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女政治家们的着装演变史

更新时间:2016-7-30 9:51:50 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The New Age in Power Dressing
女政治家们的着装演变史

When Hillary Clinton takes the stage at the Wells Fargo Center in Philadelphia on Thursday to formally accept the nomination as the Democratic candidate for president of the United States, she will make history and automatically become a role model for women in a way that goes beyond all of her achievements thus far.

星期四,希拉里·克林顿(Hillary Clinton)在费城富国银行中心正式接受民主党美国总统候选人提名,她创造了历史,也以前所未有的成就自然而然地成为女性的榜样。

Over the months until the general election (and perhaps beyond), she will be scrutinized in evermore exacting detail, not just for her economic platform and her emails, but also for her body language, her eating habits, her relationships. And, yes, her clothes.

大选到来之前的几个月里(或许一直延续到之后的时间),她身上的所有细节都将受到公众的仔细审视,不仅仅是她的经济政策平台和电子邮件,也包括她的肢体语言,她的饮食习惯,她的亲密关系。当然,还有她的服装。

This is life in the contemporary political arena, where who a candidate is as a person — the choices she makes every day — is as picked over as her positions, in part because those are choices we all share.

这就是当代政治领域内的生活,候选人也是有血有肉的人,每天都要做出选择,她的选择和她的立场同样需要精挑细选,部分是因为,这些选择也是我们都要面对的选择。

Most of us don’t have to decide on sanctions against Syria, or whether to try to reinstate the Glass-Steagall Act, but we all have to get dressed in the morning. That’s the sweet spot where public politician and private person meet.

我们当中大多数人都无需决定是否对叙利亚做出制裁,抑或是否恢复格拉斯-斯蒂格尔法案(Glass-Steagall Act),但我们每天早上起来都得穿衣服。这就是面向公共的政治家与普通人美好的共同之处。

It’s not an embarrassment, or an affront. It’s reality. And right now it is an enormous opportunity: to redefine what being a female leader means, on every level. There is finally critical mass to seize it.

这不是一件让人尴尬的事,也不是一种侮辱,而是现实。现在,这更是一种巨大的机会:可以从各个层面重新定义身为女性领导人的涵义。如今,绝大多数人终于可以接受它了。

For years Angela Merkel, the chancellor of Germany, with her palette of Pantone jackets and black pants, has set the tone, tweaking the male uniform by disaggregating tops and bottoms and expanding the color range while keeping within a traditional framework. Effectively she was buying into the idea that for a woman to wield power in what was historically a man’s world, she had to pretty much dress like a man — but brighter!

多年来,德国总理安格拉·默克尔(Angela Merkel)都是身穿各种颜色、有如潘通色卡(Pantone)般的上装,以及黑色长裤,她为女性领导人着装定下了基调,略微改变了男性颜色一致的分体上下装,扩展了着装色彩,同时又保持在传统框架之内。她有效地带来了这样一种观念:对于一个在历史上由男人把控的世界中行使权力的女性来说,她必须在很大程度上穿得像个男人——但是得更亮丽!

After all, the only alternative Western role model was Margaret Thatcher. But post-power, her skirt suits, pussy-bow blouses and hair-sprayed bouffant calcified into caricature.

毕竟,另一位西方的榜样角色是玛格丽特·撒切尔(Margaret Thatcher)。但是在卸任之后,她的裙装、蝴蝶结衬衣和喷发胶的蓬松发型固化成了讽刺漫画形象。

Now, however, between Clinton and Theresa May, Britain’s new prime minister (and to a certain extent, Nicola Sturgeon, the first minister of Scotland), two more women are in the public eye, not as spouses of world leaders, but as the leaders themselves — or the potential leaders. And they are, quietly but unquestionably, changing the rules about what it means to look like a president or prime minister.

