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中国出台限制煤电新政策

更新时间:2016-4-27 10:03:33 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

China Curbs Plans for More Coal-Fired Power Plants
中国出台限制煤电新政策

HONG KONG — Coal-fired power plants have propelled much of China’s economic rise for decades, helping make the nation the world’s biggest emitter of greenhouse gases. Even with economic growth slackening, and other energy sources taking hold, new coal plants have been added.

香港——过去几十年,燃煤发电厂为中国经济增长贡献了许多动力,也促使该国成为世界上最大的温室气体排放国。尽管经济增速正在放缓,其他能源也逐渐发展起来,但中国还是在新建燃煤电厂。

Now Beijing is trying to slow things down.

现在,北京试图减缓这一势头。

In guidelines released on Monday, China halted plans for new coal-fired power stations in many parts of the country, and construction of some approved plants will be postponed until at least 2018.

依据周一发布的指导方针,中国已经在许多地方停止批准新的燃煤电厂计划,一些已被批准的电厂项目的建设也将被推迟到至少2018年。

The announcement, by the National Development and Reform Commission and the National Energy Administration, means that about 200 planned coal-fired power generators — those seeking approval and those approved but not yet under construction — may not be completed, said Lauri Myllyvirta, who analyzes China’s energy production for Greenpeace.

为绿色和平组织分析中国能源消耗情况的柳力(Lauri Myllyvirta)表示,国家发展改革委员会和国家能源局联合发布的这项通知意味着,有大约200个计划中的燃煤电厂可能不会建成。其中既包括正在等待批准的,也包括一些已经获批但还没有开始施工的项目。

The total of 105 gigawatts of power those plants would have been able to produce is considerably more than the electricity-generating capacity of Britain from all sources.

这些发电站如若建成,装机容量将达到105千兆瓦,大大超过英国所有能源发电的总容量。

“That’s a big chunk of power,” said Bob Hodge, a coal specialist with IHS Energy, a consulting firm. “It’s a lot of power. It’s a heck of a lot of power.”

“那是很大一块发电量,”咨询公司IHS能源(IHS Energy)的煤炭专家鲍勃·霍奇(Bob Hodge)说。“相当多的电量。非常非常多。”

Electricity generated from fossil fuels like coal is the biggest single contributor globally to the rise in carbon emissions, which scientists say is causing the earth’s temperature to rise. Leaders from 175 countries, including China, gathered in New York on Friday to sign the Paris climate accord, which aims to halt and eventually reverse the rise in carbon emissions, keeping the increase in global temperatures below 2 degrees Celsius, or 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit.

通过燃烧煤炭等化石燃料发电,是导致全球碳排放增长的最大因素,科学家表示这种因素正在导致地球气温上升。周五,包括中国在内的175个国家的领导人聚集在纽约,签署了《巴黎气候协定》。该协定的目标是遏制碳排放增长,最终扭转其上升趋势,将全球气温增长幅度控制在2摄氏度以内。

China, by far the world’s biggest emitter of greenhouse gasses, is aiming to reach a peak in carbon emissions by 2030. A recent economic slowdown, policies to discourage coal-fired power plants near big cities, and a huge investment in wind and solar energy capacity helped reduce coal use in China last year.

截至目前,中国依然是世界上最大的温室气体排放国,有可能在2030年达到其碳排放的峰值。随着中国经济增长放缓,加之政府制定政策阻止在靠近大城市的区域建设燃煤电厂,并大力投资风能和太阳能发电,中国的煤炭消耗量在去年有所下降。

But even as coal becomes unpopular in China, the country’s biggest state-owned electricity generators are adding new coal-fired power plants at a pace not seen in a decade, said Mr. Myllyvirta of Greenpeace, which is acknowledged as an authoritative analyst of China’s energy production. Such plants add to existing overcapacity, he said.

不过,被认为是中国发电情况权威分析机构的绿色和平的柳力表示,尽管燃煤发电在中国已经变得不受欢迎,但中国最大的几家国有发电企业还在以近十年未见的速度建设新的燃煤电厂。他还表示,这些新增电厂会加剧中国本已存在的产能过剩情况。

The announcement does not stop projects already under construction, which amount to about 190 gigawatts of new coal-fired power generation, he said.

他还提到,这份通知不会叫停已经在建的燃煤发电项目,这些电厂一旦建成,将形成约190千兆瓦的装机容量。

“It’s definitely a positive step, but it’s not even enough to prevent the overcapacity from getting worse,” Mr. Myllyvirta said.

“这肯定是一项积极的举措,但它不足以阻止产能过剩情况的进一步恶化,”柳力说。

While the curbs on new coal projects, if rigorously enforced, may help China meet its long-term goals on climate change and air pollution, the primary motivation for the move appears to be short-term economic considerations.

