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保护大象如何成为了美国名流们的新时尚

更新时间:2016-5-23 21:11:53 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

How the Elephant Became the Newest Celebrity Cause
保护大象如何成为了美国名流们的新时尚

The actress Elizabeth Hurley traveled to Nairobi from London a few weeks ago to witness the Kenyan government burn 105 tons of poached ivory, saying she “felt sickened to watch the great pyres.”

女演员伊丽莎白·赫莉(Elizabeth Hurley)几周前从伦敦出发,到内罗毕观看肯尼亚政府销毁105吨偷猎象牙,她说:“那焚烧用的巨大柴堆让我觉得恶心。”

Lupita Nyong’o, the Oscar-winning actress, posed with a baby elephant rescued from a poacher’s snare, telling her 2.6 million Instagram followers: “33,000 elephants are killed every year so that a few people can wear and display a few trinkets. We can do better.”

奥斯卡奖最佳女配角得主露皮塔·尼永奥(Lupita Nyong’o)在Instagram上贴出她与一只从偷猎者陷阱里解救出来的小象的合影,并告诉自己的260万粉丝:“为了某些人可以戴着点小首饰炫耀,每一年都有3.3万头象遇害。我们能做得更好。”

Susan Sarandon raised thousands for an elephant benefit in London last year. “The crisis facing elephants is particularly tragic,” she said recently.

去年,苏珊·萨兰登(Susan Sarandon)在伦敦为一项大象慈善事业募集了几千美元。她前不久说,“大象所面临的危机格外悲惨。”

“Everything about them is extraordinary,” she said. “Their intelligence and emotional complexity, the depth of their matriarchal social ties and just their sheer physical majesty.”

“它们的一切都是那样与众不同,”她说。“它们的智慧与丰富的情感、它们复杂的母系社会纽带,当然还有它们威严的体态。”

These days, it seems, for every elephant that falls to poachers, a celebrity rises to join the fight to save them.

这些日子,好像有多少大象落入偷猎者的陷阱,就有多少名人站出来解救它们。

#SaveTheElephants has become a rallying cry among the celebrity class, a made-for-Hollywood issue that features a beloved victim, menacing villains (gangsters, warlords) and undeniable drama (if current poaching rates continue, wild elephant populations could vanish in some African countries, conservationists say).

Twitter上“救救大象”(#SaveTheElephants)的标签成了名人们的一致呼声,这个话题简直是为好莱坞量身定制的,其中包括一个让人怜惜的受害者、一群危险的恶棍(抑或匪徒、军阀)以及无可争议的戏剧性(环境保护者们说,如果目前的大象偷猎持续下去,某些非洲国家的野生大象种群将会消失)。

No wonder elephant conservation, like the rain forest in the ’90s, has become an issue that celebrities can rally behind, uniting stars of the big screen (Arnold Schwarzenegger, Edward Norton) and small (Ian Somerhalder of “The Vampire Diaries”), not to mention sports stars (Yao Ming, Andy Murray), fashion designers (Tommy Hilfiger, Diane von Furstenberg) and royals (the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, Prince William and Kate Middleton).

因此,无怪乎大象保护事业和20世纪90年代的热带雨林保护事业一样,成了一个令名人们团结起来的话题,各路电影明星纷纷加入进来,比如影星阿诺德·施瓦辛格(Arnold Schwarzenegger)与爱德华·诺顿(Edward Norton);电视明星伊恩·萨默海尔德(Ian Somerhalder,《吸血鬼日记》[The Vampire Diaries]),更不用说体育明星姚明和安迪·穆雷(Andy Murray);时尚设计师汤米·希尔费格(Tommy Hilfiger)和黛安·冯芙斯汀宝(Diane von Furstenberg),以及王室成员剑桥公爵威廉王子(Prince William)及剑桥公爵夫人凯特·米德尔顿(Kate Middleton)。

The cause célèbre, in other words, has become a cause celeb.

换言之,这桩原本属于公众的轰动事件已经变成了名人事件。

“Stars are magnets, and they attract other stars,” said Laura Fredricks, a philanthropy consultant and lecturer at New York University. “And before you know it, the whole celebrity scene is totally on board with saving elephants around the world. It’s the sexy cause of the moment.”

