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吃醋真能让你越来越瘦吗?

更新时间:2016-4-13 11:00:17 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Ask Well: Can Vinegar Aid Weight Loss?
吃醋真能让你越来越瘦吗?

Question:

问:

Is apple cider vinegar actually helpful for weight loss? Does it have other health benefits?

苹果醋确实有助于减肥吗?它是否有其他的健康效益?

Answer:

答:

Vinegar in various forms — including cider, wine, rice, white distilled and others — has been put to use for medicinal purposes for centuries, with Hippocrates recommending it for treating sores. And some people today apply it to soothe jellyfish stings, said Carol S. Johnston, associate director of the nutrition program at Arizona State University. But despite its newfound Internet fame as a diet aid and appetite suppressant, she said, taking vinegar will help you lose weight only “if you’re a very, very patient person.”

人类将苹果醋、红酒醋、米醋、蒸馏白醋等各种形式的醋作为药用已经有几个世纪的历史,希波克拉底(Hippocrates)就曾建议用醋来治疗疮肿。现在也有人用它来平复水母蜇伤,亚利桑那州立大学(Arizona State University)营养项目的副主任卡罗尔·S·约翰斯顿(Carol S. Johnston)说。但是,尽管互联网上传闻醋具有辅助节食和抑制食欲的新功用,只有当“你是一个非常,非常耐心的人”时,喝醋才能帮助你减肥。

The weight loss claims hinge mostly on a 2009 clinical trial of obese Japanese adults that found those who consumed a beverage containing one or two tablespoons of vinegar every day lost two to four pounds after 12 weeks, while a comparison group given a plain beverage did not lose weight. (The researchers in this study used apple cider vinegar, considered to be a relatively palatable form of the liquid.)

声称醋可以减肥的说法大多依据的是2009年在日本的肥胖成年人中进行的临床试验,该试验发现,每天饮用含一、两汤匙醋的饮料的人在12周后体重减轻了2到4磅(约合0.9至1.8千克),而饮用给定普通饮料的对照组则没有减重。(该研究使用的是苹果醋,因为研究人员认为这种醋的口感相对好些。)

Several studies have shown that consuming small amounts of vinegar before a meal containing starches may blunt a rise in blood sugar afterward, reducing the glycemic response by 20 to 40 percent, Dr. Johnston said, by partially inhibiting the digestion of starch.

约翰斯顿博士说,若干研究都表明,在进食含有淀粉的饭食前饮用少量醋可以在一定程度上抑制淀粉消化,从而将其后的血糖反应降低20%至40%。

“The vinegar is taking the starch and making a portion of it fiberlike, so some of the starch will escape digestion,” she explained, adding that test tube studies have shown that the acetic acid in vinegar inhibits enzymes that help in the digestion of starch.

“醋可以带走些许淀粉,也可以让一部分淀粉变得有点像纤维素,使得有些淀粉不被消化,”她解释道,并补充,试管研究表明,醋中的醋酸会抑制帮助消化淀粉的酶。

Dr. Johnston’s own studies have found lower fasting blood glucose concentrations in people who ingested a tablespoon of vinegar. Swedish researchers also reported higher feelings of satiety in those drinking vinegar, though other researchers have attributed this effect to feelings of nausea from drinking the liquid.

约翰斯顿博士自己的研究也发现,饮用一汤匙醋的人的空腹血糖水平较低。瑞典的研究人员还报告说,饮用醋的人饱腹感较为强烈,但其他研究人员认为之所以会有这种效果,是因为喝醋会令人感到恶心。

Slowing the rise in blood sugar after a meal could aid weight loss, said Dr. David S. Ludwig, author of the book “Always Hungry?” and a professor of nutrition at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.

