to China. Putting ordinary Chinese behind the wheel of pay-to-ride vehicles led to occasional run-ins with the police, but it also won customers before Didi, which began as an app for flagging taxis rather than private cars, adjusted to the competition.

优步将叫车模式引入了中国。使普通中国人也能驾车载客赚钱的做法,导致优步不时会与警方发生冲突,但它也赶在滴滴之前赢得了顾客。滴滴开始只是一款叫出租车的应用,而非用来叫私家车,后来为适应竞争而进行了调整。

If Uber does not face difficulties in obtaining licenses from local taxi regulators, it will become the first major American internet company in recent years to break into China in a dominant way and get official approval. Even so, it faces tough competition from Didi, which not only has support from the Chinese internet giants Tencent and Alibaba, but recently gained a powerful new backer in Apple, which invested $1 billion in May.

如果在获得地方出租车监管机构的许可上不遇到困难,优步将成为近年来以主流参与者的身份进入中国并得到官方批准的第一家大型美国互联网公司。即便如此,它也面临着来自的滴滴的激烈竞争。滴滴不仅得到了中国互联网巨头腾讯和阿里巴巴的支持,苹果也在前不久加入了滴滴的投资者队伍。今年5月,实力强大的苹果投给滴滴10亿美元。

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