不过,如今,涉及克林顿与英国新任首相特丽莎·梅(Theresa May)之间(在某种程度上,也包括苏格兰首席大臣尼古拉·斯特金[Nicola Sturgeon]),就又有了两个女人暴露在公众视野之下,她们不是作为世界各国领导人的伴侣,而是本身就是领导者或潜在的领导者。她们或沉默或坚决地改变着人们对于总统或首相的外表的看法。

Or, as Ivanka Trump said at the Republican convention, “CEO of the country.” Or simply CEO.

又或者正如伊万卡·特朗普(Ivanka Trump)在共和党大会上所说的,是“国家的首席执行官”。或者就是首席执行官。

It doesn’t have to mean looking like a man in female colors.

这不一定是意味着身穿女性色彩的服装,看上去却像是男性。

May, who took office earlier this month, is the starkest proponent of this. She has been entirely unabashed about her own interest in fashion, especially shoes, from leopard-print kitten heels to lipstick-print ballet flats and patent leather over-the-knee boots, worn to greet the president of Mexico during a trip to Buckingham Palace.

本月初就职的梅是这种观念最鲜明的倡导者。她毫不掩饰自己对时装的兴趣,特别是鞋子,从豹纹中跟鞋到印着口红的芭蕾平跟鞋,还有她在白金汉宫欢迎墨西哥总统时穿的真皮过膝靴。

At the Women in the World summit last October, in an interview on stage with Tina Brown, May said: “I’m a woman, I like clothes. One of the challenges for women in politics, in business, in all areas of working life, is to be ourselves, and to say you can be clever and like clothes.”

在去年10月的世界妇女大会上,梅在讲坛上接受了蒂娜·布朗(Tina Brown)的采访,她说:“我是个女人,我喜欢时装。对于从政、从商,以及在各工作领域的女人来说,如何做我们自己,并且表明你既聪明,又喜欢时装,这是一个很大的挑战。”

She told the BBC radio program Desert Island Discs that if she were cast away, her “luxury item” would be a lifetime subscription to Vogue.

她在接受BBC广播电台节目“荒岛唱片”(Desert Island Discs)采访时,说如果她的船只失事漂流荒岛,她会带上的“奢侈品”是终生订阅的《Vogue》杂志。

She has refused to admit that caring about fashion is irreconcilable with caring about, say, nuclear policy, and in doing so she is setting a precedent that allows women to use clothes to express a facet of their persona that may otherwise be denied, without it undermining expectations.

她不认为自己对时装的热爱同对核政策之类问题的关注是不可调和的,因此,她也创下先例,让女人可以使用服装来表达自己个性中本来被拒绝的一面,同时又不会降低人们的期待。

Of all of May’s looks, her shoes have received the most attention. But to me, certain dresses have stood out: a navy Roland Mouret with an asymmetric neckline to speak at the Conservative Party Conference last year; a purple sheath when it was announced that she was one of two women left in the party leadership contest.

在梅所有的造型中,她的鞋子是最引人关注的。但是我觉得,她有几条连身裙格外醒目:去年她在保守党大会上穿的一条带不对称领口的的海军蓝色罗兰·穆雷(Roland Mouret);以及她被宣布成为党内领导争夺者中的两位女性之一时,所穿的紫色紧身裙。

They break the traditional divide between, say, first lady and first person (i.e., Michelle Obama and Merkel), in which historically first ladies wore dresses, and women in the business of governing wore, well, the pants. And the jackets.

让我们这么说,它们打破了传统的第一夫人与第一领袖(比如米歇尔·奥巴马[Michelle Obma]和默克尔)之间的界限,传统上,第一夫人都要穿裙装,而商界扮演领袖角色的女人则要穿长裤,以及西服上装。

There have been exceptions to this rule, most notably in South America, where women have held more power positions than they have in Europe and the United States. The former Argentine president, Cristina Fernández, for example, was known for her lace and floral frocks. Even so, women like the embattled Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff and Chilean President Michelle Bachelet tend to the Merkel school of dress: a uniform of colorful jackets and straight skirts or trousers.