“明星们就像磁铁一样,吸引着其他明星加入,”纽约大学慈善顾问及演说家劳拉·弗里德里克斯(Laura Fredricks)说。“不等你觉察到,所有名人就突然全都开始拯救世界各地的大象了。这是当下一桩性感的事业。”

There is no denying that the stakes are high. As of 2013, the elephant population in Africa had plummeted to about 400,000, according to the conservation site elephantdatabase.org, from some 1.3 million in 1979, due to strong demand for ivory, particularly in Asia, where it is a status symbol for the burgeoning middle class.

无可否认,这确实是一项极为迫切的工作。根据大象保护网站elephantdatabase.org的数据,非洲大象的数量已经从1979年的130万头锐减至2013年的40万头;这是由于对象牙的强烈需求所导致,特别是在亚洲,象牙被数量激增的中产阶级视为身份地位的象征。

(The United States remains a leading market. Despite a longstanding ban on commercial importation, allowances for legal ivory — say, in antiques — create loopholes for ivory from poached elephants to enter the market, activists say.)

(美国依然是位居前列的象牙市场。行动主义者们说,尽管商业进口早已被禁止,但古董之类限量合法进口的象牙仍然是可以钻的漏洞,令偷猎而来的象牙进入美国市场。)

The poaching crisis has come to resemble a war. With ivory fetching more than $1,000 a pound, according to the conservation group Save the Elephants, poachers (often employed by criminal syndicates and sometimes armed with helicopters, night-vision goggles and automatic weapons) are slaughtering tens of thousands of elephants a year, threatening to send the world’s largest land mammal the way of its forebear, the woolly mammoth.

偷猎危机已经变得像是一场战争。根据大象保护组织“救救大象”(Save the Elephants)的说法,目前象牙价格已经超过1000美元一磅,偷猎者通常是由犯罪集团雇来,有时还配备了直升机、夜视护目镜和自动武器,每年杀害数万头大象,令这种世界上最大的陆地哺乳动物有可能像其祖先长毛猛犸象一样,走上灭绝之路。

“What I’m seeing now is a lot of anger,” said Andrew Harmon, a spokesman for WildAid, a global conservation group based in San Francisco. “People are just really afraid that this will be a generation that will see elephants go extinct in the wild.”

“我现在看到有很多人对此感到愤怒,”总部位于旧金山的全球动物保护组织野生救援(WildAid) 的发言人安德鲁·哈蒙(Andrew Harmon)说。“人们真的很担心这一代人将会目睹野生大象绝种。”

Given the climate, conservationists have embraced celebrities amplification of their message, said Misty Herrin, a spokeswoman for the Nature Conservancy.

大自然保护协会(Nature Conservancy)发言人米斯蒂·赫林(Misty Herrin)说,鉴于这个背景,环境保护者们欢迎名人们来把他们的消息广泛传播出去。

Indeed, a photo that Leonardo DiCaprio posted on Instagram two months ago showing him posing with two endangered Sumatran elephants in Indonesia got nearly 500,000 likes. (In 2013, Mr. DiCaprio led a drive to deliver 1.6 million signatures to the prime minister of Thailand in support of a proposed ban on the ivory trade, a World Wildlife Fund spokesman said.)

两个月前,莱昂纳多·迪卡普里奥(Leonardo DiCaprio)在自己的Instagram上贴了一张他与两只濒危的印尼苏门答腊象的合影,获得了将近50万个赞(世界自然基金会[World Wildlife Fund]的一位发言人说,2013年,迪卡普里奥曾带头征集了160万个签名,向泰国总理请愿,支持一项禁止象牙贸易的提案)。

Social media has played a huge role in publicizing the issue, with more than 100,000 users following the lead of Ms. Nyong’o, Yoko Ono and other celebrities who signed onto WildAid’s #JoinTheHerd campaign. In the spirit of Facebook’s popular rainbow filter to show support for same-sex marriage, users can upload split-screen photos of their faces with an elephant face as their profile photo.

社交媒体在宣传这一问题当中发挥了重要作用,有10万名以上的用户响应尼永奥和小野洋子等名人的号召,在野生救援发起的#JoinTheHerd活动中签名。此前Facebook推出了旨在支持同性婚姻的彩虹头像滤镜,颇受欢迎;受此启发,JoinTheHerd活动的用户可以上传自己的头像,与一头大象的脸合成一张分框照片,用来当做自己在社交媒体的头像。

To combat demand for ivory in Asia, the group has also enlisted the likes of Yao Ming (the Chinese-born former Houston Rockets star), Li Bingbing (a prominent actress in China) and Maggie Q (an actress who starred in the CW assassin drama “Nikita” and CBS’s “Stalker” and whose mother is Vietnamese).

