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“猛犸肉”,50年代美国名人的一道晚餐?

更新时间:2016-3-15 10:20:08 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The Explorers Club Once Served Mammoth at a Meal. Or Did It?
“猛犸肉”,50年代美国名人的一道晚餐?

The story of the 1951 annual Explorers Club dinner is famous, at least among explorers, paleontologists and connoisseurs of exotic cuisine. In brief, mammoth was served.

1951年探险家俱乐部(Explorers Club)年度晚宴的故事很有名,至少在探险家、古生物学家和异域美食鉴赏家中间是这样。简单来说,当时晚宴的一道菜是猛犸象肉。

A club member and journalist reported on the menu shortly afterward in The Christian Science Monitor, and club members have been talking about it ever since.

一位做记者的俱乐部会员不久后在《基督教科学箴言报》(The Christian Science Monitor)上对这份菜单进行了报道。从那时起,俱乐部会员们就一直在谈论此事。

“At my first dinner, when I was a new member, they told me about it,” said Jack Horner, a dinosaur paleontologist at Montana State University and an inspiration for the character of the paleontologist in the original “Jurassic Park” book. “And they were talking about having another.”

“在我作为新会员的第一顿晚宴上,他们告诉我这事儿的。”杰克·霍纳(Jack Horner)说道,他是一位来自蒙大拿州立大学(Montana State University)研究恐龙的古生物学家,也是《侏罗纪公园》原著中古生物家角色的原型。“他们还说要再吃一回。”

Sadly, as with so many great stories, this one was too good to be true, as a group of Yale researchers reported Wednesday in the journal PLOS One. Fortunately, the tale they uncovered, using the most modern research techniques, has some of its own surprises.

很可惜,就像许多精彩的故事一样,耶鲁大学的研究者们于周三在《公共科学图书馆:综合》(PLOS One)杂志上发表报告称,这个故事尽管精彩,却并不真实。但幸运的是,他们用最现代的研究方法所揭露的故事本身也有令人惊喜的地方。

The story has to begin with the meat itself, originally billed on the menu as Megatherium, an extinct ground sloth, but recalled over the decades as mammoth, perhaps because that was what it was called in the article in The Monitor. What it was finally determined to be will, of course, have to wait until the end of the story.

这个故事要从这道肉菜本身讲起。它原本在菜单上被标榜为“大地懒”,一种灭绝了的地懒,但是几十年来一直被人记成“猛犸象”,可能是因为它在《箴言报》中被这么称呼。这个东西到底是什么,当然,得等到故事的结尾才知道。

Eating fossil meat may seem hazardous, but animals that died thousands of years ago have been found frozen, and the Yale researchers point to credible reports of paleontologists sampling the ancient flesh of extinct bison and mammoth. Care is called for, however, since the meat may have rotted before the cold preserved it.

吃化石肉可能看起来很危险,但确实有过死于几千年前的动物被发现时,早已被冻住的情况。并且,耶鲁的研究者也提到一些古生物学家可信的报告,里面展示了灭绝了的美洲野牛和猛犸象的肉样本。不过要小心,因为这些肉可能在被冻住之前就腐烂了。

The reason it was even possible to check what the diners ate is that some leftovers ended up on a shelf in the Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History.

之所以能够确认当时宾客吃了什么,是因为当时吃剩的食物最后出现在耶鲁大学皮博迪自然史博物馆(Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History)的展架上。

Paul Griswold Howes, a club member, was unable to make the 1951 dinner, which must have been a great disappointment because, as the researchers note, the annual dinners have made the club “as well known for its notorious hors d’oeuvres like fried tarantulas and goat eyeballs as it is for its notable members such as Teddy Roosevelt and Neil Armstrong.”

俱乐部会员之一保罗·格里斯沃尔德·豪斯(Paul Griswold Howes)没有去成1951年的晚宴,这一定成为了很大的遗憾,因为研究者表示,一年一度的晚宴上”像炸毒蜘蛛和山羊眼球这样的开胃菜,让这个俱乐部像他们的著名会员——比如西奥多·罗斯福(Teddy Roosevelt)和尼尔·阿姆斯特朗(Neil Armstrong)——一样出名。”

Mr. Howes was, however, the curator-director at the Bruce Museum in Greenwich, Conn., and even if he could not attend the dinner, he wanted to exhibit some of it at the museum. So Wendell Phillips Dodge, a theater impresario who had organized the dinner, sent Mr. Howes a sample, which he labeled Megatherium.

不过,豪斯当时是位于康涅狄格州格林威治的布鲁斯博物馆(Bruce Museum)的馆长,即使没能参加晚宴,他也想在博物馆里展出当时的一些东西。所以,温德尔·菲利普斯·道奇(Wendell Phillips Dodge),一位组织那次晚宴的剧院经理,给了豪斯一个被标为“大地懒”的样本。

That sample found its way to the Peabody in 2001, prompting years of puzzlement among students and professors. Was this jar of ethanol with a bit of flesh really cooked, extinct ground sloth from Alaska?

