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赶走恶俗网络广告的免费插件

更新时间:2016-3-6 9:54:02 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Free Tools to Keep Those Creepy Online Ads From Watching You
赶走恶俗网络广告的免费插件

SAY you’re doing a web search on something like the flu. The next thing you know, an ad for a flu remedy pops up on your web browser, or your video streaming service starts playing a commercial for Tylenol.

假如你正在网上搜索些东西,比如“流感”。随后,你的浏览器就会弹出一条治疗流感的广告,或者你的视频流服务开始播放一则泰诺(Tylenol,一种感冒药)的宣传片。

The content of those ads is no coincidence. Digital ads are able to follow people around the Internet because advertisers often place invisible trackers on the websites you visit. Their goal is to collect details on everywhere you go on the Internet and use that data to serve targeted ads to your computer, smartphone and connected television.

这些广告的内容并非巧合。数字广告能在互联网上跟踪人,因为广告商经常在你访问的网站上放置隐藏的追踪器。其目标是到处收集你上网的细节,并利用这些数据向你的计算机、智能手机和网络电视投放广告。

This global commercial surveillance of consumers is poised to become more extensive as tech companies expand into the Internet of Things, a category that includes wearable computers and connected home appliances like smart thermostats and refrigerators. Amazon, eBay, Facebook and Google can already follow users from device to device because people log in to their services with the same IDs on various gadgets.

随着科技公司涌入物联网——一种将可穿戴计算机和诸如温度调节器和冰箱的可联网家电囊括在内的网络——对消费者无处不在的监视正变得更加广泛。亚马逊,eBay,Facebook和谷歌已经能够跨设备跟踪用户,因为人们在各种装置上用相同的账号登陆他们的服务。

For other marketing companies, tracking people on multiple Internet-connected devices has become a holy grail. The process is complex, because some lack the direct relationship with people that the giant tech companies already have. Only about 6 percent of marketers can reliably track a customer on all of that customer’s devices, according to the research firm eMarketer. But advertisers are working toward the goal.

对其他营销公司来说,在多种联网设备上跟踪用户已成“圣杯”。这一过程很复杂,因为一些公司缺乏科技巨头所具有的同用户的直接联系。据调查公司eMarketer称,仅有6%的营销者能有效地在所有设备上跟踪消费者。但广告商正努力接近这一目标。

“Our privacy is completely under assault with all these connected devices,” said Jeremiah Grossman, the founder of WhiteHat Security, a web security firm.

“我们的隐私受到这些联网设备的彻底侵害。”网络安全公司白帽安全(WhiteHat Security)的创始人耶利米·格罗斯曼(Jeremiah Grossman)说。

So what better time to get a head start on defending yourself against web snoops (as if email trackers, which this column covered last year, weren’t annoying enough already)? Many companies offer tools to help obscure your digital footprints while you’re browsing the web. We researched and tested four tracker blockers and found their results varied widely. In the end, the app Disconnect became our anti-tracking tool of choice.

所以还有什么时候比现在开始抵御网络窥探(似乎本栏目去年报道的邮件追踪器还不够恼人?)更好呢?许多公司提供工具以帮助你保护浏览网络时的数字指纹。我们调查和测试了四款追踪器屏蔽工具,发现它们的效果差异巨大。最终,应用程序Disconnect成为了我们反跟踪工具的不二之选。

Here’s how web tracking works: In general, targeting individuals with digital ads involves a sophisticated ecosystem of third parties — like online advertising networks, data brokers and analytics companies — that compile information on consumers.

网络跟踪这样工作:概括地说,数字广告的受众进入了一个由第三方——如在线广告网络、数据经纪人和分析公司——组成的精密生态系统。这些第三方公司收集消费者信息。

When you visit websites, these companies typically pick out your browser or phone using technologies like cookies, which contain unique alphanumeric identification tags that can enable trackers to identify your activities as you move from site to site. To sell ads delivered to certain categories of consumers, like suburban singles looking for romance, companies may sync these ID tags to pinpoint individuals.

当你访问网站时,这些公司通常会使用诸如cookies的技术识别你的浏览器或电话,cookies包含独一无二的由数字和字母组成的标签,该标签可使跟踪者在你访问不同网站时识别你的活动。为了向某类消费者——比如寻找浪漫情事的郊区单身者——投放广告,公司会同步这些身份标签以锁定个人。

The downside is, your browsing history may contain sensitive information about your health concerns, political affiliations, family problems, religious beliefs or sexual habits.