为了对抗亚洲对象牙的需求,这个组织请来了姚明(前休斯敦火箭队中国球星)、李冰冰(著名中国女演员)和Maggie Q(曾在CW的杀手剧《尼基塔》[Nikita]和CBS的《跟踪者》[Stalker]中饰演角色的女演员,母亲是越南人)等人。

“It basically takes an army of 30 people to protect one elephant,” said Maggie Q, who began her acting career in Asia. “On the other hand, what is most effective is to speak to consumers. And there’s an entire side of the world that knows me, knows my values and knows my face.”

“保护一只大象需要一支30人的队伍,”演艺生涯始于亚洲的Maggie Q说。“换言之,对消费者进行宣传要更有效率。世界上另一边的人都知道我,他们知道我的价值,也认识我的脸。”

Many celebrities go beyond supplying a pretty picture and a quote.

许多名人的支持不仅仅限于贴出好看的照片,再说一句漂亮话。

Last summer, Jared Leto, an ambassador for the World Wildlife Fund, co-wrote an editorial in Time magazine demanding that the United States do more to stop the slaughter. “Our collective efforts don’t match the scale and speed of the calamity before us,” he said.

去年夏天,世界自然基金会大使杰拉德·莱托(Jared Leto)与他人联名在《时代》(Time)杂志发表社论,要求美国采取更多行动制止屠杀。“我们的集体行动远不够弥补我们面前的灾难规模及其发展速度。”

A number of Hollywood notables have also trained their cameras on the cause, making documentaries about the plight of the elephants: Kathryn Bigelow, the Oscar-winning director (the short film “Last Days”); Kristin Davis of “Sex and the City” (who produced and self-financed “Gardeners of Eden”); and Paul Allen, the Microsoft co-founder and Hollywood producer. (He produced “Naledi: A Baby Elephant’s Tale,” which will debut next month at the Seattle International Film Festival.)

许多好莱坞要人也开始把镜头对准这项事业,拍摄关于大象困境的纪录片,比如奥斯卡最佳导演奖得主凯瑟琳·毕格罗(Kathryn Bigelow)拍摄了短片《最后的日子》(Last Days);《欲望都市》(Sex and the City)主演克里斯汀·戴维斯(Kristin Davis)出资并制作了影片《伊甸园的园丁》(Gardeners of Eden);微软公司的联合创始人、好莱坞制片人保罗·艾伦(Paul Allen)制作了《纳勒迪:一只小象的故事》(Naledi: A Baby Elephant’s Tale),下月将在西雅图国际电影节首映。

The celebrity efforts provide another crucial weapon for conservationists: money.

名人还为动物保护者们提供了另一件重要的武器:金钱。

While philanthropic associations do not track donations to elephant causes specifically, fund-raising for wildlife in general (including other much-publicized endangered animals like rhinos and tigers), appears to be on the rise, according to the Giving USA Foundation.

虽然慈善团体并不会把捐款特别用于大象保护事业,但是根据Giving USA Foundation的数据,对野生动物保护的整体捐款(包括为犀牛和老虎等其他广受宣传的濒危物种的捐款)有了显著增加。

In 2014, donations to animal and environmental causes rose to $10.5 billion, up 43 percent since 2009.

2014年,为动物与环境事业的捐款上升到了105亿美元,自2009年以来上升了43%。

At a grass-roots level, a celebrity-fueled social media campaign like #JointheHerd can persuade the masses to reach for the credit card, said Mr. Harmon of WildAid. Since the campaign began in February, WildAid has seen the number of small donors to its elephant initiative rise 94 percent, he said.

野生救援的哈蒙先生表示,就基层层面来说,#JointheHerd之类由名人推波助澜的社交媒体活动可以促进大众打开钱包。他说,自从2月这个活动开始以来,野生救援已经看到,对大象保护工作的小额捐款上升了94%。

Celebrities also persuade other celebrities to open their wallets.

名人还会说服其他名人慷慨解囊。

Last fall, for example, Owen Wilson hosted the Elephants Forever Auction at Sotheby’s, featuring artwork by Tom Sachs and Rob Pruitt, among others, that drew the likes of Waris Ahluwalia, the actor and jewelry designer, and Ms. Sarandon and raised more than $1 million for Elephant Family, benefiting Asian elephants, and Space for Giants.