2001年,这个样本跑到了皮博迪博物馆,并在教授和学生中间制造了一个持续多年的疑问:这罐泡在乙醇中的肉真的是烹调后的、来自阿拉斯加的灭绝动物大地懒吗?

Recently, Matt Davis, a graduate student at Yale studying ice age ecology and one of the authors of the new paper, was having lunch with Eric Sargis, another author, who was giving a course in mammalogy. Mr. Davis was a teaching assistant for the course, and at the lunch, Dr. Sargis lamented, “It’s amazing that I can’t get anybody interested in the piece of sloth meat we have.”

最近,耶鲁大学研究冰川时代生态学的研究生,也是那篇新论文的作者之一的马特·戴维斯(Matt Davis),与该论文的另一位作者、哺乳动物学老师埃里克·萨吉斯(Eric Sargis)吃了顿午饭。戴维斯是萨吉斯这门课的助教,午饭时候,萨吉斯博士哀叹道,“太吃惊了,我竟然无法让任何人对我们这块地懒肉感兴趣。”

Mr. Davis recalled, “I was immediately hooked.”

戴维斯回忆道,“我立刻就上钩了。”

DNA analysis was called for, and they recruited Jessica R. Glass, another graduate student, and the first author on the paper, whose day job is studying the genetics of marine fish. As an undergraduate at Yale, she said, “I always knew about this specimen,” adding, “I was fascinated by it.”

他们觉得需要做基因分析,于是又招募一位研究生杰西卡·R·格拉斯(Jessica R. Glass),她是这篇论文的第一作者,本职工作是研究深海鱼类的遗传规律。她说,曾经是耶鲁本科生时,“我对这个物种就一直有了解”,并补充道,“它让我着迷。”

She and other scientists joined the team. They assumed the flesh was thousands of years old, which meant that testing for DNA was more complicated than testing a more recent bit of flesh. “Also,” she said, “the meat was cooked.”

她和其他一些科学家加入到了团队中。他们猜想,这块肉已经存在了有成千上万年了,这意味着,对它进行基因测试要比对更为新近的样品测试要复杂。“而且”,她说“这片肉已经烹饪过了。”

There was some legitimate science to be done. If the meat was really Megatherium, that would extend the species’ known range from South America all the way to the Aleutian Islands in Alaska.

要做的是切实科学研究。如果这块肉真的是大地懒,将会让这个物种的已知存在范围从南美洲,一路扩展到阿拉斯加的阿留申群岛。

In the end, after multiple tests, the team determined that the meat was neither mammoth nor sloth, nor ancient, nor even a mammal. Turtle soup had also been on the menu that night, before sea turtles were in such trouble, and the bit of flesh that the scientists tested turned out to be green sea turtle, Chelonia mydas.

最后,在多次测试之后,团队得出结论,这块肉既不是猛犸象,也不是地懒,不是古生物,甚至不是哺乳动物。那天晚上的菜单上还有海龟汤,而当时海龟还没有陷入这么大的麻烦,科学家测试出那块肉最终被证明是绿海龟,也叫绿蠵龟(Chelonia mydas)。

It seems that Mr. Dodge had been having a bit of fun, and that he was the only one in on the joke.

道奇似乎只是想找点乐子,而且,他是唯一一个被逗笑的人。

“I do want to point out that it wasn’t a big hoax from the Explorers Club,” Ms. Glass added.

“我的确想指出来,这不是来自探险家俱乐部的天大恶作剧”,格拉斯补充道。

Mr. Dodge even confessed, sort of. In a club publication soon after the dinner, he seemed to say that he had passed off turtle as sloth. The scientists write that he “fancifully described the sloth’s fossil history but hinted that he may have discovered ‘a potion by means of which he could change, say, Cheylone mydas Cheuba [sic] from the Indian Ocean into Giant Sloth.’”

某种程度上,道奇甚至还交待了。在晚宴过后不久的一份俱乐部出版物上,他似乎说自己用海龟冒充了地懒。科学家们写道,他“神奇地形容这块地懒化石的来头,但是暗示,可能已经发现了‘一个妙药,让他能把从印度洋而来的绿海龟变成大地懒。’”

But nobody paid attention to him, and the story persisted.

不过没人对他表示关注,故事便这么继续下去了。

Several of the researchers are members of the Explorers Club, which gave grants to support the DNA analysis and research.

一些研究人员是探险家俱乐部的会员,该俱乐部对基因分析和研究予以了支持。

Will Roseman, the club’s executive director, said it was pleased with the research, although he pointed out that the world and the club had both changed since 1951, and the old taste for the exotic “has given way to a determined effort to introduce people to the foods that can sustain mankind well into the future.”

俱乐部执行董事威尔·罗思曼(Will Roseman)说,他们对研究感到高兴,并指出尽管自1951年以来,世界环境和俱乐部都发生了改变,过去对于异国食物的嗜好“已经改变,成为一种不懈努力,致力于为人们带来让人类良好而可持续活到未来的食物。”

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