针对新燃煤发电项目的控制措施如能得到严格执行,可能会有助于中国达到自己在气候变化和空气污染治理方面的长期目标,但政府采取这项举措的主要动因似乎是短期经济考量。

In the face of the slowest economic growth in a quarter-century, electricity demand has fallen so sharply in China that some coal-burning power plants are operating only 40 or 50 percent of the time. Construction of wind turbines and solar panels has also eaten slightly into the market share of the coal plants.

随着经济增速降至25年来的最低点,中国的电力需求也大幅下降,一些燃煤电厂只以40%或50%的产能在运转。风力发电机和太阳能电池板的建设也在蚕食燃煤电厂的市场份额。

Yet in China’s highly regulated power industry, market signals are weak, and planning and construction of new power plants had continued apace, pushed forward by local governments eager for the construction jobs and expanded tax base. With its new decrees, the central government seems to be trying to halt the development of power plants that might well be underused if they were built.

不过,在中国高度受管制的电力行业,市场信号的作用比较弱,在渴望创造工程就业机会和扩大税基的地方政府推动下,新发电厂的规划与建设依然在快速进行。通过下达这样的新法令,中央政府似乎在试图控制这些电厂的发展,因为它们即使建成,也很可能无法充分释放产能。

Mr. Hodge, the consultant at IHS Energy, said that as of two weeks ago, there were 1,200 new coal-fired plants on the drawing boards in 59 countries, mostly in Asia, and China was the single largest contributor.

IHS能源的霍奇表示,截止两周前,59个国家的规划版图上共有1200个新燃煤电厂项目,它们大多位于亚洲,其中中国的数量是最多的。

“In my opinion, if they needed the power, they would build them,” he said of China. “I think if you are Beijing, and you don’t need the power, you can delay them until you might need them. They are not scrapping them.”

“在我看来,如果需要电力,他们是会建这些电厂的,”他在此处指的是中国。“我觉得如果你是北京政府,你不需要这些电力,就可以推迟建设,等需要的时候再建。他们不是要淘汰这些项目。”

The guidelines, dated March 17, state that 13 provinces and regions, including top coal producers like Shanxi and Inner Mongolia, as well as the southern economic powerhouse of Guangdong, should “strictly control” new capacity, delaying the approval of new projects until after 2017. A slightly longer list of provinces — 15, with considerable overlap — were told to put off construction of approved projects that had not yet broken ground.

按照这份落款日期为3月17日的通知要求,包括山西、内蒙古等产煤大省,以及广东等南方经济强省在内的13个省份和地区应“严格控制”新增发电容量,在2017年前暂缓新项目审批。通知还列出一个比之略长但大部分重叠的名单,要求名单中15个省份和地区已经批准但尚未开工建设的煤电项目暂缓开工。

In both instances, an exception has been made for projects aimed at the “people’s livelihood,” a phrase that was not explained but may include measures like providing steam heat to homes in wintertime.

上述两项要求都将“民生”项目排除在外。通知没有解释这个名词,不过其中可能包括居民冬季供暖之类的措施。

The government announcement also calls for an acceleration of the closing of outdated coal-fired plants that use older, dirtier technology. But China is adding about 1 gigawatt in coal-fired capacity a week, Mr. Myllyvirta said, as companies that have easy access to loans from state banks build new plants.

这项政府通知还要求加快淘汰使用老旧、不环保技术的落后电厂。不过,柳力表示,中国现在平均每周新增约1千兆瓦的燃煤发电容量,因为比较容易从国有银行获得贷款的企业还在建设新发电厂。

That is in stark contrast to the United States, the world’s second-biggest carbon emitter, where it has become increasingly difficult to build new coal-fired plants under the Obama administration.

这与全球第二大碳排放国美国形成了鲜明对比。在奥巴马政府的治理下,美国要建设新的燃煤发电厂已经变得越来越困难。

Last year, almost 14 gigawatts of coal-fired capacity was retired in the United States, according to the Energy Information Administration in Washington. At the same time, there are only six new coal-fired plants on the drawing boards in the United States through at least the next five years, with a total capacity of less than 2 gigawatts, according to the agency.

华盛顿美国能源信息管理局的资料显示,去年美国缩减煤电装机容量近14千兆瓦,与此同时,美国至少未来五年的规划图上只有六家新的燃煤电厂,总装机容量为2千兆瓦。

In China, however, as coal prices drop, the big state-owned electricity generators are benefiting because highly regulated electricity prices have not fallen in tandem.

但是在中国,煤炭价格的下降令大型国有发电厂受益,因为受到严格管制的电力价格并没有随之下降。

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