其缺点在于,你的浏览历史可能包含关乎你健康问题、政治背景、家庭问题、宗教信仰或性生活习惯的敏感信息。

“More than just being creepy, it’s a huge violation of privacy,” said Cooper Quintin, a privacy advocate for the Electronic Frontier Foundation, a digital rights nonprofit that also offers the anti-tracking tool Privacy Badger. “People need to be able to read things and do things and talk about things without having to worry that they’re being watched or recorded somewhere.”

“这不仅仅令人毛骨悚然,也是对隐私的巨大侵犯,”电子前哨基金会的隐私拥护者库珀·昆汀(Cooper Quintin)说。电子前哨基金会是一家保护数字权利的非营利机构,它也提供反跟踪工具Privacy Badger。“人们应该能够阅读、做事、交谈而不必担忧他们在某些地方受到监视和记录。”

We took a close look at four free privacy tools: Ghostery, Disconnect, RedMorph and Privacy Badger. We tested them with the Google Chrome browser on the top 20 news websites, including Yahoo News, CNN, The Huffington Post and The New York Times.

我们调查了四款免费隐私工具:Ghostery,Disconnect,RedMorph和Privacy Badger。我们用谷歌Chrome浏览器在二十家顶尖新闻网站上测试了它们,包括雅虎新闻(Yahoo News),有线电视新闻网(CNN),赫芬顿邮报(The Huffington Post)和纽约时报。

The tracker busters generally work in similar ways. You download and install an add-on for a web browser like Chrome or Mozilla Firefox. The anti-tracking companies each compile a list of known web domains that serve trackers or show patterns of tracking services. Then when someone connects to a website, the tools prevent the browser from loading any element that matches their blacklist.

追踪器破坏工具以类似的方式工作:为Chrome或Mozilla Firefox等浏览器下载和安装扩展,每家反跟踪公司都汇集已知的提供追踪器的网站域名列表或跟踪服务模式,当有人连接网站时,它们的工具阻止浏览器加载与黑名单匹配的任何元素。

Ghostery, a popular tracker blocker, was the most difficult to set up. When you install it, it asks you to manually select the trackers you want to block. Our problem with that approach is that there are hundreds of trackers, and most consumers probably won’t recognize most of them, putting the onus on users to research which specific services they might wish to block.

Ghostery——一款流行的追踪器屏蔽工具——最难安装。当你安装时,它让你手动选择想要屏蔽的追踪器。我们对这种方式的疑问在于有数百个追踪器,它把调查到底要屏蔽哪些服务的责任交给了用户,但大多数消费者挑不出多少。

Scott Meyer, the chief executive of Ghostery, said this had been a deliberate design choice. When trackers are blocked, parts of websites may not function, so it is less confusing to let users experiment and decide which ones to block on their own, he said.

Ghostery的负责人斯科特·梅耶(Scott Meyer)说,这是经深思熟虑后选择的设计。当追踪器受到屏蔽后,部分网站可能无法正常工作,所以让用户自行试验和决定屏蔽哪些会减少困惑。

“We block nothing by default,” he said. “That’s in direct contrast to other companies who are saying, ‘We’re turning everything off and let you turn whatever you want back on.’ That’s way too complex for users.”

“我们默认什么也不屏蔽,”他说。“这和其他声称‘我们关掉一切,由你来决定重新打开什么’的公司完全相反。那对用户来说太麻烦了。”

The tracker blocking tool RedMorph takes the opposite approach. It blocks every tracking signal it can detect and lets people decide which ones to allow. For parents concerned about their children’s Internet use, RedMorph also offers a service to filter out certain sites or block certain swear words or other language they find inappropriate.

追踪器屏蔽工具RedMorph采取截然相反的方式。它阻止能够检测到的每一种跟踪迹象,让用户决定放行哪些。对担心儿童上网的父母,RedMorph还提供了一项服务,用来过滤某些站点、屏蔽某些秽语或其他他们认为不适宜的语言。

“When you go home, you lock the door and you may pull down the shades at night,” said Abhay Edlabadkar, the chief executive of RedMorph. “You should have the same level of privacy control over your Internet activities.”

“当你回家时,你锁上门,还可能在夜间拉上窗帘,”RefMorph的负责人阿布依·埃德拉巴德卡(Abhay Edlabadkar)说。“你应该能对网络活动作不同程度的隐私控制。”

In our tests, RedMorph was the most thorough with blocking trackers. It blocked 22 of them on USAToday.com, whereas Privacy Badger blocked seven, Disconnect blocked eight and Ghostery detected eight.

