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美国政府传唤华为

更新时间:2016-6-5 11:01:28 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

U.S. Subpoenas Huawei Over Its Dealings in Iran and North Korea
美国政府传唤华为

HONG KONG — Huawei Technologies has become China’s most successful international technology company, in part by tapping markets as varied as Britain, India and Kenya.

香港——华为之所以逐渐成为中国最成功的国际技术公司,部分原因在于它开拓了包括英国、印度和肯尼亚在内的多种多样的市场。

But it also moved into markets like Syria, where American officials have imposed limits on sales of technology that could be used to commit human rights abuses, and into Iran, where sanctions have only recently eased. And its presence in such countries is now coming under greater scrutiny.

不过,它也进入了叙利亚和伊朗这样的市场。美国官方对叙利亚限制销售可能被用来侵犯人权的技术产品,而对伊朗实施的制裁直到最近才缓和。于是,华为在这些国家的存在如今开始受到更严格的审视。

The United States Commerce Department is demanding that the company, based in the south China city of Shenzhen, turn over all information regarding the export or re-export of American technology to Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Sudan and Syria, according to a subpoena sent to Huawei and viewed by The New York Times. The subpoena is part of an investigation into whether Huawei broke United States export controls.

《纽约时报》看到的发给华为的一张传票显示,美国商务部要求这家总部位于中国南部城市深圳的企业提交有关将美国技术出口或再出口至古巴、伊朗、朝鲜、苏丹和叙利亚的所有信息。这张传票是一项调查的一部分,而该调查旨在确认华为是否违反了美国的出口限制。

Sent to Huawei’s American headquarters in the Dallas suburb of Plano, the subpoena called for Huawei to turn over information related to shipments to those countries over the past five years. It also sought evidence of shipments to the countries indirectly through front or shell companies. The subpoena directed company officials to testify last month in Irving, Tex., or to provide information before then; it was not clear whether the meeting took place.

这张传票发至了华为位于达拉斯郊外普莱诺的美国总部,要求提交有关它在过去五年运送至这些国家的产品的信息。传票还试图获得华为通过幌子公司或壳公司间接向这些国家发货的证据。商务部传唤华为高管上月至德克萨斯州的欧文作证,或在那个时间之前提供信息;目前尚不清楚华为是否曾赴会。

Huawei has not been accused of wrongdoing. In a statement, the company said it was committed to complying with laws and regulations where it operated. The document, which was issued by the Commerce Department office that investigates export violations, is an administrative subpoena, meaning it does not indicate a criminal investigation.

华为并未被指控有任何违法行为。该公司在一份声明中表示,它致力于在开展业务的地方遵守当地法规。这份文件由负责调查出口违规行为的商务部办公室签发,是一份行政传票。这意味着它并非刑事调查。

Still, the scrutiny over Huawei’s dealings with those countries is emblematic of growing discord between the United States and China over control of global communications technology. It also illustrates how technology companies from both countries have been pulled into the high-stakes geopolitical contest over cybersecurity and the global management of the internet.

然而,针对华为与这些国家交易的调查仍然象征着美中两国在全球通讯技术控制方面的日渐不和,也显示出两个国家的科技企业如何因网络安全和全球互联网管理而卷入高风险的地缘政治竞争。

If the investigation finds that Huawei was acting counter to United States national security or foreign policy interests, it could limit the company’s access to crucial American-made components and other tech products. Given Huawei’s size and reach, that could affect the development of cellular networks and other large-scale technology infrastructure projects across the world.

如果调查发现华为在做出与美国国家安全或外交政策利益相悖的事,美国可能会限制它获得关键的美制元件和其他技术产品。考虑到华为的规模和业务范围,这或许会对全世界的蜂窝网络和其他一些大规模的技术基础设施项目产生影响。

“We do not comment with regard to ongoing investigations,” a Commerce Department spokesman said.

“我们不对正在进行的调查置评,”商务部的一名发言人表示。

The subpoena was issued after the United States briefly blocked in March sales of American technology to Huawei’s smaller Chinese rival, ZTE, over similar concerns. As part of their move against ZTE, American officials released internal ZTE documents that showed the Chinese company used a rival’s business efforts in those countries as a model. While the rival was not named in the documents, its description matched Huawei.

在向华为发出传唤之前,出于同样的顾虑,美国曾在今年3月短暂禁止向华为规模相对小的对手中兴通讯(ZTE)出售美国技术。作为针对中兴的行动的一部分,美国官方披露了它的内部文件,其中显示这家中国企业将一个竞争对手在这些国家的业务努力作为模板。尽管文件中没有指明这家对手企业,但其中的描述与华为相匹配。

With the new investigation into Huawei, the United States is going after a much larger target. In 2014, Huawei reported revenue of about $60 billion, about four times that of ZTE. Depending on the measure, it ranks with Ericsson of Sweden as the world’s largest supplier of the base stations and other equipment that make mobile telecommunications systems run.

随着针对华为的新调查展开,美国追查的目标要比过去大得多。华为在2014年的营收约为600亿美元,大致相当于中兴的四倍。以这个规模论,它与瑞典的爱立信(Ericsson)同属世界上最大的基站及移动通讯网络运营所需其他设备的供应商。

Though the subpoena did not indicate whether any actions would be taken against Huawei, any major United States step to block the sales of American tech equipment to Huawei would have major implications for telecom networks across the world. Many of Huawei’s products use American components or work with American technology.

虽说这张传票并没有显示美国政府是否会对华为采取任何行动,但美国政府倘若施行阻止向华为出售美国技术设备的任何重要举措,都会对全世界的通讯网络产生重大影响。华为的许多产品都使用美国元件或采用美国技术。

Huawei has long benefited from access to easy credit from China’s state-run lenders as it has expanded into areas where China seeks influence. But the company has drawn skepticism in the United States, where officials have put an effective block on selling its telecom infrastructure equipment.

长期以来,华为得益于中国的信贷环境。当它向中国试图获取影响力的地区扩展市场时,可以轻易地从国有放贷机构获得贷款。然而,这家企业在美国引发了质疑,美国官方实质上阻止了华为向美国销售其电讯基础设备。

Huawei has not shied from agreements that could draw criticism. In September, it signed a deal with Syria’s Communications and Technology Ministry to help the country develop its communications networks.

华为自身一直没有回避可能引发批评的交易。去年9月,它与叙利亚通信技术部签署了一项协议,帮助该国建设通讯网络。

Huawei’s business in Iran has fallen under American criticism in the past. In 2011, Huawei said in a statement that it would voluntarily restrict the growth of its business in Iran. A year later, six American lawmakers wrote a letter to the State Department, calling for an investigation into whether Huawei was violating sanctions on Iran. Recently, the Congressional Research Service released a report that said that companies like Huawei appeared to have fulfilled pledges not to sell technology for blocking telecommunications in 2014.

过去,美国曾对华为在伊朗开展业务进行指责。2011年,华为发表声明称,它将自愿限制在伊朗的业务发展。一年后,六名美国议员给国务院写了一封信,呼吁对华为是否违反针对伊朗的制裁展开调查。最近,美国国会研究服务部(Congressional Research Service)发布了一份报告,文中表示2014年华为等企业似乎兑现了此前的承诺,未向进行通讯封锁的地区销售技术。

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