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芬兰宝宝为什么睡在纸箱里

更新时间:2016-7-7 18:27:25 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Why Finland’s Newborns Sleep in Cardboard Cribs
芬兰宝宝为什么睡在纸箱里

At a glance, it seems a strange place to put a newborn: a bit of bedding and a miniature sleeping bag arranged in a cardboard box.

乍看上去,用这个东西来放新生婴儿似乎有点奇怪:一个硬纸箱,里面有床上用品,以及一个小睡袋。

Even so, that’s the first place that many Finnish infants lay their little heads. And the simple setup is believed to be one reason that Finland now has one of the lowest infant mortality rates in the world — 2.52 for every 1,000 births, less than half that of the United States.

即便如此,这就是很多芬兰婴儿最初睡觉的地方。这种简单的安排,被认为是芬兰拥有全世界最低的婴儿死亡率的原因之一。在芬兰,每1000个新生婴儿中有2.52个死亡,不到美国的一半。

Finland provides all mothers-to-be with a baby box, but there’s a string attached. To receive it, the mother has to undergo a medical exam during the first four months of pregnancy.

芬兰向所有的准妈妈发放一个婴儿箱,但有个条件:准妈妈们必须在怀孕的头四个月接受体检。

Each year the government gives away about 40,000 of the boxes, which come with bedding and about 50 other baby items, including clothes, socks, a warm coat and even a baby balaclava for the icy Nordic winter. (Mothers who don’t need all those items can choose to get 140 euros instead, or about $155.)

政府每年赠送约4万个箱子给准妈妈们,其中包括床上用品以及约50件其他婴儿用品,包括衣服、袜子、保暖外套,甚至还有可以应付北欧寒冬的婴儿头套。(如果准妈妈不需要这些东西,可以选择直接领取140欧元,约合人民币1000元)。

The program started in the late 1930s, when nearly one of out 10 infants in Finland died in their first year. The boxes were a low-cost way to encourage women to set aside old habits and see a doctor during pregnancy. They also provided a safe place outside of parents’ beds for infants to sleep, in homes that might have only rudimentary furniture.

这个项目开始于上世纪30年代后期,当时在芬兰出生的婴儿中,差不多有十分之一会在第一年内夭折。婴儿箱可以鼓励女性放下旧习惯,在怀孕期间去看医生,而且这么做的成本也不高。此外,婴儿也可以在这个箱子里安全地睡觉,不用挤在父母的床上,因为有些家庭可能只有最基本的家具。

Finland also offers considerable protection for the baby’s parents: up to 10 months’ paid leave, and a guarantee that whoever stays home with a child can return to his or her job any time before the child turns 3.

芬兰还为婴儿的父母提供了很好的保障︰长达10个月的带薪假,并保证在家带孩子的家长可以在孩子3岁前的任何时间重返工作岗位。

There are efforts to extend the baby-box idea to a wider audience. A hospital in London recently began giving out the boxes on a trial basis. In Minnesota, a nonprofit group distributed the boxes to low-income families, inspiring a proposal being debated by state lawmakers. A graduate student at Harvard formed an organization to distribute similar kits in South Asia.

有些人希望把婴儿箱的做法推广给更多人。伦敦一家医院最近开始进行婴儿箱发放试点。在明尼苏达州,一个非营利组织向低收入家庭分发婴儿箱,并催生一项提案,在州议会进行了辩论。一名哈佛大学研究生成立了一个组织,在南亚地区分发类似的套件。

“When you move abroad, you realize that, wow, not every place has a baby box,” said Sanna Kangasharju, who works in the Finnish Embassy in Washington.

“当你搬到国外时,你意识到,哇,不是每个地方都有婴儿箱,”在芬兰驻华盛顿大使馆工作的桑娜·坎阿斯哈勒尤(Sanna Kangasharju)说。

“It’s a very efficient system.”

“这是一个非常高效的系统。”

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