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特朗普炮轰日本操纵汇率冲击美国贸易

更新时间:2016-3-10 10:52:42 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Donald Trump Laces Into Japan With a Trade Tirade From the ’80s
特朗普炮轰日本操纵汇率冲击美国贸易

TOKYO — Donald J. Trump has often aimed his raucous brand of disparagement at foreign countries during his presidential run.

东京——在总统竞选活动中,唐纳德·J·特朗普(Donald J. Trump)时常用他特有的刺耳语调贬低别国。

But his preoccupation with Japan is perhaps more unusual, if not anachronistic.

但他对日本的耿耿于怀或许更不寻常,甚至有些年代上的错乱。

Mr. Trump chastised Japan last week in a Republican candidates’ debate, naming it along with Mexico as countries where “we are getting absolutely crushed on trade.” He has previously accused Japan of manipulating its currency to achieve an unfair economic advantage, and of exploiting its military alliance with the United States to protect itself at little risk and cost.

特朗普上周在共和党候选人辩论中谴责日本,称它和墨西哥都是“使我们的贸易受到冲击”的国家。他之前指责日本操控汇率,获得不公平的经济优势,利用与美国的军事联盟保护自己,而自身的风险及成本较低。

His complaints are reminiscent of another era, when Japan’s economy was booming and its companies were buying trophy American assets like movie studios and Rockefeller Center. Since the 1990s, though, Japan’s growth has been mostly flat, and trade friction much more subdued, even as the United States continues to run large trade deficits with Japan.

他的不满言论让人想起另一个时代,那时日本经济繁荣,日本公司收购知名的美国资产,比如电影制片厂和洛克菲勒中心(Rockefeller Center)。但自20世纪90年代以来,日本经济基本上处于停滞状态,贸易摩擦大幅减少,美国对日本的贸易赤字依旧巨大。

Whereas Japanese officials once feared so-called Japan-bashing by Americans, today they are more likely to lament “Japan-passing,” a shift in attention to places viewed as more dynamic, like China.

日本官员曾经担心的是美国人的所谓“痛击日本”(Japan-bashing),如今他们应该更多的是哀叹“痛失日本”(Japan-passing),美国的注意力已经转移到中国等更具活力的地方。

“Trump’s comments on Japan remind me of the period from the late 1970s to the mid-1990s, when Japan was considered a serious rival to American economic pre-eminence,” said Glen S. Fukushima, a former United States trade official who is now a senior fellow at the Center for American Progress, a liberal policy group. “It’s interesting that despite the two-decade stagnation of the Japanese economy, Trump is now reviving the idea of Japan as an economic rival robbing America of jobs.”

“特朗普有关日本的评论让我想起了20世纪70年代末到90年代中期那段时间,当时日本被视作美国经济霸主地位的劲敌,”前美国贸易官员、自由主义政策组织美国进步中心(Center for American Progress)高级研究员格伦·S·福岛(Glen S. Fukushima)说。“有趣的是,尽管日本经济20年来停滞不前,特朗普如今再次提出了一个观点,即日本是夺走美国工作机会的经济对手。”

Or, as Robert E. Kelly, an East Asia specialist at Pusan National University in South Korea, put it on Twitter during the Republican debate: “Japan, Japan, Japan again. Trump is living in the Michael Crichton ’80s.” (Mr. Crichton’s best-selling novel “Rising Sun,” published in 1992, depicted a Japan that waged ruthless economic war against the United States.)

或者就像共和党辩论期间韩国釜山国立大学(Pusan National University)东亚问题专家罗伯特·E·克利(Robert E. Kelly)在Twitter上写的那样:“日本,日本,又是日本。特朗普生活在迈克尔·克莱顿(Michael Crichton)写80年代的那些作品中。”(在克莱顿1992年出版的畅销小说《旭日追凶》[Rising Sun]中,日本对美国发起了无情的经济战争。)

Mr. Trump’s ascendance has begun to cause serious unease in Japan. Even if his run ends short of the White House, the worry is that an election dominated by such talk could leave the United States more closed to trade and less willing to defend its allies.

