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经济制裁解除后,奢侈品巨头瞄准伊朗市场

更新时间:2016-4-13 10:56:55 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Selling Luxury in Iran
经济制裁解除后,奢侈品巨头瞄准伊朗市场

Bypassed for decades by the luxury industry, Iran and its explosive market growth potential have recaptured the attention of global luxury heavyweights in the last 12 months.

几十年来,伊朗都被奢侈品行业所忽视,但是在过去12个月里,这里爆发性的市场增长潜力重新引起全球奢侈品巨头的注意。

After more than 30 years of isolation and austerity, the country re-entered the global economy when economic sanctions were lifted in January, something Morgan Stanley described as the biggest thing for the global economy since the fall of the Berlin Wall.

今年1月,西方国家解除对伊朗的经济制裁之后,伊朗结束30多年的孤立和紧缩,重新进入全球经济体系。摩根士丹利(Morgan Stanley)称,这是自柏林墙(Berlin Wall)倒塌之后对全球经济影响最大的事件。

Now, with an educated, surging middle-income population of almost 80 million — many of whom possess a budding appetite for high-end consumer goods and mobile phones — Western brands are sizing up the opportunities, and risks, of setting up shop in Iran.

伊朗受过教育的中等收入人群猛增,达到近8000万,其中很多人对高端消费品和手机开始产生兴趣,所以,西方的很多品牌正估量在伊朗设立店铺的机遇和风险。

“Iran as a prospect had interested us for some time, but once the sanctions went, we accelerated the process of setting up our boutique inside its borders,” said Renato Semerari, chief executive of Roberto Cavalli, the first sizable luxury brand to enter the market with the opening in February of its two-story boutique in Tehran’s upmarket neighborhood of Zafaraniye.

“我们对伊朗的前景产生兴趣有一段时间了,制裁一解除,我们就加快在伊朗境内开设精品店的进程,”Roberto Cavalli的首席执行官雷纳托·塞梅拉里(Renato Semerari)说。Roberto Cavalli是第一个进入伊朗市场的大型奢侈品牌,今年2月在德黑兰的Zafaraniye高档购物区开设了一个两层的时装精品店。

The popularity of the label’s glitzy, colorful aesthetic in the Middle East, he added, especially with wealthy Iranians already shopping regularly in nearby Istanbul and Dubai, underscored the importance of capitalizing promptly on demand. A 90 percent stake in Roberto Cavalli was bought last April by the Italian private equity outfit Clessidra for an estimated $430 million, giving the brand a considerable injection of capital. “We knew we had to move fast to grab a leadership position in the minds of fledgling Iranian luxury consumers,” Mr. Semerari said, “not just because it is the second richest country in the region after Saudi Arabia, but also because there are so many rivals coming in fast behind us.”

他补充说,该品牌耀眼华丽的审美风格在中东地区很受欢迎,特别是深受那些经常在伊斯坦布尔和迪拜附近购物的伊朗富人青睐,所以迅速满足这种需求很重要。去年4月,意大利私募机构Clessidra以约4.3亿美元买下Roberto Cavalli90%的股票,给该品牌注入大量资金。“我们知道,我们必须快速行动,在伊朗新兴奢侈品消费者的头脑中占据主导位置,”塞梅拉里说,“不只是因为它是这一地区仅次于沙特阿拉伯的富有国家,而且是因为有很多对手紧跟在我们后面。”

Branded cosmetics, with their accessible price points, are often perceived as gateway products to luxury spending. So news that Sephora, the LVMH-owned cosmetics chain, was widely expected to open seven stores later this year hardly raised eyebrows.

知名品牌化妆品的价格相对容易让人接受,所以经常被认为是奢侈品消费的入门产品。路威酩轩集团(LVMH)旗下的化妆品连锁店丝芙兰(Sephora)很可能会在今年晚些时候在伊朗开设7个店铺,这一消息公布之后,几乎没有令人惊讶。

Yet expansion into Iran is not without its challenges. For a sector obsessed with controlling brand image, the country’s lack of infrastructure, from trained staff to a shortage of quality real estate, remains the biggest obstacle. Only a handful of premium shopping malls exist, although there are plans to build more in the next two to three years.

不过,在伊朗扩展业务并不是没有挑战。奢侈品行业非常注重控制品牌形象,但是伊朗缺乏受过培训的店员和高品质地产等基础条件,这仍是最大的障碍。伊朗只有少数几个优质购物中心,不过未来两三年内计划修建更多。

Tourism also is limited — vacation spending being a key sales contributor for most brands — and Iran’s political relationships with the West, while thawing, still remain complex, to say the least. As a result, Claudia D’Arpizio, a senior partner at Bain based in Milan, said the country was more suited to some labels than others.