在我们的测试中,RedMorph屏蔽追踪器最为彻底。它屏蔽了USAToday.com上的22个追踪器,而Privacy Badger屏蔽了7个,Disconnect屏蔽了8个,Ghostery检测到8个。

But in the process, RedMorph caused the most collateral damage. It blocked some videos on the websites for CNN, USA Today, Bleacher Report, The New York Times and The Daily News. It also broke the recommended reading list on Business Insider and a Twitter box on BuzzFeed. For people who run into issues loading websites, the company offers an “Easy Fix” button to stop blocking a website’s trackers, but that’s hardly an ideal solution when it causes so many websites to malfunction. Mr. Edlabadkar of RedMorph said the tool was blocking some videos or recommended reading lists because they were loading only after a tracker had been loaded first.

与此同时,RedMorph也带来了最严重的附加损害。它屏蔽了CNN,USA Today,Bleacher Report,纽约时报和每日新闻(The Daily News)上的一些视频。它还屏蔽了商业内幕(Business Insider)上的推荐阅读列表和BuzzFeed上的推特(Twitter)框。对加载网站遇到问题的人,该公司提供了“轻松修复”按钮以停止屏蔽网站上的追踪器,但当它造成大量网站无法正常工作时,这绝非理想的解决方案。RedMorph的埃德拉巴德卡先生称该工具之所以屏蔽了一些视频和推荐阅读列表是因为它们只在追踪器加载后才能加载。

That leaves Privacy Badger and Disconnect. Privacy Badger detects third-party domains that users are connecting with when they’re loading a website and blocks those domains only if they are determined to be tracking you. Its widget shows sliding bars of trackers it has detected. The ones in red are blocked and the green ones are allowed.

这问题留给Privacy Badger和Disconnect解决。Privacy Badger在用户加载网站时检测所连接的第三方域名,只在这些域名决定跟踪你时才屏蔽它们。它的小窗口显示探测到的追踪器拖动条。红色为屏蔽的,绿色为允许的。

Disconnect takes a similarly nuanced approach. The company said some tracking was fair and necessary for a website to work properly — for example, if a site like The New York Times is using analytics to collect information about readers, as it describes in its privacy policy. However, Disconnect will block trackers from third parties that are collecting, retaining or sharing user data. On its website, it publishes lists of trackers it blocks and those it allows, along with explanations of its policy.

Disconnect采取略为不同的方式。该公司称一些跟踪是网站正常运行而必需的——例如纽约时报之类的网站按照它的隐私政策所述使用分析工具收集读者信息。但Disconnect会屏蔽第三方追踪器,第三方公司收集、保留或分享用户数据。在它的网站上,它列出了屏蔽和允许的追踪器,以及对其政策的解释。

“We really focus on privacy rather than blocking ads that are done in a respectful way,” said Casey Oppenheim, the chief executive of Disconnect. “It’s important we have the ability for publishers to survive and make money. I think there’s a middle ground.”

“我们关注隐私确实重于屏蔽广告,而这些广告是以令人尊敬的方式展出的,”Disconnect的负责人凯西·奥本海姆(Casey Oppenheim)说。“我们能让出版商生存和赚钱很重要。我认为这可以折衷。”

In the end, we picked Disconnect as our favorite tool because it was the easiest to understand. It organizes the types of tracking requests it is blocking into different categories: advertising, analytics, social media and content.

最终,我们选择了Disconnect作为最喜欢的工具,因为它最易理解。它把屏蔽的跟踪请求分为不同类别:广告、分析、社交媒体和内容。

Mr. Grossman of WhiteHat Security also tested tracking blockers and chose Disconnect for similar reasons. He breaks his online activities into two separate web browsers to make himself more difficult to track: On one browser, he does everyday tasks like reading news articles; on the other browser he logs into accounts that are linked to his personal identity, like online banking sites and Amazon.

白帽安全公司的格罗斯曼先生也测试了跟踪屏蔽工具,并出于类似的原因选择了Disconnect。他把线上活动分散到在两个不同的浏览器上,以使自己难于跟踪:在一个浏览器上,他进行日常任务如阅读新闻;在另一个浏览器上,他登陆与个人身份相关的账户,如网上银行和亚马逊。

But Mr. Grossman said that in the broad arms race between consumers and advertisers, the advertisers always find some way to outmaneuver us.

但格罗斯曼先生称在消费者和广告商之间的军备竞赛中,广告商总能找到某种方法智胜我们。

“We’re talking megabillion-dollar industries totally designed to track you online,” he said. “That’s their mission in life.”

“我们在谈论为完全跟踪你而建立的亿兆美元的产业,”他说。“那可是他们的天职。”

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