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高效健身,1分钟抵得上45分钟

更新时间:2016-4-29 10:11:48 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

1 Minute of All-Out Exercise May Have Benefits of 45 Minutes of Moderate Exertion
高效健身,1分钟抵得上45分钟

For many of us, the most pressing question about exercise is: How little can I get away with? The answer, according to a sophisticated new study of interval training, may be very, very little. In this new experiment, in fact, 60 seconds of strenuous exertion proved to be as successful at improving health and fitness as three-quarters of an hour of moderate exercise.

对我们很多人来说,关于锻炼最迫切的问题是:我最少需要锻炼多长时间?关于间歇性训练的一项复杂的新研究表明,你只需要锻炼很短很短的时间。实际上,在这项新实验中,60秒钟的高强度运动被证明和45分钟的中等强度锻炼在改善健康状况和身体机能方面的作用是一样的。

Let me repeat that finding: One minute of arduous exercise was comparable in its physiological effects to 45 minutes of gentler sweating.

我再重复一遍这项发现:一分钟高强度锻炼的生理效果与45分钟温和运动的效果是一样的。

I have been writing for some time about the potential benefits of high-intensity interval training, a type of workout that consists of an extremely draining but brief burst of exercise — essentially, a sprint — followed by light exercise such as jogging or resting, then another sprint, more rest, and so on.

我撰写关于高强度间歇性训练潜在益处的文章已经有一段时间了。这种锻炼包括非常费力的短时爆发性运动——比如冲刺——随后进行慢跑等轻度运动或休息,然后再冲刺,再休息,如此循环。

Athletes rely on intervals to improve their speed and power, but generally as part of a broader, weekly training program that also includes prolonged, less-intense workouts, such as long runs.

运动员们依靠间歇性训练来提高速度,增强力量,不过通常是作为内容更丰富的每周训练项目的一部分——后者还包括时间较长、强度较低的锻炼,比如长跑。

But in the past few years, exercise scientists and many of the rest of us have become intrigued by the idea of exercising exclusively with intervals, ditching long workouts altogether.

但是在过去几年里,运动科学家们以及其他很多人对只进行间歇性训练、完全抛弃长时间锻炼的想法产生了兴趣。

The allure of this approach is obvious. Interval sessions can be short, making them a boon for anyone who feels that he or she never has enough time to exercise.

这种方法的诱惑很明显。间歇性训练的时间可以很短,适合任何感觉自己永远没有足够时间锻炼的人。

Previously, I have written about a number of different interval programs, involving anywhere from 10 minutes of exhausting intervals in a single session to seven minutes, six, four and even fewer. Each program had scientific backing. But because of time and funding constraints, most studies of interval training have had limits, such as not including a control group, being of short duration or studying only health or fitness results, not both.

之前,我写过很多关于不同间歇性训练项目的文章,从单次10分钟强力训练到七分钟、六分钟、四分钟,甚至时间更短的强力训练。每个项目都有科学依据。但是由于时间和资金限制,大部分关于间歇性训练的研究都有局限性,比如没有对照组,实验时间短,只研究对改善健康或身体机能的作用,而不是同时研究对这两者的作用。

Consequently, fundamental questions have remained unanswered about just how well these very short, very intense workouts really stack up against traditional, endurance-style training.

所以,这些强度很大的短时锻炼能否真的与传统耐力型锻炼相媲美等基本问题依然没有答案。

So scientists at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, who had themselves conducted many of those earlier studies of interval training, decided recently to mount probably the most scientifically rigorous comparison to date of super-short and more-standard workouts.

所以,前不久,安大略省汉密尔顿麦克马斯特大学(McMaster University)的科学家们决定对超短时长锻炼和标准时长锻炼进行比较,它很可能是迄今为止从科学角度来说最严谨的比较。他们之前进行过很多关于间歇性训练的研究。

They began by recruiting 25 out-of-shape young men and measuring their current aerobic fitness and, as a marker of general health, their body’s ability to use insulin properly to regulate blood sugar levels. The scientists also biopsied the men’s muscles to examine how well their muscles functioned at a cellular level.

他们招募了25名体型不佳的年轻男子,测量他们当时的有氧适能以及用胰岛素调节血糖的身体机能——后者是反映整体健康水平的标志。科学家们还对这些男人的肌肉进行活检,以检测他们的肌肉在细胞层次的功能。

Then the researchers randomly divided the men into three groups. (The scientists plan to study women in subsequent experiments.) One group was asked to change nothing about their current, virtually nonexistent exercise routines; they would be the controls.

