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游客乱写“到此一游”,意大利发明电子涂鸦墙

更新时间:2016-3-18 10:06:39 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Florence Tackles Duomo Defacement With a New Tool: Virtual Graffiti
游客乱写“到此一游”,意大利发明电子涂鸦墙

FLORENCE, Italy — “Do not write on the walls,” reads the message on a Renaissance stone wall in the cathedral on this city's central square.

意大利佛罗伦萨——“不要在墙上涂写,”这座城市中心广场上的大教堂里,一面文艺复兴时期的墙壁上这样写道。

Unfortunately, the instruction, scrawled in black marker, was the defiant graffiti of a visitor who had decided to mock the plastic sign just above it by saying the same thing.

遗憾的是,这句用黑色签字笔涂写的指示,是一名游客违背警示的涂鸦。他在塑料警示牌正下方写下了同样的话,为的是嘲讽这个标牌。

The official missive, on a wall at the end of a steep staircase leading up to the dome of the Santa Maria del Fiore cathedral, better known as the Duomo, had clearly failed in its mission.

官方的标牌位于圣母百花大教堂(Santa Maria del Fiore)里,通向穹顶的一列陡峭台阶的尾部,这座教堂常被称作“座堂”(Duomo)。但标牌显然没有达到预期目的。

Elsewhere, tourists through the decades had defaced walls and other parts of the monument with declarations of eternal love, political slogans, spontaneous feelings and frustrations or other, generally inane, musings.

在这座古迹的其他地方,几十年来游客一直在墙壁和其他部位胡写乱画,比如对永恒的爱的宣言、政治标语、即兴的感触和失落,或者抒发其他大体上都很无聊的感想。

“I hate the stairs,” read one.

其中一则写道:“我讨厌这个楼梯。”

“Cate, I want to marry you,” another proclaimed. Or at least that was the stated desire back in November 1999.

另一句则写道:“凯特,我想娶你。”至少他在1999年11月时有这样的愿望。

Very recently — Feb. 28 to be precise — “Jackie+Denise,” a couple from New Jersey, decided to make sure the world knew they had visited Florence's bell tower, designed by one of the pioneer artists of the Renaissance, Giotto di Bondone. They wrote their names in dark red pencil on the 18th-century bronze bell.

最近,确切地说是2月28日,来自新泽西州的情侣“杰基+德尼斯”(Jackie+Denise)下定决心,要让全世界都知道他们参观了佛罗伦萨的钟楼。这座钟楼是文艺复兴时期的一位先锋艺术家乔托·迪·邦多纳(Giotto di Bondone)设计的。他们两人用红色铅笔在18世纪的铜钟上写下了自己的名字。

For years, officials in Florence have tried to discourage visitors from around the world from using this city's old stone walls as a time capsule for such musings. But the human urge to generate graffiti, it seems, is a powerful instinct, difficult to tame.

多年来,佛罗伦萨的官员一直试图阻止世界各地的游客把这座城市古老的石墙当成“时间胶囊”,书写这样的字句。但人类涂鸦的冲动似乎是一种强大的本能,难以驯服。

So the officials have decided to try a digital solution to their age-old problem, starting with Giotto's bell tower, the Campanile.

所以官员们决定,利用一种数字化的解决方案应对这个古老的问题。最早就从乔托的钟楼(Campanile)开始。

Having finally cleaned up all the walls along the 414-step climb to the bell tower earlier this year, officials have placed three tablets there, hoping visitors will leave their marks, virtually, without damaging the monument itself.

在今年早些时候把登上钟楼的414级台阶旁边的墙壁都清理干净后,官员们在那里放了三台平板电脑,希望游客能以虚拟方式留下印记,而不破坏建筑物本身。

Messages will be stored on a website and archived, for eternity, online.

游客的消息会保存在一个网站上,永久地存档。

Any other mark will be removed swiftly, a large billboard at the entrance of the bell tower explains in both Italian and English.

其他任何涂写痕迹都会被迅速清除,钟楼入口处的一块巨大的告示牌上用意大利语和英语写道。

“We needed something to act as a deterrent against new graffiti, once all the walls were clean, and we hope that this app will do that,” said Alice Filipponi, the social media strategist at the Opera di Santa Maria del Fiore, the institution that oversees Florence's Duomo complex.

“所有的墙壁都清理好之后,我们需要某种东西来起到劝阻的作用,让游客不再涂写,希望这个app能做到这一点,”爱丽丝·菲力波尼(Alice Filipponi)说。她是圣母百花大教堂机构(Opera di Santa Maria del Fiore)的社交媒体策略师,佛罗伦萨这所大教堂的建筑由该机构管辖。

“Our goal was to let people leave their testimony without smearing the walls again,” Filipponi said.