比如说,去年秋天,欧文·威尔逊(Owen Wilson)主持了苏富比的“永远的大象拍卖会”(Elephants Forever Auction),其中包括汤姆·萨克斯(Tom Sachs)和罗布·普鲁伊特(Rob Pruitt)等人的作品,吸引了演员兼珠宝设计师瓦利斯·阿鲁瓦里亚(Waris Ahluwalia)和萨兰登女士等人,为“巨人空间”(Space for Giants)和援助亚洲象的慈善组织“大象之家”(Elephant Family)募集了100多万美元。

“Maybe it sounds corny, but there’s sort of a wisdom to elephants,” InStyle quoted Mr. Wilson as saying.

“或许这听上去很老套,但这也是一种帮助大象的智慧,”InStyle援引了威尔逊先生的话。

Elephant Family will make further inroads into the art world this summer, when it takes the Elephant Parade, a showcase of elephant-themed outdoor art by David Yarrow, David LaChapelle, and other artists, to the Hamptons

“大象之家”还将在今年夏天进一步进军艺术界,它将在汉普顿举办一个名为“大象展示”(Elephant Parade)的大象主题户外艺术展,包括大卫·亚罗(David Yarrow)、大卫·拉切贝尔(David LaChapelle)等艺术家的作品。

Similarly, the fashion industry has gotten involved. Two years ago during MADE Fashion Week the Clinton Foundation headed a campaign to install a 10-foot pink elephant, designed by the artist Tristin Lowe, at Milk Studios to raise awareness for its #SaveElephants campaign. (The concept reportedly grew out of conversations among Chelsea Clinton, Diane Von Furstenberg and Oscar de la Renta, all elephant champions).

同样,时尚界也参与进来。两年前,在MADE时装周上,克林顿基金会发起一项活动,在Milk工作室安装了由艺术家特里斯汀·罗伊(Tristin Lowe)设计的一头10英尺高的粉色大象,为该基金会的#SaveElephants活动募捐(据报道,这个创意来自切尔西·克林顿[Chelsea Clinton]、黛安·冯芙斯汀宝与奥斯卡·德拉伦塔[Oscar de la Renta]的一次交谈,他们都是大象保护运动的倡导者)。

Certainly, it will take more than art auctions and fashion shows to overcome this global crisis. Like the drug trade, the illicit ivory trade involves vast criminal syndicates and countless corrupt government officials, said Trevor Neilson, the president of Global Philanthropy Group in Los Angeles.

当然,要克服这场全球危机,靠艺术拍卖与时装秀是远远不够的。正如毒品贸易,非法象牙贸易涉及大量犯罪团伙与无数腐败的政府官员,全球慈善组织(Global Philanthropy Group)主席特雷弗·尼尔逊(Trevor Nelson)在洛杉矶说。

“If you want to understand the issue, you have to talk former C.I.A. officers who are in touch with Kenyan intelligence who can tell you who is corrupt at the port at Mombasa,” Mr. Neilson said.

“如果你想了解这个问题,就得与那些跟肯尼亚情报机关联络的中情局前官员们谈谈,他们会告诉你,谁是蒙巴萨港口的腐败者。”

By contrast, “When a well-meaning reality TV star in Los Angeles is tweeting ‘save the elephants,’ I think it’s safe to say that that has no impact whatsoever,” he said.

与此相反,“我觉得满怀善意的电视明星在洛杉矶发发‘救救大象’的Twitter时根本就没什么用处,”他说。

Even so, there are reasons for hope, conservationists say. On a visit to the United States in September, President Xi Jinping of China promised to enact “nearly complete” bans on ivory import and export.

尽管如此,动物保护者们说,仍然有理由满怀希望。9月份,中国国家主席习近平访美时承诺,“几乎是彻底”禁止象牙进出口贸易。

In the United States, four states including California and New York have enacted ivory restrictions, with others pending. (Citing “horrific cruelty,” Meryl Streep joined the Humane Society’s fight in her home state of New Jersey. Woody Harrelson told representatives in Hawaii that “the world is watching.”)

在美国,包括加利福尼亚和纽约在内的四个州禁止了象牙贸易,其他州还在等待立法通过阶段(梅丽尔·斯特里普[Meryl Streep]在她的家乡新泽西参加了人道对待动物协会的宣传活动,她说象牙贸易是“可怕的残忍行为”。伍迪·哈里森[Woody Harrelson]对夏威夷的众议员说:“整个世界都在看着”)。

President Obama has called for a near-total ban on the ivory trade in the United States, and conservation groups expect the new law to be put in effect this summer.

奥巴马总统号召在美国基本全部禁止象牙贸易,动物保护组织希望新法律可以在今年夏天生效。

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