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干涸的湄公河三角洲:越南农民陷入生存困境

更新时间:2016-5-30 18:37:57 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Drought and ‘Rice First’ Policy Imperil Vietnamese Farmers
干涸的湄公河三角洲:越南农民陷入生存困境

SOC TRANG, Vietnam — When the rice shoots began to wither on Lam Thi Loi’s farm in the heart of the Mekong Delta, a usually verdant region of Vietnam, she faced a hard choice: Let them die in the parched earth, or pump salty water from the river to give them a chance.

越南朔庄——越南的湄公河三角洲通常是一片葱翠的区域。当林诗莱(Lam Thi Loi)位于这片区域腹地的水稻秧苗开始枯萎时,她面临艰难的抉择:要么让它们死在干涸的土地上,要么从河里抽出含盐的水,给它们以生存之机。

Like many seasoned farmers here, she risked the saline water. The crop perished within days.

像这里许多经验丰富的农民一样,她冒险用了含盐的水。结果秧苗在几天内就死掉了。

The Mekong Delta, Vietnam’s premier rice growing region, is suffering its worst drought since French colonial administrators began recording statistics in 1926. Giant cracks, some a foot deep, gouge the hard earth; brown stalks of dead rice litter the fields; and the dryness is so severe even the pests lie shriveled on the ground.

越南最重要的稻米产区湄公河三角洲正在遭遇自法国殖民时期的统治者1926年开始数据统计以来最严重的一次旱灾。坚硬的土地敞着巨大的裂缝,有些深达一英尺;地里满是褐色的干枯稻茎;干旱太严重,连地里的害虫也干死了。

“I’ve been planting rice since I was 13, and I have never seen anything like this,” Ms. Loi, 38, said as she sat in her neat living room. “In February I got one bag of rice. Last year we harvested 1.4 tons.”

“我从13岁就开始种稻,从来没见到过这种情况,”现年38岁的林诗莱坐在自己整洁的起居室内说道。“今年2月,我只收了一袋大米。去年,我们收了1.4吨。”

The increasingly dramatic effect of El Niño, the weather phenomenon that causes excessive heat and reduced rainfall in Southeast Asia, is the prime reason for the crop failures in the delta, scientists say. But it is not the only one.

科学家表示,日益加剧的厄尔尼诺现象是这片三角洲出现农业减产的主要原因。该气候现象会导致东南亚地区天气过热,降雨减少。不过这并不是唯一的原因。

The Communist government’s insistence that farmers grow three rice crops a year, instead of the traditional one or two, has depleted the soil of nutrients, exacerbating the impact of the drought, they say.

越共政府坚决要求农民一年种三茬稻,而不是传统的一年一茬或两茬。科学家表示,这种方式耗尽了土地的养分,加重了旱灾的影响。

And water from the sea has invaded the lower reaches of the Mekong River, which is more shallow than usual, sweeping saline water farther up the delta than ever before and wiping out rice fields.

此外,海水灌入湄公河比以往水位更低的下游,含盐的海水侵蚀三角洲的程度甚于以往任何时候,毁掉了大片稻田。

All 13 provinces in the delta, home to 17 million people, or one-fifth of Vietnam’s population, are suffering from salt water in agricultural lands, the government said. The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development reported in March that 200,000 households experienced serious water shortages, and that the number was rising.

湄公河三角洲地区的13个省份总共居住着1700万人,占越南总人口的五分之一。政府表示,这里的农地正遭遇海水侵袭。越南农业与农村发展部今年3月发布的报告显示,有20万家庭面临严重的水资源短缺,而且这个数字还在不断增加。

Saline water has long been invading the delta, but because of the drought there is not enough fresh water in the river and its distributaries to dilute the seawater. The salt is having a more deleterious impact, the scientists say.

海水灌入湄公河三角洲的情况一直都存在。不过科学家表示,因为出现旱灾,河里没有足够的淡水和分支河流来稀释海水,所以水里的盐分产生了更大的危害。

The rice crop crisis has highlighted the need for the government to adjust its heavy emphasis on rice growing, and to encourage shrimp farming as a more profitable and practical substitute, said Nguyen Huu Thien, a consultant with the International Union for Conservation of Nature.

世界自然保护联盟(International Union for Conservation of Nature)的顾问阮友善(Nguyen Huu Thien)表示,稻米危机凸显了政府作为的必要性:政府应该调整过度依赖稻米种植的状况,鼓励人们将养虾作为一种利润更高、更实际的替代方案。

“Vietnam is the second-biggest rice exporter after Thailand,” Mr. Thien said, referring to the Southeast Asian region. ”But there is no glory in that because the farmers are not thriving, and there is a lot of migration out of the delta.”