哈佛大学公共卫生学院(Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health)的营养学教授戴维·S·路德维希(David S. Ludwig)博士,“Always Hungry?”(直译为《饥肠辘辘》)的作者说道,减缓餐后血糖的上升有助于减肥。

“The main problem with the modern diet is that the processed carbohydrates we eat are digested and absorbed too quickly, which leads to a surge in blood sugar and insulin and then a crash a few hours later” that triggers another bout of hunger, Dr. Ludwig said. He advocates eating carbohydrates that are digested more slowly, like beans, fruits, vegetables and whole grains. But he cautioned that vinegar should be used in “doses that have been consumed by humans for centuries, not pharmacological doses,” and called for more studies.

路德维希博士说:“现代饮食的主要问题在于我们吃下的精制碳水化合物被消化和吸收的速度过快,导致血糖和胰岛素激增,然后又在几个小时后锐减,”从而触发下一轮的饥饿。他主张食用消化得比较慢的碳水化合物,如豆类、水果、蔬菜和全谷物等。不过,他警告说,醋应按照“数百年人类食用的剂量来使用,而不是按照药理剂量”,并呼吁进行更多的研究。

Straight vinegar can be hard to swallow and may cause you to gasp and aspirate vinegar into the lung, which could potentially lead to pneumonia. Published case reports have linked vinegar consumption to vocal cord spasms, fainting and injury to the esophagus. And Dutch physicians reported on a case of a 15-year-old whose teeth eroded because she had been drinking a glass of apple cider vinegar every day for weight loss.

纯醋令人难以下咽,还可能会导致你倒抽气,将醋误吸入肺中而导致肺炎。已发表的案例报告称,喝醋与声带痉挛、昏厥和食道损伤有关。荷兰的医生报告了一个病例,一名15岁少女为了减肥坚持每天饮用一杯苹果醋,结果牙齿被腐蚀了。

When people tell Dr. Johnston they want to try using vinegar to aid weight loss, “I always tell them to dilute it in water, one tablespoon to eight ounces of water, and ingest it with the first bites of the meal. You want the acid to beat the starch into the intestines.” Any kind of vinegar will do, as long as it contains at least 5 percent acetic acid, though she noted that some fancy vinegars contain added sugar, which can increase calorie counts.

当有人对约翰斯顿博士说自己想要尝试用醋来帮助减肥时,“我总是告诉他们需按照8盎司水(0.22千克)1汤匙醋的比例稀释,并就着第一口饭食用。目的是让这种酸和淀粉混在一起进入肠道。”只要包含至少5%的醋酸,任何一种醋都行,但她指出,某些花哨的醋饮料含有添加糖,会导致卡路里计数增加。

Several dietitians who work with people with diabetes urged caution, however. Consuming vinegar is not part of any of the American Diabetes Association’s nutritional recommendations, said Dr. Margaret Powers, a registered dietitian and diabetes educator and president of health care and education at the association. She said that vinegar should not be considered “a magic bullet” for weight loss or diabetes management.

然而,为糖尿病患者服务的若干营养师都力劝人们谨慎行事。美国糖尿病协会(American Diabetes Association)的保健和教育长官,注册营养师、糖尿病教育工作者玛格丽特·鲍尔斯(Margaret Powers)博士说,该协会的任何营养建议之中都没有喝醋这一条。她说,不应将醋视为减肥或管理糖尿病的“灵丹妙药”。

Katherine Zeratsky, a registered dietitian and nutritionist at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., agreed. “There’s nothing in and of itself wrong with vinegar,” she said. “But if someone who has diabetes thinks, ‘Gosh, if I don’t want to take medicine, I could treat myself with vinegar,’ the recommendation would be: no.”

梅奥诊所(Mayo Clinic,位于美国明尼苏达州的罗切斯特市)的营养学家、注册营养师凯瑟琳·泽拉茨基(Katherine Zeratsky)也认同上述观点。“醋本身并没有什么问题,”她说。“但如果有糖尿病患者想着:‘噢耶,如果我不想吃药,还可以用醋来治疗自己,’那么我的建议是:不行。”

Vinegar, applied to the skin, is also often touted as an antidote to nail fungus, head lice and warts, but there is little scientific evidence that these treatments work.

也常有传言吹捧把醋涂在皮肤上可以治疗灰指甲、头虱和疣,但几乎没什么科学证据支持这些治疗有效。

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