伊朗的旅游业也有局限性。对大部分品牌来说,度假消费是一个主要的收入来源。伊朗与西方国家的政治关系虽然在解冻,但至少还比较复杂。所以,米兰贝恩公司(Bain)的高级合伙人克劳迪娅·达尔皮齐奥(Claudia D’Arpizio)称,该国更适合某些品牌。

“I think we will see some more mid-sized Italian players go in next, especially men’s wear groups like Zegna or Brioni, as well as watch and jewelry brands, as a taste for the latter tends to develop very rapidly in emerging markets,” she said. Historically, the larger clothing and accessories houses have been cautious about finding the right local distributors and partners, so it is likely they will take longer to establish a presence, she added.

“我认为,我们会看到一些中等规模的意大利品牌接下来进军伊朗,特别是Zegna或Brioni这样的男装集团,以及一些手表和珠宝品牌,因为新兴市场对手表和珠宝的兴趣增长得很快,”她说。她补充说,从历史上来看,更大型的服装和配饰公司在寻找合适的本地经销商和合伙人时非常谨慎,所以这些公司开设店铺很可能需要更长时间。

Despite the recent flush of enthusiasm, plenty of Western luxury-branded products have been making their way into the country for some time. When the banking sanctions over Iran’s nuclear program were in place, investment coming and going from the country was essentially blocked, making it very difficult for foreign companies to get their profits out. But local third-party businesses always have imported goods into Iran by nonofficial channels, selling them at sky-high markups either in independent boutiques or in private sales behind closed doors.

尽管最近西方奢侈品牌在伊朗的投资热情猛涨,但是很多品牌的产品已经通过其他方式进入该国一段时间了。针对伊朗核项目的银行制裁实施之后,进出该国的投资基本上遭到封锁,外国公司很难把利润拿走。不过,本地第三方公司总能通过非官方渠道把商品进口到伊朗,然后以高价在独立时装精品店或通过秘密的私人方式进行销售。

Now, with more Iranians online, learning about Western luxury brands and hungry for reasonably priced goods, entrepreneurs both at home and abroad are racing to fill the vacuum.

现在,有更多伊朗人能够上网,他们更加了解西方奢侈品牌,渴望得到价格合理的商品,所以国内外的企业家们都在快速填补这个空白。

Milad Monshipour and Hooman Damirchi are two Iranian entrepreneurs who have spent much of their professional lives working overseas before returning home to look at consumer- focused opportunities. Their luxury e-commerce site Madeleine Moda, which they say they hope to be Iran’s version of Net-a-Porter, is expected to begin business soon.

米拉德·穆恩施波(Milad Monshipour)和胡曼·达米尔齐(Hooman Damirchi)是两位伊朗企业家,他们职业生涯的很多时间都在国外工作,回国后寻找关注消费者的机会。他们的奢侈品电子商务网站Madeleine Moda有望很快开始运营。他们说,他们希望该网站成为伊朗版的Net-a-Porter。

“When we conducted market research among Iranian luxury goods consumers, we found that over 60 percent of our respondents said accessing the clothing and shoes they wanted continued to be very difficult due to supply limitations,” said Mr. Monshipour, formerly a consultant at the Boston Consulting Group who holds an M.B.A. from HEC Paris. “They know what they want, they just struggle to get it.

“我们在伊朗奢侈品消费者中进行市场调查时发现,超过60%的受访者表示,由于供应不足,他们依然很难买到自己想要的衣服和鞋子,”穆恩施波说。他曾是波士顿咨询公司(Boston Consulting Group)的顾问,拥有巴黎高等商学院(HEC Paris)的工商管理硕士学位。“他们知道自己想要什么,只是很难买到。”

“The tech-savvy consumer here is just as hungry for immediate gratification as their Western counterparts,” he noted.

“这里精通技术的消费者和西方消费者一样渴望马上得到满足,”他指出。

Almost all Iranians have debit cards, and online players like Digikala (an Amazon-style consumer goods website) and e-Sam (an Iranian equivalent of eBay) have made millions of Iranians comfortable with shopping online. So Mr. Damirchi is as bullish as his partner about their short-term, online-focused venture, as well as the longer-term growth potential of large Western brands to establish bricks-and-mortar presences.

几乎所有伊朗人都有借记卡;Digikala(类似Amazon的生活消费品网站)和e-Sam(伊朗版的eBay)等网购商家让成百上千伊朗人学会轻松网购。所以,达米尔齐和他的合伙人一样看好他们的短期网络公司,同时也看好西方大品牌在伊朗开实体店的长期发展潜力。

“This is a country where for thousands of years a sizable portion of the population has had a culture around and deep appreciation of design, art and fine things,” he said. “The winners and losers today will be those who define the notion of luxury, and know how to really appeal to the 21st century consumer.”

“这个国家有很大一部分人在设计、艺术和精致物品方面具有几千年的深厚文化根基和鉴赏能力,”他说,“如今的输赢将取决于如何界定奢侈品的概念以及如何真正吸引21世纪的消费者。”

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