“我们的目标是让人们留下自己的话,但又不要污损墙壁,”菲力波尼说。

It took Beatrice Agostini, the institution architect who manages and maintains the site, three months with a team of nine restoration experts to clean up the walls in the tower using solvent gels and lasers. The task is not one she and her team want to repeat, especially since various parts of the cathedral, where graffiti remains, must still be cleaned.

该机构的建筑师贝亚缇丝·阿格斯蒂尼(Beatrice Agostini)负责管理和维护这处古迹。她和九名修复专家花了三个月的时间,才用溶剂凝胶和激光清理完钟楼的墙壁。这项任务她和她的团队不想再重复一遍,尤其是大教堂里的其他地方还有涂写的字迹,还需要清理。

“We want to tell people that a mark is not only an eyesore, but it's a real damage to the monument,” she said. “Removing the different writings is a problem. On marble, it's almost impossible; a ring stain remains forever.”

“我想告诉人们,这些字迹不仅看起来难受,而且会对古迹造成切实的损害,”她说。“清理各种字迹是个大问题。把大理石清洗干净几乎不可能,会留下永久性的痕迹。”

She added, “We can't put cameras everywhere, the space is so narrow, so we thought that providing an alternative was our best bet.”

她又补充道:“我们不能在每个地方都装上摄像头,空间太狭窄,所以考虑,最好提供一个替代的方案。”

It's a bet the two women seem to be winning in the bell tower. In the first three days of their experiment, there were more than 3,000 visitors, 304 digital messages — and no new graffiti scrawls.

在钟楼里,这两位女士的尝试似乎取得了成果。在实验的头三天,有超过3000名游客参观,他们留下了304条数字消息,没有任何涂鸦的字迹。

With virtual graffiti, visitors can select the background they want to write on: wood or marble, iron or plaster — like that found in the monument. Then, with their tool of choice, from lipstick to spray paint, they are able to use their fingertips to etch symbols, names and messages.

有了虚拟涂鸦之后,游客可以选择书写的背景:木头、大理石、铁、石膏——就像这处古迹里见到的材质一样。之后,游客还可以选择自己最喜欢的工具,从唇膏到喷漆。游客可以用手指画上符号,写下姓名和字迹。

Users are asked to leave their email addresses, so that once their messages are approved, they can receive notice of publication.

用户还被要求留下电子邮件地址,这样等他们的涂鸦经过核准后,就能收到发表通知。

In years to come, the messages may be printed and included in the paper archive of the Opera di Santa Maria del Fiore, whose documents date back to 1296.

这些涂写的字迹未来会印刷出来,纳入大教堂管理机构最早可以追溯到1296年的纸质档案里。

“Whether we manage to educate people remains to be seen,” said the institution's president, Franco Lucchesi. “But as of now, our Internet is full of messages, and the walls are not. We can therefore say that it's working.”

“我们能不能教育公众还有待观察,”管理机构主席弗朗科·路切尼(Franco Lucchesi)说。“但就现在而言,我们在网络上收到了很多留言,但墙上没有。所以可以说起效果了。”

Some have confessed to their misdeeds. Lucchesi recalls the “pilgrimages” of a Japanese class coming to apologize for the damage done by students — three years in a row.

有些人承认了自己的过失。路切尼回忆起了日本一个班级的“朝圣之旅”,他们来这里为一些学生的破坏之举道歉,而且是连续三年如此。

“The fact that the monument is so clean also helps,” said Laura Bachmann, a 21-year-old from Germany who was visiting Florence with a friend. “None dares to be the first one to dirty it up.”

“这座古迹如此干净也起到了帮助,”21岁的德国游客劳拉·巴赫曼(Laura Bachmann)说。“没有人敢当第一个弄脏它的人。”巴赫曼正在与朋友一同游览佛罗伦萨。

To the experts, that cleanness is the main deterrent. “Vandals do it where everyone can see their mark. Unfortunately, I fear it's not a tablet that can prevent recidivism,” Andrea Amato, president of Italy's National Anti-Graffiti Association, said about the effort in Florence. “Cameras don't hamper graffiti; entire walls available for graffiti writers have not impeded them to dirty up elsewhere.”

在专家看来,整洁是主要的劝阻因素。“破坏公物的人会在所有人都能看到的地方胡写乱画。可惜我担心靠一个平板电脑,没办法阻止这种恶习的重燃,”意大利全国反涂鸦协会(National Anti-Graffiti Association)会长安德烈亚·阿马托(Andrea Amato)在评价佛罗伦萨的做法时说。“摄像头也阻止不了涂鸦,哪怕有整面整面的墙壁让涂鸦者胡写乱画,还是避免不了他们弄脏其他地方。”

He added: “But it's important that we don't abandon our monuments to degradation. If we clean them, it's psychologically harder for people to smear them up again.”

他补充道:“但是我们不能任由古迹恶化,这也是很重要的。如果我们清理干净,人们要把它再涂脏,心理上会更困难。”

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