这个规则也有例外,主要是在南美洲,在那里,女性身居高位的情况比在欧美更为普遍。比如,阿根廷前总统克里斯蒂娜·费尔南德斯(Cristina Fernández)就经常穿带蕾丝和花朵的连衣裙。尽管如此,像处境艰难的巴西总统迪尔玛·罗塞夫(Dilma Rousseff)和智利总统米歇尔·巴切莱特(Michelle Bachelet)都是默克尔那一派的:各种色彩的外套,配上直筒裙或直筒裤。

Indeed, you can see it in the contrast between Ivanka Trump, the female power player of the Trump campaign, and Hillary Clinton; Obama and Sen. Elizabeth Warren of Massachusetts. Both Trump and Obama (much as they may cringe at the comparison) wore neat, round-necked dresses during the recent conventions, Trump’s, sleeveless and Obama’s, cap-sleeved.

事实上,你可以从特朗普阵营中位高权重的伊万卡·特朗普与希拉里·克林顿、奥巴马,以及马萨诸塞州参议员伊丽莎白·沃伦(Sen. Elizabeth Warren)之间的对比中看出来。特朗普和奥巴马(她们可能会对这种对比感到难堪)在近期的会议上都穿的是整洁的圆领长裙,特朗普是无袖的,奥巴马是短袖的。

Obama arguably established this model, abandoning the first-lady-in-skirt-suits model generally adopted by both Laura and Barbara Bush as well as Nancy Reagan, and using a dress to project a less fussy, traditional persona and her right to bare arms.

有可能是奥巴马设定了这种角色,抛弃了劳拉(Laura)、芭芭拉·布什(Barbara Bush)以及南希·里根(Nancy Reagan)那种穿西装套裙的第一夫人形象,她使用长裙来营造一种不那么挑剔、不那么传统的性格,并且表示她有权利露出胳膊。

But Warren almost always sports a sleek jewel-toned jacket over a round-necked black shirt and black trousers. And Clinton has declared allegiance to trouser suits, the ones she settled on when she began her political career after the White House. As first lady, she tended toward the pastel and the classic and the skirt, but when she began her Senate campaign, she wore only black trouser suits.

但是沃伦几乎总是穿着时髦的珠宝色外套,搭配圆领黑衬衫和黑色长裤。克林顿一直忠于长裤套装,在她离开白宫,开始自己的政治生涯之后,就一直是这种形象。身为第一夫人的时候,她的风格偏向于淡雅、传统和半身裙,但她开始竞选参议员时,就只穿黑色裤套装了。

And though that soon gave way to tone-on-tone colors, they have become the symbol of the before and after stages in her life: from behind-the-scenes power, wife and helpmeet to candidate in her own right.

尽管她很快改成了同色系套装,它们代表了她走向政坛之前和之后的形象:从权力的幕后者、妻子和伴侣,到凭借自己的力量成为候选人的转变。

Even within this more Merkel-like continuum, though, Clinton has been branching out, wearing leather (Leather! When was the last time you saw a would-be president in leather that did not involve him standing on the deck of an aircraft carrier?) and beading, from both lesser-known names and designer labels, including Ralph Lauren and Giorgio Armani.

不过,就算是在默克尔风格的阵营里,克林顿也是独树一格,她穿皮装(皮装!你上次看到一个可能当上总统的人穿皮装而且不是站在航空母舰上是什么时候?)还有珠链,从小众品牌到设计师品牌,包括拉尔夫·劳伦(Ralph Lauren)和乔治·阿玛尼(Giorgio Armani)。

“I think America, and the electorate, is finally ready to embrace that, the idea of women politicians wearing something that is fun and feminine, without it being an issue,” said Lyn Paolo, the costume designer for “Scandal” and “How to Get Away With Murder.” “It’s about time. And I am really proud of her that she is trying new things.”

“我认为美国以及美国选民终于准备好了接受这种观念:女性政治家可以穿点风趣和女性化的服装,这并不是什么问题,”《丑闻》(Scandal)和《逍遥法外》(How to Get Away With Murder)的服装设计师琳恩·保罗(Lyn Paolo)说。“这和时间有关。她在尝试新事物,真让我为她感到骄傲。”

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