“越南是仅次于泰国的第二大稻米出口国,”阮友善说道,他指的是东南亚地区的排名。“但这没什么值得称道的,因为这里的农民没有富裕起来,有很多人移居到了湄公河三角洲之外。”

The government is stuck on a “rice first” policy that harks back to the 1970s, after the Communist victory in the Vietnam War, when the people were hungry and the country was isolated, bereft of trading partners and without a manufacturing sector.

越南政府一直坚持“稻米优先”政策。该政策可以追溯至70年代。当时,共产党在越南战争中取得了胜利,民众处于忍饥挨饿的状态,国家与世隔绝,没有贸易伙伴,也没有制造业。

In those days, the government mobilized work teams to construct earthen dikes along major canals in the delta to keep the salt water out and to foster better conditions for rice growing, said Timothy Gorman, a researcher on the delta at Cornell University.

来自康奈尔大学(Cornell University)的湄公河三角洲研究者蒂莫西·戈尔曼(Timothy Gorman)表示,在那个年代,政府动员生产队沿着三角洲的主要河道修建土堤,防止海水倒灌,为水稻生长创造更好的环境。

Government-financed sluice gates were built in the 1990s, he said. By 2001, some farmers were so fed up with the efforts to hold back the salt water that they attacked the sluice gates and destroyed them, making way for the cultivation of tiger prawns in the western part of the delta.

他还提到,在90年代,政府资助修建了一批水闸。至2001年,一些对持续对抗海水倒灌感到厌烦的农民开始破坏这些水闸,试图摧毁它们,为三角洲西部地区的虎虾养殖创造条件。

Many farmers know the saline water is good for producing shrimp, Mr. Gorman said, but while they get subsidies for rice, they are not encouraged to switch to shrimp.

戈尔曼表示,许多农民知道海水利于养虾,但种稻可以获得补贴,转而从事虾类养殖则不然。

The construction of hydropower dams upstream from the delta, and dams in China’s southern province of Yunnan, are adding to the woes.

湄公河上游建设水力发电站,以及中国云南省修建大坝,更是雪上加霜。

A 2010 study commissioned by the Mekong River Commission warned against the building of 11 dams in Laos and Cambodia because they would trap valuable sediment and stop it from reaching the delta. The report was ignored, two of the dams are under construction, and the rest are scheduled to go ahead.

湄公河委员会(Mekong River Commission)于2010年委托进行的一项研究曾警告,老挝和柬埔寨不应修建计划中的11座大坝,因为它们会拦截珍贵的淤泥,使之无法抵达三角洲地区。这份报告没有受到重视,有两座大坝正在修建,其他的也有计划推进。

In a rare concession to Vietnam, the Chinese released water from dams in Yunnan Province in March, but the flow was too small to make a difference to the failing rice crops, the Vietnamese authorities said.

今年3月,中国少见地对越南做出妥协,让云南省的几座大坝开闸放水。但越南当局表示,水流太小,不足以令越南稻米种植的困境有所改观。

Resentment toward the government is rising among the villagers.

此地村民对政府的怨恨情绪与日俱增。

The provincial authorities kept them in the dark, residents said. In October, the water level in the vast Tonle Sap Lake in Cambodia, which feeds into the Mekong River, was perilously low.

居民表示,省当局竭力掩盖事实。去年10月,向湄公河输送淡水的柬埔寨大湖洞里萨湖的水位低到了非常危险的程度。

Two other big reservoirs of water in the Vietnamese provinces of An Giang and Dong Thap that help soak the rice fields were also at extremely low levels.

分别位于安江省和同塔省的另外两座有助于灌溉稻田的水库也处于极低的水位。

Ms. Loi said she had not been warned. She went ahead, plowing and planting. She has lost more than $1,000 on seeds, fertilizers and labor, she said.

林诗莱表示,她不曾接到过警告。她只是埋头干活,犁地、播种。她说自己在种子、化肥和人工上损失了上千美元。

Yet when she attended a meeting called recently by district officials to discuss the problems, the villagers were met with scorn, she said. “They offered me only $120,” she said. “It is nothing. We have no right to negotiate with them. They said the farmers don’t know anything. But we do know our business.”

她说,为了讨论这些问题,她前去参加了最近由地区政府官员召集的一次会议。然而,这些村民却遭到了蔑视。“他们只想给我120美元(约合800元人民币),”她说。“这根本不顶事。我们没有资格跟他们讨价还价。他们说农民什么都不懂。但我们知道自己这个行业是怎么回事。”

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