然后,科学家们随机把这些男人分成三组(科学家们计划在随后的实验中以女性为研究对象)。有一组被要求对当时的锻炼状态不做任何改变,他们当时实际上没有任何日常锻炼;他们是对照组。

A second group began a typical endurance-workout routine, consisting of riding at a moderate pace on a stationary bicycle at the lab for 45 minutes, with a two-minute warm-up and three-minute cool down.

第二组开始进行典型的耐力型锻炼,包括在实验室的固定自行车上以中速骑45分钟,外加两分钟热身和三分钟放松。

The final group was assigned to interval training, using the most abbreviated workout yet to have shown benefits. Specifically, the volunteers warmed up for two minutes on stationary bicycles, then pedaled as hard as possible for 20 seconds; rode at a very slow pace for two minutes, sprinted all-out again for 20 seconds; recovered with slow riding for another two minutes; pedaled all-out for a final 20 seconds; then cooled down for three minutes. The entire workout lasted 10 minutes, with only one minute of that time being strenuous.

最后一组被安排进行间歇性训练,采用最简短但已显示出效果的锻炼方式。具体来讲,志愿者们在固定自行车上热身两分钟,以最快速度骑20秒;然后以非常慢的速度骑两分钟,再全力冲刺20秒;慢骑两分钟以恢复体力;最后再全力冲刺20秒;放松三分钟。整个过程持续10分钟,其中只有一分钟是高强度的。

Both groups of exercising volunteers completed three sessions each week for 12 weeks, a period of time that is about twice as long as in most past studies of interval training.

两组进行锻炼的志愿者每周完成三次训练,持续12周——之前的大部分间歇性训练研究的实验时间是六周左右。

By the end of the study, published in PLOS One, the endurance group had ridden for 27 hours, while the interval group had ridden for six hours, with only 36 minutes of that time being strenuous.

实验结束时,耐力组骑了27个小时,间歇组骑了六个小时,其中只有36分钟是高强度的。该研究发表在《科学公共图书馆·综合》期刊(PLOS One)上。

But when the scientists retested the men’s aerobic fitness, muscles and blood-sugar control now, they found that the exercisers showed virtually identical gains, whether they had completed the long endurance workouts or the short, grueling intervals. In both groups, endurance had increased by nearly 20 percent, insulin resistance likewise had improved significantly, and there were significant increases in the number and function of certain microscopic structures in the men’s muscles that are related to energy production and oxygen consumption.

但是,当科学家们重新检测这些男性的有氧适能、肌肉和血糖控制能力时,他们发现,不管是完成长时间耐力锻炼还是短时间歇性高强度训练,对健康的益处是完全相同的。这两组人的耐力都提高了近20%,胰岛素耐受性也极大提高,某些肌肉显微组织的数量明显增多,功能明显提高——肌肉显微组织与身体活力和耗氧量相关。

There were no changes in health or fitness evident in the control group.

对照组在健康和身体机能方面没有明显变化。

The upshot of these results is that three months of concerted endurance or interval exercise can notably — and almost identically — improve someone’s fitness and health.

这些结果归纳来说就是,三个月的稳定耐力锻炼或间歇性锻炼都能明显改善身体机能和健康状况,而且改善程度几乎是一样的。

Neither approach to exercise was, however, superior to the other, except that one was shorter — much, much shorter.

不过,其中任何一种都不比另一种更优越,除了其中一种时间更短——而且是短很多。

Is that reason enough for people who currently exercise moderately or not at all to begin interval training as their only workout?

这个因素是否足以让某些目前进行温和运动或完全不运动的人开始把间歇性训练作为唯一的锻炼方式?

“It depends on who you are and why you exercise,” said Martin Gibala, a professor of kinesiology at McMaster University who oversaw the new study.

“这取决于你的个人情况和运动目的,”主持这项新研究的麦克马斯特大学运动学教授马丁·吉巴拉(Martin Gibala)说。

“If you are an elite athlete, then obviously incorporating both endurance and interval training into an overall program maximizes performance. But if you are someone, like me, who just wants to boost health and fitness and you don’t have 45 minutes or an hour to work out, our data show that you can get big benefits from even a single minute of intense exercise.”

“如果你是精英运动员,那么把耐力型训练和间歇性训练都加入整体锻炼计划中无疑能最大程度地提高运动表现。但是如果你只是想改善健康状况和身体机能,而且没有45分钟或一个小时的锻炼时间,比如我这样的,那么我们的数据表明,哪怕只进行一分钟的高强度锻炼也能让你大有收获。”

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