特朗普在竞选中取得的优势开始在日本引发严重的不安。即使他最终没能入主白宫,人们担心由这种讨论主导的选举会致使美国降低对贸易的开放程度,不愿捍卫自己的盟友。

“My friends in the Foreign Ministry are in a state of panic,” said Kiichi Fujiwara, an expert on international politics at the University of Tokyo. “This is the first time in a long time that we’ve seen straightforward protectionism from an American presidential candidate.”

”我在外务省的朋友陷入恐慌,”东京大学(University of Tokyo)国际政治专家藤原归一(Kiichi Fujiwara)说。“这是多年来我们首次看到美国总统候选人这么直接地提出贸易保护主义。”

Major Japanese newspapers published critical editorials a day after Mr. Trump’s sweeping victories in the Super Tuesday primaries last week.

特朗普上周在“超级星期二”初选中获得压倒性胜利,一天之后,日本主要报纸发表社论,进行批评。

“If there is a big shake-up in American politics, there is a danger that Japan could become an outlet for popular dissatisfaction with the spread of inequality and other issues,” The Nikkei financial daily said.

《日本经济新闻》(Nikkei) 称,“人们普遍对不平等及其他问题的蔓延感到不满,如果美国政界出现剧变,日本可能会成为这种不满情绪的宣泄出口。”

One concern is that Mr. Trump’s rivals will shift to more isolationist positions to counter him. Last month, Hillary Clinton, the Democratic front-runner, who is also contending with skepticism on trade from her party rival, Bernie Sanders, criticized Japan in an opinion piece published in American regional newspapers.

一个令人担忧的问题是,特朗普的对手将会转向更为孤立主义的立场,以便与之对抗。上个月,民主党热门总统候选人希拉里·克林顿(Hillary Clinton)在美国区域性报纸发表观点文章批评日本。克林顿还在对付持有贸易怀疑论的党内对手伯尼·桑德斯(Bernie Sanders)。

“Japan and other Asian economies kept their goods artificially cheap for years by holding down the value of their currencies,” she wrote, adding that the United States should consider “effective new remedies, such as duties or tariffs.”

“日本和其他亚洲经济体多年来通过压低本国货币价值,人为降低商品价格,”她写道,她还表示,美国应该考虑“新的有效的解决办法,比如征收关税”。

Mrs. Clinton has also backed away from her support of the Trans-Pacific Partnership, a 12-nation trade deal that includes Japan and is awaiting ratification by the participating countries. She helped promote the deal as secretary of state.

克林顿曾支持跨太平洋伙伴关系协定(Trans-Pacific Partnership),但目前有所退缩,这个涉及日本等12个国家的贸易协议正在等待参与国的批准。克林顿在担任国务卿期间曾推动该协议。

“We’re already drawing up new laws and regulations, but it could all unravel,” said a senior Japanese official involved in the deal, who spoke on the condition of anonymity because the discussions are confidential. “Our best hope is to ratify it quickly, along with other countries, to put pressure on the U.S. to follow through.”

“我们已经拟定了新的法律法规,但可能全都无法公布,”一名参与协议制定的日本高级官员说。“我们最大的希望就是与其他国家一起立即批准协议,迫使美国跟进。”由于讨论是秘密进行的,这名官员要求匿名。

Mr. Trump accuses Japan of taking American jobs.

特朗普批评日本抢走了美国人的工作。

After his victories on Super Tuesday, he called out Komatsu, a Japanese manufacturer of construction machinery, saying the weak yen gave it an unfair advantage over its American rival Caterpillar. He pledged to use equipment from Caterpillar and John Deere, another American manufacturer, to build his promised wall on the border with Mexico to keep out illegal immigrants.

在“超级星期二”获得胜利后,特朗普提到了日本工程机械制造商小松(Komatsu),称疲软的日元使得该公司获得对美国竞争对手卡特彼勒(Caterpillar)不公平的优势。他保证利用卡特彼勒及另一家美国制造商约翰·迪尔(John Deere)的产品在墨西哥边境修建他所承诺的边境墙,以阻止非法移民进入。

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